350 research outputs found

    The reformation of English military medicine and the army of Elizabeth I in Flanders, 1585-1603 : a thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Philosophy in History at Massey University, Albany Campus, New Zealand

    Get PDF
    Queen Elizabeth the First committed an army to Flanders in 1585 to support the cause of the Protestant Provinces of the Low Lands against the Spanish. It had become established that medical 'practitioners' should accompany armed forces. The practitioners were a polyglot group levied from village healers, licensed and unlicenced practitioners, as well as apothecaries and barber-surgeons. Despite significant medical and surgical advances on the Continent of Europe, particularly from the advanced concepts espoused by Paracelsus, there is little evidence to support widespread use of new initiatives in the English army. Wounds of a kind new to most 'practitioners' were encountered, due to the introduction of gunpowder-fueled firearms and cannons. Severe and deforming wounds caused by the impact of low velocity bullets were the results of the new battle tactics. Burns from gunpowder mishaps needed new approaches in treatment. Some changes to initiate new concepts in military medicine did occur but were the result of informal pressures, probably learned in the field, and not by formal teaching. Significant changes in the recognition of the basics of hygiene in the armed forces occurred in the late sixteenth century and some attempts to implement these was found in the army disciplinary codes. The attitudes towards prisoners and wounded were also changing with compassionate treatment being shown to the victims of war. The need for hospitals for the wounded did not develop in England until after the Flanders campaign The English forces suffered extreme privations due to bad leadership resulting in loss of morale, starvation and desertion. Lack of pay for the troops was a major issue throughout the campaign

    Самостійна робота студентів медиків, основні проблеми та методи їх подолання

    Get PDF
    У статті відображається роль самостійної роботи студентів у сучасному навчальному процесі і розкриваються питання, що виникають при організації самостійної роботи студентів. Показано, що правильно організована самостійна робота студентів передбачає підвищення якості освіти, призводить до засвоєння студентами навичок самостійної роботи, напрацювання досвіду самонавчання і як наслідок, формування фахівця, який націлений на самовдосконалення та професійний пошук. Відмічається, що самостійна робота студентів потребує високих вольових якостей, вміння спланувати та організувати роботу, а також провести заходи з контролю якості засвоєння матеріалу. Данні проведеного дослідження відображають проблемні питання самостійної роботи студентів-медиків вищого закладу освіти. На підставі проведеного дослідження встановлені місце виконання самостійної роботи та час, що витрачається на неї студентами. Відображаються джерела інформації, що використовуються під час самостійного опрацювання матеріалу та відношення студентів до запропонованих способів самоконтролю. Анонімність анкетування дозволила зменшити рівень викривлення інформації опитуваними особами та визначити провідні особисті проблеми під час самонавчання.На основі аналізу отриманих даних встановлено, що сучасна організація освітнього процесу потребує удосконалення як самостійної роботи студентів так і модернізації взаємодії між студентами і викладачем. Найважливішою метою взаємодії між викладачем та студентом є підвищення мотивації студентів до самостійної роботи, а також навчання студентів навичкам самостійної діяльності у тому числі плануванню, а також пояснення важливості заходів самоконтролю для продуктивної самостійної роботи. The article represents the role of students’ independent work in the modern educational process and reveals the issues that arise during organizing students’ independent work. It is shown that properly organized students’ independent work involves the improvement of the quality of education, leads to the mastery of students skills of independent work, the experience of self-study and, as a consequence, the formation of a specialist who aims at self-improvement and professional search. It is noted that students’ independent work requires high volitional qualities, ability to plan and organize work, as well as conduct measures for quality assimilation of material. The data of the conducted research reflect the problem issues of students’ independent work in higher educational establishment. The place of independent work and the time spent on it by students were established. The sources of information used during self-study of the material were shown. Students' relation to the proposed methods of self-control was determined. The anonymity of the questionnaire has allowed decreasing the level of information distortion by the interviewed persons and has identified the leading personal problems during self-study. Based on the analysis of the obtained data it was established that the modern organization of the educational process needs improving student’s independent work and the modernization of interaction between students and the teacher. The most important goal of interaction between a teacher and a student is the student’s motivation increasing to work independently, as well as to teach students the skills of independent activity, including planning, explaining the importance of self-monitoring activities for productive self-employment

    Development of an Objective Feet and Leg Conformation Evaluation Method Using Digital Imagery in Swine

    Get PDF
    Background:The objectives of this study were to create an objective measurement method of joint angles for knee, hock, front and rear pasterns and a rear stance position in swine using digital imaging technology and to assess the repeatability of the objective measurement process. Methods and Findings: Forty-five multiparous sows (average parity 6.7 ± 2.5; parity range 5 to 14) from two commercial farms (n=21 farm 1 and n=24 farm 2) were used. Sows were moved to a pen where digital images of the profile and rear stance were captured. On average, 5.2 (± 2.6) profile and 2.6 (± 1.0) rear stance high quality images were used per sow. A joint angle measuring system was devised to collect angle measurements on the four feet and leg joints previously mentioned and the rear stance. Joint measurements were analyzed using repeated measure mixed model methods, including farm and parity (as 5, 6, and 7+) as fixed effects. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate process repeatability. Joint angle measurement repeatability ranged from 0.63 to 0.82. Lowest and highest repeatabilities were observed for the front pastern and hock angle measurements, respectively. No significant farm or parity differences were observed for joint angles measured except for the knee angle between farms (P\u3c0.05) and the hock angle between sows’ parities 5 and 6 and parity 7+ (P\u3c0.05). Conclusions: Feet and leg conformation evaluation using digital images could be successfully used as an objective tool to aide in selection of replacement gilts. This could have a beneficial impact on sow longevity and farm productivity and profitability

    Postglacial relative sea-level changes and the deglaciation of northwest Iceland

    Get PDF
    Iceland provides an important opportunity to investigate relative sea-level (RSL) changes and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) glaciation in a sensitive area of the North Atlantic. This project employs new and existing RSL data, coupled with glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA) modelling, to resolve the current debates surrounding the extent of the LGM Icelandic ice sheet (IIS). Robust understanding of the LGM IIS is important, because there are two markedly different maximum and minimum ice loading scenarios, with very different implications for global thermohaline circulation. Previous studies of glacial geomorphology and sedimentology have failed to differentiate between these scenarios. Reconstructing RSL changes in northwest Iceland can address this issue because the two LGM glaciation scenarios yield significantly contrasting RSL histories. Northwest Iceland is also an important location in which to determine Earth models for Iceland. In this study, a series of new sea-level index points (SLIPs) have been generated for northwest Iceland from isolation basin and coastal lowland sediment samples along two perpendicular transects. Diatom, tephrochronological and radiocarbon analyses have allowed the generation of new RSL curves for the region, showing higher marine limit elevations close to loading centres and differing influences of Younger Dryas ice re-advance. Mapping of the marine limit has shown differences in the pattern of deglaciation due to fjord width and morphology. The contrasting LGM glaciation scenarios have been tested using the GIA modelling, with the new and existing RSL dataset as a constraint. Both field data and GIA model outputs support the maximum glaciation hypothesis

    Inventario general de los documentos de Benito Arias Montano conservados en el Museo Plantin-Moretus de Amberes

    Get PDF
    En esta contribución se ofrece un inventario completo del material documental relacionado con el humanista español Benito Arias Montano conservado en el Museo Plantin-Moretus de Amberes. El artículo demuestra que este archivo es una de las fuentes más valiosas de documentos inéditos para la biobibliografía del humanismo hispano-flamenco del siglo XVI