10 research outputs found

    Egyptian Prisons in the Era of the Mamluk Dynasty Period

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    This study deals with one of the common punitive punishments in the Mamluk rule community, which is the prison; which illustrates the actual image of the general situation at that time. The study dealt with the types of prisons and their names, as prisons were divided into several sections according to the kind of crime: the first section: political prisons, the second section: is concerned with criminals and the third section: regional jails. The study also reveals the causes and obligations of the prison, in addition to the prison administration, which was followed in its administration to the Sultan in some cases and others in other cases, without the direct supervision of the prisoners 'rulers, which made the prisoners subject to the most severe physical punishments, so this study came to shed light on Prisons and this group in that era, which is called prisoners. Keywords: Egyptian Prisons, Mamluk Dynast

    Tall Hisban: An Examination of the Mamluk Sugar Industry in Fourtheenth Century Transjordan

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    'Veneto-Saracenic' metalwork.

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    2 volsAvailable from British Library Document Supply Centre- DSC:D89250 / BLDSC - British Library Document Supply CentreSIGLEGBUnited Kingdo

    Architecture: Music, City, and Culture

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    Many scholars have discussed the relationship between architecture and music. Design methodologies have been created to highlight this intersection, attempting to attain the sublime. While architecture theorists have used western music as a foundation, this thesis aims to investigate this relationship in a non-western setting. Music would be used as a cultural identifier, to unlock "hidden dimensions" shared in language, music, and architecture. The case study site is historic Cairo, between the Fatamid Walls. For the past two centuries, Cairo has abandoned its cultural heritage and embarked on a process of westernization. Those who seek to hold onto the city's identity are abusing traditional motifs in a manner that seems cliché and somewhat absurd. The thesis calls for a deeper understanding and evolution of Cairo's heritage, using concepts of the Arabic Melodic modes, Maqams, to create a place for listening, al Masmaa'

    Study of the physical formation of medieval Cairo

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    Thesis (M.S.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Architecture, 1989.Includes bibliographical references (leaves 78-80).This essay is an application of Ibn Khaldun's theories of culture and civilization to a study of the physical formation of medieval Cairo . The study is based on the premise that the city is an historical process governed by an underlying set of cultural conditions. Those conditions manifest themselves in the physical form of the city. Ibn Khaldun formulated his theories as tools for investigating the nature of social phenomena. He considered such investigation a necessary step towards understanding and recording the historical events. His concept of history, stated in the first part of this study, is based on a cyclical pattern of cultural change which leads to the rise and fall of civilization. The city in his framework becomes an aspect of civilization following the same inevitable evolutionary pattern. The first part of this study examines those theories and focuses on their important aspects. The second part introduces some historical facts about the evolution of medieval Cairo and analyses them using the premises of Ibn Khaldun's theories. The reports of al-Maqrizi - a fifteenth century historian of Cairo - provided the historical information necessary for this investigation. The study raised some issues concerning the use of Ibn Khaldun's theories in pursuing such kind of studies, and the knowledge of the Islamic city which need to be reassessed. Those issues are presented in the last section under Reflections.by Tawfiq F. Abu-Hantash.M.S

    Islamic metalwork and other related objects from the excavations at Tall Abu Skhayr, al-Daura, Baghdad.

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    This study sets out to analyse the metal finds and other related objects which came to light from excavations at Tell Abu Skhayr at Al-Daura in the western part of Baghdad, Iraq, and to discuss the relevance of this evidence for the history and archaelogy of the cAbbasid (3/9th - mid 7th/mid 13th C.) and the Ilkhanid (late 7th/13th - mid 8th/14th C.) periods. In its entirety, the study comprises six chapters. The first chapter deals with the history and geography of the location and is divided into two parts: (a) the identification of the site and (b) the floods; this also provides us with background historical material. The second chapter covers the three seasons of the excavations from 1976 to 1978. The third chapter sets out the coin finds which are a most important factor in dating the layers of the mound. In the fourth chapter, the pottery finds are discussed in detail and contribute further evidence to the dating of the site. The fifth chapter relates to the metal finds and their significance and goes on to compare these finds with other cAbbasid and Ilkhanid metal objects. Finally, in chapter six various conclusions are drawn from the data collected in the previous chapters. The identification of the site under the name of Sarsar is aided by reference of Muslim authors of the period. Appendices cover two charts: A. A brief account of medieval Muslim writers who mentioned Sarsar in their works. B. The floods in West Baghdad which occurred from 215-1374/830-1954

    A History of Islamic Court Dress in the Middle East.

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    The aesthetic ideal of the well-dressed Muslim male and female was formulated in ?ad?th literature, which counselled that the individual's devotion should be reflected in suitable humble and unostentatious attire. Although the evidence is fragmentary, the reality of the Umayyad and Abbasid courts, however, shows an increasing concern for ritual and ceremonial, along with a growing belief that the individual's status, profession and political (and religious) allegiance should be manifested in dress. It has been generally assumed that costume in the Islamic Middle East remained virtually unchanged in its structure and form until the 19th century. A careful examination of the visual sources in respect of the military dress in the medieval and post-medieval periods challenges this assumption, which is further weakened by the pictorial evidence of court costumes in the Ottoman and Safavid empires. At both courts, distinctive features in dress and head-gear identified the wearer's rank, status and to some extent, office. To don clothes associated with another group was to indicate publicly one's social aspirations, and for this reason sumptuary laws were repeatedly issued, with questionable effect, to re-establish as traditional a social order and stratification. Similarly in the 19th and 20th centuries, government programmes of radical modernization were accompanied by rigorous clothing reforms for both men and women. As the study of costume has to be undertaken with reference to political, social and economic history, each section is introduced by a short historical summary. This is followed by the examination of data relating to the court dress of the period, and concluded with information on the economic situation of the textile industry

    Mamluk architecture and urbanism

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    Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Architecture, 1987.Includes bibliographical references (p. 463-476).This dissertation is a reassessment of Mamluk architecture and urbanism in Cairo, based on a detailed study of one of the more important elements in its urban fabric, the rab' or apartment building. This building type is investigated via its extant examples and the extensive archival collection from the Fatimid, Ayyubid and Mamluk periods. The salient features of the rab' are identified, and its variations noted. The relation of the rab' to private dwellings is elucidated, and the changes that occurred in the residential architecture of Cairo from the early Fatimid through the Mamluk periods are presented. Its role in the urban fabric and in the patterns of pious endowments is analyzed through reconstructions based on waqf document. New information about Mamluk architecture and urbanism brought to light by the study of the rab' is used to reassess some of the more widely accepted characterizations of the Mamluk period.by Hazem I. Sayed.Ph.D

    Die Personennamen und Titel der mittelmongolischen Dokumente : Eine lexikalische Untersuchung

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    The present research is an investigation into the corpus of personal names and titles that are found in sources from the Middle Mongolian period, that is the time from the 13th to the beginning of the 15th century. The entry for every name or title has been divided into three parts: occurence(s) of a given name in Middle Mongolian sources (primary sources), etymology, and occurence(s) in sources other than Middle Mongolian (secondary sources). Culturally and lingistically the corpus can be divided into six sub-groups: Mongolian, Turkic (Old, Middle and Modern), Arabo-Persian (Islamic), Indo-Iranian and Tibetan (Buddhist), as well as Chinese. Among these, the largest group is formed by Mongolian and Turkic, followed by Chinese (mostly titles), Indo-Iranian, Arabo-Persian and Tibetan. With regard to the primary and secondary occurences the research is based mainly on primary sources including text-publications and dictionaries. Every name or title is documented as completely as possible within a Central Asian framework. However, due to the divergency of the sources available as well as diachronical importance, each sub-group has been dealt with slightly differently, but consistently. The corpus of investigated names and titles gives a fairly correct picture of the multi-ethnical composition of the Mongolian world-empire. It also shows the foreign influences on Mongolian names and titles, being in this respect a mirror of the influences that are visible in other parts of the Middle Mongolian culture too. Furthermore, the investigated corpus reflects the transitory stage of the 13th to 15th century in Central Asian history, and includes thus material from the past (Indo-Iranian, Old and Middle Turkic), and material that points to the future (Arabo-Persian, Tibetan, Modern Turkic).Väitöskirjan lähdepohjana ovat keskimongolilaiset dokumentit eli kaikki mongolien suurvallan aikana 1300-1400 -luvuilla laaditut asiakirjat. Ne ovat monenlaisia ja peräisin laajalta alueelta Kiinasta Eurooppaan sisältäen aineistoa eri kirjoitusjärjestelmillä. Tärkeimmät niistä ovat Mongolien salainen historia, sino-uiguurilaiset ja hPagspa-inskriptiot sekä Ming-kauden alussa kiinalaisilla kirjoitusmerkeillä kirjoitetut dokumentit, joiden tarkoituksena oli opettaa kiinalaisille mongolin kieltä. Pieni osa koostuu matkailijoiden, mm. Marco Polon, Carpinin ja Rubrukin keskimongolin kuvauksista sekä arabialaisella kirjoituksella laadituista sanalistoista. Nekin ovat tärkeitä, koska niissä kuvataan silloista puhekieltä, joka eroaa hPagspa-kirjoituksella kirjoitetusta puhekielestä ja lähestyy puhuttua nykymongolia. Väitöskirjassani olen tutkinnut mongolien vanhaa henkilönnimijärjestelmää sananmuodostusopin ja semantiikan näkökulmasta sekä niiden suhdetta nimien kaltaisten arvonimien hierarkiaan. Sen lisäksi olen pyrkinyt analysoimaan nimet etymologisesti. Korpus koostuu noin 1500 nimestä ja arvonimestä. Materiaalissa esiintyvä nimistö voidaan jakaa kahteen ryhmään: mongolien itsensä käyttämät nimet sekä mongolien palveluksessa olleiden ulkomaalaisten nimet. Väitöskirjassani käsittelen molempia ryhmiä. Sen lisäksi korpus voidaan jakaa kielen ja kulttuurin puolesta kuuteen eri ryhmään, joita olen kutsunut nimillä mongolilainen, turkkilainen, arabo-persialainen, indo-iranilainen, tiibettiläinen ja kiinalainen ryhmä. Näiden joukossa turko-mongolilainen on suurin, seuraavaksi tulee kiinalainen ryhmä, ja sitten arabo-persialainen, tiibettiläinen, ja indo-iranilainen, joka on pienin ryhmä. Tutkittu korpus kuvastaa hyvin mongolien suurvallan valtakunnan monikansallista koostumusta, joka on nähtävissä myös muualla kielen ja kulttuurien alalla
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