17,306 research outputs found

    Dietary fibre enrichment of supplemental feed modulates the development of the intestinal tract in suckling piglets

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    Background: Commercial pre-weaning diets are formulated to be highly digestible and nutrient-dense and contain low levels of dietary fibre. In contrast, pigs in a natural setting are manipulating fibre-rich plant material from a young age. Moreover, dietary fibre affects gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development and health in older pigs. We hypothesised that supplemental diets that contain vegetal fibres are accelerating GIT development in suckling piglets in terms of size and functionality. From d 2 of life, sow-suckled piglets had access to a low fibre diet (CON), a diet with a fermentable long-chain arabinoxylan (lc-AXOS), a diet with a largely non-fermentable purified cellulose (CELL), or a diet containing both fibres. During the initial 2 weeks, the control diet was a high-density milk replacer, followed by a dry and highly digestible creep meal. Upon weaning at 25 d, 15 piglets from each treatment group, identified as eaters and originating from six or seven litters, were sacrificed for post-mortem examination of GIT morphology, small intestinal permeability and metabolic profile of the digesta. The microbiota composition of the mid-colon was evaluated in a sub-set of ten piglets. Results: No major statistical interactions between the fibre sources were observed. Piglets consumed the fibre-containing milk supplements and creep diets well. Stomach size and small intestinal permeability was not affected. Large intestinal fill was increased with lc-AXOS only, while relative large intestinal weight was increased with both fibre sources (P < 0.050). Also, CELL decreased ileal pH and tended to increase ileal DM content compared to CON (P < 0.050). Moreover, the concentration of volatile fatty acids was increased in the caecum (P < 0.100) and mid-colon (P < 0.050) by addition of CELL. lc-AXOS only stimulated caecal propionate (P < 0.050). The microbiota composition showed a high individual variation and limited dietary impact. Nonetheless, CELL induced minor shifts in specific genera, with notable reductions of Escherichia-Shigella. Conclusions: Adding dietary fibres to the supplemental diet of suckling piglets altered large intestinal morphology but not small intestinal permeability. Moreover, dietary fibre showed effects on fermentation and modest changes of microbial populations in the hindgut, with more prominent effects from the low-fermentable cellulose

    Effect of synthetic and bovine milk conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on immune function : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Nutrition Science at Massey University

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    CLA is a collective name for a mixture of positional and geometrical isomers of linoleic acid (c-9, c-12-octadecadioenic acid) which possess conjugated double bonds. CLA occurs in a variety of foods, but is present at higher concentrations in products from ruminants. Milk fat is the richest natural source of CLA. The objective of this research was to examine the immunomodulatory properties of CLA (both synthetic and natural CLA derived from bovine milk fat). Two experiments were conducted at the Milk and Health Research Centre, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand. The aim of the first experiment was to investigate the dose effect of different concentrations of synthetic CLA (Tonalin) on immune function. Mice were fed either skim milk powder based diet or the same diet supplemented with 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0% synthetic CLA (Tonalin) by weight. Animals were immunised orally with a mixture of polio vaccine in sodium bicarbonate (25μl) and subcutaneously with Fluvax and Tetanus toxoid vaccine on days 7 and 21. After 4 weeks feeding, mice were euthanased by isoflurane overdose. Various immune parameters were measured and the results showed that synthetic CLA (Tonalin) enhanced a range of immune functions. Synthetic CLA stimulated PHA induced T lymphocyte proliferation at 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0% as compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Synthetic CLA enhanced macrophage phagocytosis in a dose dependent manner. Synthetic CLA enhanced antibody responses (mucosal and systemic) to vaccines (polio vaccine, Fluvax and Tetanus toxoid). Natural killer cell activity was significantly enhanced in mice fed 0.25 and 0.5% CLA. In general, 0.25% CLA was regarded as the best CLA level which achieved optimal immunoregulating effects. The aim of the second experiment was to examine the effect of natural CLA derived from milk fat on immune responses in mice. Mice were fed a skim milk powder (SMP) based diet. The control diet was skim milk powder only, without any CLA or milk fat supplementation. The dietary treatments were: ordinary milk fat, fractionated milk fat (1st stage), 0.2% synthetic CLA (Tonalin) and CLA enriched milk fat. Animals were fed these diets for 28 days. Mice were immunised orally with a mixture of polio vaccine/ovalbumin/cholera toxin in sodium bicarbonate on days 7, 14 and 21 and subcutaneously with Fluvax and ADT (Diptheria and Tetanus toxoid vaccine) on days 7 and 21. Natural CLA was found to stimulate PHA and Con A induced T lymphocyte blastogenesis. Supplementation with natural CLA also led to increased antibody responses to vaccines and increased CD25+ populations in peripheral blood in mice. Natural CLA also enhanced macrophage phagocytosis. Synthetic CLA enhanced a range of immune functions which is consistent with the results in the first experiment. It is noted that although the CLA content is low in milk fat, the natural CLA derived from milk fat expressed potent effects in enhancing the growth of immune cells and promoting a range of immune functions in mice. Key words: conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), lymphocyte, macrophage, immunity, milk fa

    Dietary soy and meat proteins induce distinct physiological and gene expression changes in rats

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    This study reports on a comprehensive comparison of the effects of soy and meat proteins given at the recommended level on physiological markers of metabolic syndrome and the hepatic transcriptome. Male rats were fed semi-synthetic diets for 1 wk that differed only regarding protein source, with casein serving as reference. Body weight gain and adipose tissue mass were significantly reduced by soy but not meat proteins. The insulin resistance index was improved by soy, and to a lesser extent by meat proteins. Liver triacylglycerol contents were reduced by both protein sources, which coincided with increased plasma triacylglycerol concentrations. Both soy and meat proteins changed plasma amino acid patterns. The expression of 1571 and 1369 genes were altered by soy and meat proteins respectively. Functional classification revealed that lipid, energy and amino acid metabolic pathways, as well as insulin signaling pathways were regulated differently by soy and meat proteins. Several transcriptional regulators, including NFE2L2, ATF4, Srebf1 and Rictor were identified as potential key upstream regulators. These results suggest that soy and meat proteins induce distinct physiological and gene expression responses in rats and provide novel evidence and suggestions for the health effects of different protein sources in human diets

    Thyroxine-binding globulin: investigation of microheterogeneity

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    Preparations of T4-binding globulin (TBG) from human serum was performed using only two affinity chromatography steps. Purity of the protein was demonstrated by a single band in overloaded disc and sodium dodecyl sulfate electrophoresis, equimolar binding to T4, and linearity in sedimentation velocity run. The molecular weight was calculated to be 60,000 +/- 3,000 daltons (n = 3), the sedimentation coefficient was 3.95S, and the Stokes' radius was 37 A. The amino acid composition was found to be in good agreement with the calculations of other authors. By isoelectric focussing (IEF), pure TBG showed four main bands at pH 4.25, 4.35, 4.45, and 4.55 together with several fainter bands. The N- acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) content of the four TBG bands isolated by preparative IEF was found to decrease from 10.2 mol NANA/mol TBG in the band at pH 4.25 to 4.8 mol NANA/mol TBG in the band at pH 4.55. No significant difference in the affinity constants of the TBG bands to T4 was found. The affinity constants for TBG ranged from 3.1 x 10(9) to 7.2 x 10(9) M-1. Sequential kinetic desialylation of pure TBG resulted in a progressive tendency toward one major band at pH 6.0. In native sera, microheterogeneity of TBG was detected after IEF on polyacrylamide gel plates by immunofixation. The typical TBG patterns shown by pure TBG were also found in normal subjects. Characteristic deviations from this pattern were found in the sera of females during estrogen therapy or pregnancy, where there was a gradual increase in density of the band at pH 4.25 and the appearance of an additional band at pH 4.15. In sera from patients with liver disease and elevated TBG levels, there was a fading of the acidic bands, whereas the more alkaline band at pH 4.55 was intensified. It is therefore proposed that microheterogeneity of TBG is caused by differences in NANA content and that variations of TBG patterns in native sera may reflect altered TBG synthesis or degradation. A genetically related microheterogeneity of TBG could not be demonstrated after examination of 800 sera, including 2 families with quantitative TBG deficiency

    Fish larval nutrition and feed formulation: knowledge gaps and bottlenecks for advances in larval rearing

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    Despite considerable progress in recent years, many questions regarding fish larval nutrition remain largely unanswered, and several research avenues remain open. A holistic understanding of the supply line of nutrients is important for developing diets for use in larval culture and for the adaptation of rearing conditions that meet the larval requirements for the optimal presentation of food organisms and/or microdiets. The aim of the present review is to revise the state of the art and to pinpoint the gaps in knowledge regarding larval nutritional requirements, the nutritional value of live feeds and challenges and opportunities in the development of formulated larval diets.Norwegian Ministry of Fisheries; Research Council of Norway [CODE-199482, GutFeeling-190019]; Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation MICINN + FEDER/ERDF [AGL2007-64450-C02-01, CSD2007-0002]; project HYDRAA [PTDC/MAR/71685/2006]; Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia (FCT), Portugal; FEDER; EC [LIFECYCLE- 222719]; EU RTD [FA0801]info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    NITROGEN DYNAMICS IN THE RUMEN AND ABOMASUM OF SHEEP DETERMINED WITH 15 N-LABELLED AMMONIA OR 15 N-LABELLED DUCKWEED

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    An experiment was carried out to investigate the dynamics of nitrogen (N) in the rumen and abomasum of rumen and abomasum-cannulated sheep using 15 N dilution techniques. The 15 N tracer was administered into the rumen as 15 N-ammonia or 15 N-labelled duckweed and the transfer of the 15 N label to various N pools was followed. Flow of digesta from the rumen into the abomasum was ascertained by double marker technique with cobalt and acid insoluble ash as liquid digesta and particle digesta marker, respectively. Results showed that the average of rumen water volume was 4.5 l ± SEM 0.57 and the mean water flow through the abomasum (8.6 ± 0.45 l/d) was higher than outflow from the rumen (7.4 ± 0.55 l/d). Nitrogen intake tended to be higher, but total-N passing the abomasum tended to be lower when the sheep were infused by 15 N-ammonia than when they were ingesting 15 N-duckweed. The ammonia concentration in abomasal digesta was about 93 mg N/kg and non ammonia N (NAN) was about 1.58 g N/kg. The rates of flow of total-N as ammonia-N and as NAN did not differ (P>0.05) between animals or diets, with means (± SEM) of 57.7 ± 0.96 and 964 ± 2.13 mmol/d (or 0.81 and 13.5 g N/d), respectively. About 34-59% of the dietary N was removed from the rumen as ammonia (absorbed and in digesta). The enrichments of rumen ammonia N appeared to have reached plateau values after about 10 h of 15 N-ammonia infusion. The percentage of bacterial-N derived from ammonia-N (from the period of 15 N-ammonia infusion) was 53.63 % (ratio of plateau enrichments) and thus 37.47% of bacterial-N was derived from NAN sources in the rumen. The total 15 N flow through the abomasum was higher (P<0.001) when 5 N duckweed was given rather than 15 N-ammonia (2.40 0.02 mmol/d). The 15 N in NAN flowing to the abomasum (mmol/d) was also significantly higher (P<0.001) when 15 N-duckweed was given rather than 15 N ammonia, with means of 0.00, respectively. The flow of 15 N in ammonia, on the other hand, was lower (P<0.01) when sheep ingested 15 N-duckweed than when they were infused with 15 N-ammonia (0.09  0.00v. 0.13  0.09  mmol/d).Damry 1 Keywords : Nitrogen Dynamics, Rumen, Ammonia-N, Bacterial-

    CoA protects against the deleterious effects of caloric overload in Drosophila

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    We developed a Drosophila model of T2D in which high sugar (HS) feeding leads to insulin resistance. In this model, adipose TG storage is protective against fatty acid toxicity and diabetes. Initial biochemical and gene expression studies suggested that deficiency in CoA might underlie reduced TG synthesis in animals during chronic HS feeding. Focusing on the Drosophila fat body (FB), which is specialized for TG storage and lipolysis, we undertook a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that CoA could protect against the deleterious effects of caloric overload. Quantitative metabolomics revealed a reduction in substrate availability for CoA synthesis in the face of an HS diet. Further reducing CoA synthetic capacity by expressing FB-specific RNAi targeting pantothenate kinase (PK orfumble) or phosphopantothenoylcysteine synthase (PPCS) exacerbated HS-diet-induced accumulation of FFAs. Dietary supplementation with pantothenic acid (vitamin B5, a precursor of CoA) was able to ameliorate HS-diet-induced FFA accumulation and hyperglycemia while increasing TG synthesis. Taken together, our data support a model where free CoA is required to support fatty acid esterification and to protect against the toxicity of HS diets

    Quality of Organic vs. Conventional Food and Effects on Health

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    This report analyses the nutritional quality of organic and conventional food as well as the health effects of pesticide residues, nitrates, mycotoxins and artificial additives and gives an overview of animal and human experiments

    Influence of organic diet on the amount of conjugated linoleic acids in breast milk of lactating women in the Netherlands

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    The aim of the present study was to find out whether the incorporation of organic dairy and meat products in the maternal diet affects the contents of the conjugated linoleic acid isomers (CLA) and trans-vaccenic acid (TVA) in human breast milk. To this purpose, milk samples from 312 breastfeeding mothers participating in the KOALA Birth Cohort Study have been analysed. The participants had documented varying lifestyles in relation to the use of conventional or organic products. Breast milk samples were collected 1 month postpartum and analysed for fatty acid composition. The content of rumenic acid (the main CLA) increased in a statistically significant way while going from a conventional diet (no organic dairy/meat products, 0.25 weight % (wt%), n 186) to a moderately organic diet (50–90 % organic dairy/meat, 0·29 wt%, n 33, P=0.02) and to a strict organic diet (> 90 % organic dairy/meat, 0.34 wt%, n 37, P<=0.001). The levels of TVA were augmented among the participants with a moderately organic diet (0·54 wt%) and those with a strict organic diet (0.59 wt%, P<=0.001), in comparison with the conventional group (0·48 wt%). After adjusting for covariables (recruitment group, maternal age, maternal education, use of supplements and season), statistical significance was retained in the group of the strict organic dairy users (P<0.001 for rumenic acid). Hence, the levels of CLA and TVA in human milk can be modulated if breastfeeding mothers replace conventional dairy and/or meat products by organic ones. A potential contribution of CLA and TVA to health improvement is briefly discussed

    Dietary modulation of body composition and insulin sensitivity during catch-up growth in rats: effects of oils rich in n-6 or n-3 PUFA

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    The present study investigates whether excessive fat accumulation and hyperinsulinaemia during catch-up growth on high-fat diets are altered by n-6 and n-3 PUFA derived from oils rich in either linoleic acid (LA), α-linolenic acid (ALA), arachidonic acid (AA) or DHA. It has been shown that, compared with food-restricted rats refed a high-fat (lard) diet low in PUFA, those refed isoenergetically on diets enriched in LA or ALA, independently of the n-6:n-3 ratio, show improved insulin sensitivity, lower fat mass and higher lean mass, the magnitude of which is related to the proportion of total PUFA precursors (LA+ALA) consumed. These relationships are best fitted by quadratic regression models (r2>0·8, P<0·001), with threshold values for an impact on body composition corresponding to PUFA precursors contributing 25-30% of energy intake. Isoenergetic refeeding on high-fat diets enriched in AA or DHA also led to improved body composition, with increases in lean mass as predicted by the quadratic model for PUFA precursors, but decreases in fat mass, which are disproportionately greater than predicted values; insulin sensitivity, however, was not improved. These findings pertaining to the impact of dietary intake of PUFA precursors (LA and ALA) and their elongated-desaturated products (AA and DHA), on body composition and insulin sensitivity, provide important insights into the search for diets aimed at counteracting the pathophysiological consequences of catch-up growth. In particular, diets enriched in essential fatty acids (LA and/or ALA) markedly improve insulin sensitivity and composition of weight regained, independently of the n-6:n-3 fatty acid rati
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