27,167 research outputs found

    Curved Gratings as Plasmonic Lenses for Linearly Polarised Light

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    The ability of curved gratings as sectors of concentric circular gratings to couple linearly polarized light into focused surface plasmons is investigated by theory, simulation and experiment. Curved gratings, as sectors of concentric circular gratings with four different sector angles, are etched into a 30-nm thick gold layer on a glass coverslip and used to couple linearly-polarised free space light at nm into surface plasmons. The experimental and simulation results show that increasing the sector angle of the curved gratings decreases the lateral spotsize of the excited surface plasmons, resulting in focussing of surface plasmons which is analogous to the behaviour of classical optical lenses. We also show that two faced curved gratings, with their groove radius mismatched by half of the plasmon wavelength (asymmetric configuration), can couple linearly-polarised light into a single focal spot of concentrated surface plasmons with smaller depth of focus and higher intensity in comparison to single-sided curved gratings. The major advantage of these structures is the coupling of linearly-polarised light into focused surface plasmons with access to and control of the plasmon focal spot, which facilitates potential applications in sensing, detection and nonlinear plasmonics.Comment: 15 pages and 12 figure

    Nonlinear surface plasmons

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    We derive an asymptotic equation for quasi-static, nonlinear surface plasmons propagating on a planar interface between isotropic media. The plasmons are nondispersive with a constant linearized frequency that is independent of their wavenumber. The spatial profile of a weakly nonlinear plasmon satisfies a nonlocal, cubically nonlinear evolution equation that couples its left-moving and right-moving Fourier components. We prove short-time existence of smooth solutions of the asymptotic equation and describe its Hamiltonian structure. We also prove global existence of weak solutions of a unidirectional reduction of the asymptotic equation. Numerical solutions show that nonlinear effects can lead to the strong spatial focusing of plasmons. Solutions of the unidirectional equation appear to remain smooth when they focus, but it is unclear whether or not focusing can lead to singularity formation in solutions of the bidirectional equation

    Non-reciprocal optical reflection from a bidimensional array of subwavelength holes in a metallic film

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    Using simulations and theoretical arguments we investigate the specular reflection of a perforated gold film deposited on a glass substrate. A square lattice of cylindrical holes is assumed to produce the periodic lateral corrugation needed to hybridize the surface plasmons with radiative states. It is shown that, contrasting transmission approaches, a knowledge of the reflection on either side of the film provides separate information on the gold-vacuum surface plasmons and on the gold-glass interface plasmons. Recent experimental data on a specific implementation of this system are reexamined; these show a good agreement between the measured reflections and the simulations in both directions of incident wave probes. This confirms the importance of taking into account the reflection asymmetry in the far-field assessment of surface plasmons properties.Comment: 4 pages, 3 figures. Published versio

    Experimental evidence of percolation phase transition in surface plasmons generation

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    Carrying digital information in traditional copper wires is becoming a major issue in electronic circuits. Optical connections such as fiber optics offers unprecedented transfer capacity, but the mismatch between the optical wavelength and the transistors size drastically reduces the coupling efficiency. By merging the abilities of photonics and electronics, surface plasmon photonics, or 'plasmonics' exhibits strong potential. Here, we propose an original approach to fully understand the nature of surface electrons in plasmonic systems, by experimentally demonstrating that surface plasmons can be modeled as a phase of surface waves. First and second order phase transitions, associated with percolation transitions, have been experimentally observed in the building process of surface plasmons in lattice of subwavelength apertures. Percolation theory provides a unified framework for surface plasmons description

    Excitation of surface plasmons at a SiO2/Ag interface by silicon quantum dots: Experiment and theory

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    The excitation of surface plasmons (SPs) by optically excited silicon quantum dots (QDs) located near a Ag interface is studied both experimentally and theoretically for different QD-interface separations. The Si QDs are formed in the near-surface region of an SiO2 substrate by Si ion implantation and thermal annealing. Photoluminescence decay-rate distributions, as derived from an inverse Laplace transform of the measured decay trace, are determined for samples with and without a Ag cover layer. For the smallest, investigated Si-QDs-to-interface distance of 44 nm the average decay rate at lambda=750 nm is enhanced by 80% due to the proximity of the Ag-glass interface, with respect to an air-glass interface. Calculations based on a classical dipole oscillator model show that the observed decay rate enhancement is mainly due to the excitation of surface plasmons that are on the SiO2/Ag interface. By comparing the model calculations to the experimental data, it is determined that Si QDs have a very high internal emission quantum efficiency of (77±17)%. At this distance they can excite surface plasmons at a rate of (1.1±0.2)×104 s¿1. From the model it is also predicted that by using thin metal films the excitation of surface plasmons by Si QDs can be further enhanced. Si QDs are found to preferentially excite symmetric thin-film surface plasmons

    Efficient nonlinear generation of THz plasmons in graphene and topological insulators

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    Surface plasmons in graphene may provide an attractive alternative to noble-metal plasmons due to their tighter confinement, peculiar dispersion, and longer propagation distance. We present theoretical studies of the nonlinear difference frequency generation of terahertz surface plasmon modes supported by two-dimensional layers of massless Dirac electrons, which includes graphene and surface states in topological insulators. Our results demonstrate strong enhancement of the DFG efficiency near the plasmon resonance and the feasibility of phase-matched nonlinear generation of plasmons over a broad range of frequencies.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figure