9,959 research outputs found

    The creative spirit in Fichte or, the metaphysics of modernity

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    J.G. Fichte tends to be regarded, perhaps somewhat unfairly, as a relatively minor footnote within the history of philosophy: notable as the instigator of German Idealism, and influential amongst the writers and poets of German romanticism, but intellectually meagre in comparison with his immediate predecessor Kant, as well as with the later, more rigorous Idealism of Schelling and Hegel. What I wish to discuss in this paper, however, is the way in which Fichte’s Wissenschaftslehre - produced primarily in the final decade of the eighteenth century - both reflects and reenacts, in metaphysical terms, the tropes of a developing modernity, even whilst framed within a discourse of romanticism seemingly opposed to such values. Whereas Kant’s philosophy in the first two Critiques seeks to understand the rational self in relation to an unknowable alterity that it aims to colonize in the name of that very same rationality, resulting in a paradoxical account that claims to name in a priori terms that which by definition it cannot know, Fichte attempts to suture this aporia by transforming Kant’s transcendentalism into a philosophy of productive appropriation: one in which the rational self can only be understood in relation to its confrontation with a finitude that represents the absolute horizon of knowledge. Self-consciousness becomes synonymous with self-comprehension: the creative imagination is inherently active, constantly seeking to extend its own boundaries, and in doing so, is able to infinitely expand its realm of influence, whilst still positing itself as absolute. The creativity and productivity emphasized by Fichte becomes synonymous with domination.</p

    Zhang Dongsun's encounters with "Logicism":From Russell to the objectivist bases of "Science and the View on Life"

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    The article surveys the early work of Zhang Dongsun on topics like the logicism of Bertrand Russell and scientific philosophy, which aimed to criticize its foundations and replace them with a Neo-Kantian alternative. It tries to show how a series of Zhang’s articles from the early 1920s, in which he sought to create a new “neutral” variety of logicism, can be used to better understand the intellectual foundations of the neovitalist “philosophy of life” of Zhang Junmai. By delving deeper into the underlying ideas and possible motivations behind Zhang’s philosophical endeavours from the early 1920s, the article argues for a different kind of understanding of the historical basis of humanism in modern Chinese philosophy. Moreover, it strives to show how the “Science and the View on Life” controversy, as initiated by Zhang Junmai in 1923, might be rooted in or at least directly related to a syncretistic ideal, to conjoin science and the view of life in a new kind of harmonistic outlook. Most importantly, the article will try to show how Zhang Dongsun’s critical engagement with Russell’s philosophy, modern logic and physical science could be understood as the theoretical nucleus of the so-called “view on life” philosophy, not only in the context of the 1923 controversy, but possibly the entire Republican Period. Due to limited space, the article does not offer a concise introduction to Zhang’s life and philosophy, but instead provides a focused discussion of particular fragments of his work from the early 1920s

    Not all that <i>post</i>, not all that <i>new</i>:The disruption of challenging coloniality

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    What happens when, as scholars who have habitually been working with posthumanism and the new materialisms, we find ourselves summoned by thinkers who critique the covert coloniality present in these approaches? This work is the result of a year-long project where we set up the task of feeling our way through these critiques, exploring how they change our work and ourselves; and attempting to find a way of relating to the challenge of decoloniality. We use collaborative writing as an approach to delve into our encounters with readings, our own histories, and our ways of relating to the academy and each other. In this work, we start from our differing histories and positionalities—a Chilean woman and a British man; now colleagues and with a history of being a PhD supervisee-supervisor. Then, we grapple with how posthumanism/new materialism has neglected to think about how coloniality is entangled in who the “humans” it speaks to are and how it is further reproducing colonial dynamics of ethnocentric erasure that effectively do not allow it to go beyond the “human.” After considering possibilities of integration, reparation, survival, and refusal, we conclude it is crucial to reflexively acknowledge and work with our concrete positionalities and interests, thereby making our conceptualizations necessarily provincial, limited, and in some ways problematic. Otherwise, we run the risk of engulfing decolonial, postcolonial, anticolonial, and indigenous theories without any fundamental change, thus furthering coloniality

    Student Success through First-Year Experience Programs: A Transcendental Phenomenological Study

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    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the persistence and retention after the First Year Experience (FYE) program for second-year college students at Northern Nevada College. The theory guiding this study is Astin’s student involvement theory which links student success in college to the level of involvement students have at their academic institution. This study explores how first-time full-time students being part of the FYE program have been encouraged to be involved at their institution on several levels. In this transcendental phenomenological study, data were collected using interviews, a focus group, and journaling prompts. After the data were collected, the information was transcribed and coded for analysis. The coding results have been used to identify common terms or phrases that describe the shared experience of the participants. These repeated coded terms lead to themes and subthemes describing the shared experience of these participants. Emerging themes included that the cohort structure helped students to develop friendships, the FYE program helped students to develop new study skills and habits, the FYE program helped students with their second year, and the FYE program increased their involvement on campus. Interpretations of these findings included that the FYE program can help students to make connections on campus, it can help students be more successful their second year, and using the cohort structure helps students in and out of class. Future studies should use the results of this study to expand student connections to the online realm, providing distance learning students with similar experiences of being involved. It is also recommended that the FYE program include a mental health component to help students deal with the stresses of life, especially when compounded with the college experience

    Individualism and the Christian Call: Catholic Theology of Vocation in an Emersonian Key

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    Might we hope for a form of individualism that is at once vocational and Catholic? This dissertation answers in the affirmative. In the course of doing so, it enlists the services of one of individualism’s great champions, Ralph Waldo Emerson, for Catholics an unlikely ally, to be sure, but one whom Catholics, by the end of this rapprochement, will come to appreciate as a kindred spirit. The species of individualism associated with the name of Emerson resonates with themes sounded by the Church through the Second Vatican Council and in magisterial documents since. These themes invite us to consider the conditions of possibility for a ‘culture of vocation.’ Both the contemporary Catholic vision of a culture of vocation and the Emersonian vision of ‘self-reliance’ share a set of metaphysical presumptions that are best described as a sort of ‘Platonism.’ It is against the background of their shared Platonic imaginations—a background often obscured and misunderstood—that a theology of vocation not only begins to make the most sense but also to come across as compelling. The Platonic metaphysics of vocation organize phenomena associated with the subject-side of salvation such that vocation itself might be appreciated as a mode of divine self-communication—the form that revelation takes when it is addressed personally to the individual. In the absence of a well-formed Platonic imagination, one tends to understand vocation within the boundaries of the Epicurean imagination – the ‘default’ position in much of contemporary society – in which the very idea of being called personally by God can only seem like ‘hearing voices,’ something either miraculous or pathological, perhaps even bordering on madness. In conclusion, we establish that Emersonian individualism might even have something constructive to offer those engaged in efforts to reconcile People of God and commuio approaches to contemporary Catholic ecclesiology

    Stone, man and the sun: A non-representable totality

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    George Lakoff (1987) provided the original source of inspiration with the notion that the very different and strange ways in which people categorise their universe must reflect something about the nature of the human mind. It occured to me that this notion, given a certain degree of imagination, could be extended to a conceptualisation of man in terms of relationships,meaning and embodiment. Having invented this framework the paper tries to develop the concepts of relationshipand meaning exploring certain perspectives from the history of ideas and art. In this context a number of different discourses have been introduced such as the question of singularity and boundaries, the theme of multiphlicity and unity, the truth of impermanence, the problem of subjectivity and the philosophy of dualism, the language of art and architectureas exponents of ambiguity and timelessness, the notions of beauty and finality, the neoplatonic notion of the absolute, etc. What emerged finally as the ultimate conceptualisation of man's relationship to the world was the notion of a non-representable totality. It is suggested that this notion has an ontological existence relating to its non-instrumental status. As a meta-regulative principle itwould imply the dissolution of thc transcendental cogito and the emergence of what I would like to describe as freedom. Hence one might attribute the concept of the sacred to this notion of a non-representable totality.George Lakoff (1987) provided the original source of inspiration with the notion that the very different and strange ways in which people categorise their universe must reflect something about the nature of the human mind. It occured to me that this notion, given a certain degree of imagination, could be extended to a conceptualisation of man in terms of relationships,meaning and embodiment. Having invented this framework the paper tries to develop the concepts of relationshipand meaning exploring certain perspectives from the history of ideas and art. In this context a number of different discourses have been introduced such as the question of singularity and boundaries, the theme of multiphlicity and unity, the truth of impermanence, the problem of subjectivity and the philosophy of dualism, the language of art and architectureas exponents of ambiguity and timelessness, the notions of beauty and finality, the neoplatonic notion of the absolute, etc. What emerged finally as the ultimate conceptualisation of man's relationship to the world was the notion of a non-representable totality. It is suggested that this notion has an ontological existence relating to its non-instrumental status. As a meta-regulative principle itwould imply the dissolution of thc transcendental cogito and the emergence of what I would like to describe as freedom. Hence one might attribute the concept of the sacred to this notion of a non-representable totality

    Critique and the black horizon: questioning the move ‘beyond’ the human/nature divide in international relations

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    In the contemporary moment of the Anthropocene there appears to be a growing consensus on the need to move beyond the key modernist binary, the Human/Nature divide. We draw out a shared understanding at work in International Relations across critical approaches in Science and Technology Studies (STS), new materialist, and material feminist fields, as well as critical Indigenous, decolonial and pluriversal thought. This is an understanding that seeks to go beyond the limits of modern epistemological and ontological assumptions of human exceptionalism. These approaches seek to rework both sides of the Human/Nature divide: to reconstitute the Human as a knowing, responsive and relational subject, no longer tainted by hierarchies of race and coloniality; while, redistributing agential capacities of responsivity, care and relation beyond the Human. Drawing from work across the broad field of critical Black studies, we flag up the limitations of these entangled, relational posthuman and more-than-human imaginaries, which can easily reproduce hierarchies of subordination and control. We suggest that another approach to the Human/Nature divide is possible, a critical perspective we call the Black Horizon, focused upon the task of deconstruction: an approach which emphasises difference rather than identity, negation rather than addition, critique rather than affirmation

    Transcendentalism and Skepticism in Arun Kolatkar\u27s Select Poems

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    Arun Kolatkar belongs to the canon of&nbsp; modern Indian poetry writing in English. He is the only well acclaimed Indian poet other than Kabir to be represented on the World Classics tittle of New York Review of Books. Kolatkar is well versed in both the Language Marathi and English. His poem Jejuri is a collection of thirty-one poem which traces humour in everydays matters. For Jejuri, Kolatkar earned the Common Wealth Poetry prize in 1976. The poem Jejuri presents Kolatkar\u27s view on spirituality, religious experience and imagination. The poems&nbsp; of Kolatkar ironically present the natural imagery which in a way satirizes the society and its superstitious belief. Kolatkar highlights the pitful situation of modern man who has been entangled between the materialistic world and unable to find a peace of heart, mind and soul within himself. This paper critically analyses the three select poems of Arun Kolatkar- the Bus, the Priest, an Old Woman. All these poems highlights the surrealistic image and also focus on the individualistic approach. Kolatkar transforms his experiences into his works which presents the idea of individualism. Kolatkar presents the individualistic aspect in the poem through the protagonist Manohar who is not a hollow man of Eliot\u27s The Waste Land but a modern educated and rational man, can be seen connected to the transcendentalist philosophy of Ralph Waldo Emerson. Thus, the paper tends to mark the transcendentalist perspective in the Kolatkar\u27s poetry and also traces skepticism in his poetry
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