9,650 research outputs found

    Does a Marriage Really Need Sex?: A Critical Analysis of the Gender Restriction on Marriage

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    This Note discusses the issues surrounding intersex persons and the right to marry. The Comment first discusses the constitutional protection of the right to marry, intersex conditions, and case law regarding intersex, transsexual, and same-sex marriage. It further addresses the consequences for marriage when it is narrowly defined. Further, the Comment proposes an alternative solution to the one many courts have used. This solution allows an intersex person to self-designate her gender and be able to marry either a man or a woman. Finally, this Comment argues that if an intersex person can marry either a man or a woman, then a male-to-female transsexual and a genetic woman must also be able to marry either a man or a woman because all are similarly situated and must be treated alike under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment

    The Transitioning of Jewish Biomedical Law: Rhetorical and Practical Shifts in Halakhic Discourse on Sex-Change Surgery

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    This article examines discourse dynamics in Jewish law on sex-change surgery (SCS) and, in general, transitioning between genders. Orthodox medical ethics has moved beyond the abstract condemnation of SCS to the design of practical rules for transsexuals living in observant communities. The reasoning against SCS has also shifted, both in complexity and with implicit ties to Christian and secular tropes. By medicalizing or, conversely, spiritualizing the experiences of transgendered persons, a few Orthodox authors are opening up interpretive space for sympathetic responses to SCS. Such transitions reach their most elaborate expression in Israeli Orthodox rabbi Edan ben Ephraim’s 2004 monograph, Generation of Perversions, which has taken center stage in Orthodox deliberations on transsexuality. Overall, halakhic discourse seems to be moving in innovative, unavoidably interdiscursive directions

    Transforming Transsexual and Transgender Rights

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    State and federal employment anti-discrimination statutes have failed to adequately protect transsexual and transgendered individuals in the workplace. Although advancements have been made in recent years regarding the protection of sexual minorities, transsexual and transgendered employees continue to receive sporadic and noncomprehensive protection. Various approaches have been taken to extend protection against discrimination to these individuals, including the utilization of disability protection statutes, the expansion of anti-discrimination statutes, and the protection of transsexual and transgendered individuals as a class; however, these approaches have proven flawed in providing adequate protection. An examination of anti-discrimination law shows that these measures, while perhaps desirable, are not necessary to protect transsexual and transgendered persons. This Article argues that existing legislation already provides a basis for protecting these minorities. That is, courts should recognize discrimination against transsexual and transgendered individuals as classic sex discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and corresponding state anti-discrimination statutes

    Brain Gender and Transsexualism

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    Research by neuroscientists suggests there is a distinction in the BSTc area of the brain between males and females. In transsexual females, those considered male at birth, but who had a strong conviction that they were female, the BSTc region appears to be similar in size to the female BSTc and transsexuals considered female at birth, but who were certain they were male, had a BSTc similar to the male BSTc. This distinction leads to the conclusion that in addition to the recognised markers for gender - genitalia, gonads and chromosomes - we may need to also include the BSTc, given that this current research seems to substantiate what transsexuals are saying about their gender. This paper sets out to challenge our current reliance on the standard gender indicators alone and seeks to address some issues faced by transsexuals

    Health considerations for transgender women and remaining unknowns : a narrative review

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    Transgender (trans) women (TW) were assigned male at birth but have a female gender identity or gender expression. The literature on management and health outcomes of TW has grown recently with more publication of research. This has coincided with increasing awareness of gender diversity as communities around the world identify and address health disparities among trans people. In this narrative review, we aim to comprehensively summarize health considerations for TW and identify TW-related research areas that will provide answers to remaining unknowns surrounding TW's health. We cover up-to-date information on: (1) feminizing gender-affirming hormone therapy (GAHT); (2) benefits associated with GAHT, particularly quality of life, mental health, breast development and bone health; (3) potential risks associated with GAHT, including cardiovascular disease and infertility; and (4) other health considerations like HIV/AIDS, breast cancer, other tumours, voice therapy, dermatology, the brain and cognition, and aging. Although equally deserving of mention, feminizing gender-affirming surgery, paediatric and adolescent populations, and gender nonbinary individuals are beyond the scope of this review. While much of the data we discuss come from Europe, the creation of a United States transgender cohort has already contributed important retrospective data that are also summarized here. Much remains to be determined regarding health considerations for TW. Patients and providers will benefit from larger and longer prospective studies involving TW, particularly regarding the effects of aging, race and ethnicity, type of hormonal treatment (e.g. different oestrogens, anti-androgens) and routes of administration (e.g. oral, parenteral, transdermal) on all the topics we address

    The Attitudes of Christians Towards Homosexuality, Transsexuality and Transgenderism

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    The different attitudes Christians have towards transsexual, transgender, and homosexual behaviors have long been an area in need of investigation. To further the relevant library of research, an anonymous online survey was distributed through SurveyMonkey that attempted to see how Christians felt and how these attitudes compared to those of other groups. Ultimately, attitudes regarding transsexual and transgender behaviors showed a strong trend towards neutrality. Attitudes towards homosexuality showed a strong trend towards neutrality with an additional trend towards positivity

    Endocrinology of Transgender Medicine

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    Gender-affirming treatment of transgender people requires a multidisciplinary approach in which endocrinologists play a crucial role. The aim of this paper is to review recent data on hormonal treatment of this population and its effect on physical, psychological, and mental health. The Endocrine Society guidelines for transgender women include estrogens in combination with androgen-lowering medications. Feminizing treatment with estrogens and antiandrogens has desired physical changes, such as enhanced breast growth, reduction of facial and body hair growth, and fat redistribution in a female pattern. Possible side effects should be discussed with patients, particularly those at risk for venous thromboembolism. The Endocrine Society guidelines for transgender men include testosterone therapy for virilization with deepening of the voice, cessation of menses, and increases of muscle mass and facial and body hair. Owing to the lack of evidence, treatment of gender nonbinary people should be individualized. Young people may receive pubertal suspension, consisting of GnRH analogs, later followed by sex steroids. Options for fertility preservation should be discussed before any hormonal intervention. Morbidity and cardiovascular risk with cross-sex hormones is unchanged among transgender men and unclear among transgender women. Sex steroid-related malignancies can occur but are rare. Mental health problems such as depression and anxiety have been found to reduce considerably following hormonal treatment. Future studies should aim to explore the long-term outcome of hormonal treatment in transgender people and provide evidence as to the effect of gender-affirming treatment in the nonbinary population

    Not Judging by Appearances: The Role of Genotype in Jewish Law on Intersex Conditions

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    Jewish communities have always had children with intersex conditions, which involve atypical anatomic, chromosomal, or gonadal sex. In the last several decades, Orthodox rabbis have issued ad hoc rulings to assign sex to children and adults with intersex conditions. However, rabbinic texts reflect disunity over whether to assign gender, for the purposes of Jewish law, according to outward appearance or chromosomal makeup. This rabbinic controversy has been exacerbated by an increasingly complicated medical picture. Endocrinologists have diagnosed more than two dozen intersex conditions, across nine overarching congenital types. Such complexity makes it difficult for rabbis to make across-the-board decisions about gender assignment. This essay examines how rabbinic law may change because gender cannot be assigned consistently by chromosomal sex—despite the prevalence of this formulaic criterion in rabbinic opinions. Consequently, Jewish legal reasoning is poised to shift from a static reliance on chromosomal sex. The essay also considers the implications of this trajectory on Jewish law towards sex change surgery and transsexuals
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