1,074,233 research outputs found

    Spin-orbit torque switching of synthetic antiferromagnets

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    We report that synthetic antiferromagnets (SAFs) can be efficiently switched by spin-orbit torques (SOTs) and the switching scheme does not obey the usual SOT switching rule. We show that both the positive and negative spin Hall angle (SHA)-like switching can be observed in Pt/SAF structures with only positive SHA, depending on the strength of applied in-plane fields. A new switching mechanism directly arising from the asymmetric domain expansion is proposed to explain the anomalous switching behaviors. Contrary to the macrospin-based switching model that the SOT switching direction is determined by the sign of SHA, the new switching mechanism suggests that the SOT switching direction is dominated by the field-modulated domain wall motion and can be reversed even with the same sign of SHA. The new switching mechanism is further confirmed by the domain wall motion measurements. The anomalous switching behaviors provide important insights for understanding SOT switching mechanisms and also offer novel features for applications.Comment: 40 pages, 14 figure

    Relaxing-Precessional Magnetization Switching

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    A new way of magnetization switching employing both the spin-transfer torque and the torque by a magnetic field is proposed. The solution of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation shows that the dynamics of the magnetization in the initial stage of the switching is similar to that in the precessional switching, while that in the final stage is rather similar to the relaxing switching. We call the present method the relaxing-precessional switching. It offers a faster and lower-power-consuming way of switching than the relaxing switching and a more controllable way than the precessional switching

    Switching Flow-Graph nonlinear modeling technique

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    A unified graphical modeling technique, “Switching Flow-Graph” is developed to study the nonlinear dynamic behavior of pulse-width-modulated (PWM) switching converters. Switching converters are variable structure systems with linear subsystems. Each subsystem can be represented by a flow-graph. The Switching Flow-Graph is obtained by combining the flowgraphs of the subsystems through the use of switching branches. The Switching Flow-Graph model is easy to derive, and it provides a visual representation of a switching converter system. Experiments demonstrate that the Switching Flow-Graph model has very good accuracy

    Reduced Switching Connectivity for Large Scale Antenna Selection

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    In this paper, we explore reduced-connectivity radio frequency (RF) switching networks for reducing the analog hardware complexity and switching power losses in antenna selection (AS) systems. In particular, we analyze different hardware architectures for implementing the RF switching matrices required in AS designs with a reduced number of RF chains. We explicitly show that fully-flexible switching matrices, which facilitate the selection of any possible subset of antennas and attain the maximum theoretical sum rates of AS, present numerous drawbacks such as the introduction of significant insertion losses, particularly pronounced in massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. Since these disadvantages make fully-flexible switching suboptimal in the energy efficiency sense, we further consider partially-connected switching networks as an alternative switching architecture with reduced hardware complexity, which we characterize in this work. In this context, we also analyze the impact of reduced switching connectivity on the analog hardware and digital signal processing of AS schemes that rely on channel power information. Overall, the analytical and simulation results shown in this paper demonstrate that partially-connected switching maximizes the energy efficiency of massive MIMO systems for a reduced number of RF chains, while fully-flexible switching offers sub-optimal energy efficiency benefits due to its significant switching power losses.Comment: 14 pages, 11 figure

    Afghan EFL Lecturers’ Perceptions of Code-Switching

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    Code-switching is explained as switching between two languages at the same time while conversing in the same discourse. The aim of this study is to explore the perceptions of Afghan EFL lecturers toward code- switching. This study used a qualitative research approach in which the data was collected via semi-structured interviews with five EFL lecturers. The lecturers were interviewed to explore their perceptions and reasons for code-switching, and the extent to which they practice code-switching in their classrooms. The results revealed that the lecturers in the study had positive perceptions of code-switching and believed it as a beneficial strategy in facilitating the learning process. However, they also conveyed that an excessive practice of code-switching should be avoided. The study results also disclosed that the lecturers practiced code-switching for various functions such as explaining difficult concepts (translation), explaining complex grammatical points, clarifications, and giving instructions. Finally, the paper provides recommendation for further research

    Criterion of multi-switching stability for magnetic nanoparticles

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    We present a procedure to study the switching and the stability of an array of magnetic nanoparticles in the dynamical regime. The procedure leads to the criterion of multi-switching stability to be satisfied in order to have stable switching. The criterion is used to compare various magnetic-field-induced switching schemes, either present in the literature or suggested in the present work. In particular, we perform micromagnetic simulations to study the magnetization trajectories and the stability of the magnetization after switching for nanoparticles of elliptical shape. We evaluate the stability of the switching as a function of the thickness of the particles and the rise and fall times of the magnetic pulses, both at zero and room temperature. Furthermore, we investigate the role of the dipolar interaction and its influence on the various switching schemes. We find that the criterion of multi-switching stability can be satisfied at room temperature and in the presence of dipolar interactions for pulses shaped according to CMOS specifications, for switching rates in the GHz regime