27,408 research outputs found

    European Arctic Initiatives Compendium

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    Julkaistu versi

    Dataset on seston and zooplankton fatty-acid compositions, zooplankton and phytoplankton biomass, and environmental conditions of coastal and offshore waters of the northern Baltic Sea

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    We analyzed the taxonomic and fatty-acid (FA) compositions of phytoplankton and zooplankton, and the environmental conditions at three coastal and offshore stations of the northern Baltic Sea. Plankton samples for FA analyses were collected under the framework of sampling campaigns of the Swedish National Marine Monitoring program in September 2017. Monitoring data of phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass, and environmental variables at each station were extracted from the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute database (https://sharkweb.smhi.se/). Monthly phytoplankton biomass at each station in July-September 2017 was aggregated by class (i.e., chyrsophytes, cryptophytes, dinoflagellates, diatoms, euglenophytes, cyanobacteria, etc.). Zooplankton biomass in September 2017 was aggregated by major taxa (i.e., Acartia sp. [Calanoida], Eurytemora affinis [Calanoida], Cladocera, Limnocalanus macrurus and other copepods (i.e. excluding Eurytemora and Acartia)). Environmental variables monthly monitored in January-October 2017 included salinity, concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, humic substances, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. These variables were measured from 0 to 10 m depth below water surface, and the depth-integrated averages were used for data analyses. Seston and zooplankton (Eurytemora affinis, Acartia sp. and Cladocera) FA compositions were analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC‚ÄďMS). Our dataset could provide new insights into how taxonomic composition and biochemical quality of the planktonic food chains change with the environmental conditions in subarctic marine ecosystems

    Analysis of the Natura 2000 Networks in Sweden and Spain

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    In this paper the main differences between Natura 2000 Network in Sweden and Spain are analyzed. Comparing different documents at different levels: European, national and regional, the author aims to understand which strategies have been taken in both countries regarding the implementation, management, funding and social reactions of Natura 2000 Network and verify whether in a common Europe the differences in the understanding of environmental common policy are decisive and define the implementation process. The results can clearly show that such differences occur in practically the total issues analyzed. Sweden could be characterized by its orderly and homogeneous implementation process with a close communication between public administration and stakeholders that have influenced all the process. As a result its Natura 2000 Network has marked differences on distribution and size in its Natura sites. Spain, however, shows a heterogeneous and complicated process characterized for both the disinformation due to the lack of communication with the stakeholders and controversial legislative measures which caused social reactions against this network. In contrast it seems that the criteria followed for the sites selection were less influenced by stakeholders. As a conclusion environmental Directives transpositions are being fulfilled with different criteria having as a result significant differences in their final objective

    Assessments in Policy-Making: Case Studies from the Arctic Council

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    Water Emissions Trading in Europe: A Literature Overview and Discussion of Opportunities

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    This report is about Water Emissions Trading (WET or Water Quality Trading) in Europe. The goal is to inform about the basic principles, provide an overview of studies done in Europe, and suggest some future opportunities for WET in Europe

    Drivers and food web effects of Gonyostomum semen blooms

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    The flagellate Gonyostomum semen forms dense late-summer blooms in humic lakes and is a nuisance to swimmers because it forms a slimy coat on the skin, causing irritation in sensitive individuals. Increasing occurrence and bloom incidence of G. semen has been reported during recent decades, but it is not clear which factors affect the distribution and bloom formation of this alga. Large cell size, ejection of long, slimy threads (trichocysts), and nighttime migration to the hypolimnion may limit grazing on G. semen by herbivorous zooplankton, resulting in a decreased coupling between phytoplankton and higher trophic levels during blooms. The studies included in this thesis investigate which factors affect G. semen occurrence and bloom formation and how G. semen blooms affect the community composition and trophic interactions in boreal, humic lakes. The occurrence of G. semen has increased between 1995 and 2010, especially in southern Sweden. Bloom incidence and total biomass did not increase continually, but fluctuated among years and peaked in the middle of the study period. Temperature and length of the growing season affected the occurrence and, to a lesser extent, bloom formation of G. semen, but local factors such as pH and water colour were more important for bloom formation. More lakes may become suitable habitats with the ongoing increase in water colour and increasing temperatures may result in a more frequent occurrence and bloom formation of G. semen. Blooms resulted in a shift in zooplankton assemblages toward predominance by small cladocerans, which were not able to feed on G. semen but instead fed more on heterotrophic food resources, supporting the hypothesis of a reduced coupling between phytoplankton and zooplankton. Zooplankton assemblages predominated by small animals feeding on low-quality resources may reduce the food quality for planktivorous fish. Instead, the invertebrate predator C. flavicans appeared to benefit from G. semen blooms, as indicated by its high abundance in bloom-lakes. Calanoid copepods and a large cladoceran fed efficiently on G. semen in the laboratory, indicating that there is, however, some trophic coupling between G. semen and higher trophic levels. This supports the use of biomanipulation of fish communities for controlling G. semen blooms
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