5,808 research outputs found

    Third places in transit: Public transport as a third place of mobility

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    The metropolitan geographies of elite shopping: Mary Leigh and Roger Newdigate in Georgian London

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    The importance of London as a source of elite goods is a commonplace. Work by Berry, Walsh, Vickery and Greig has painted a vivid picture of the mechanisms through which elite women in particular sought out metropolitan suppliers. It has also suggested a variety of motivations for their metropolitan tastes. We also have a good idea of the changing retail geography of London, with west-end shops becoming increasingly prominent through the eighteenth century. Less clear are the ways in which these two were linked through the spatial practices of consumers: where, precisely, did elites shop? How was this linked to their place of residence, experience of London or longevity in the city? And what difference did gender make? This paper explores these questions by mapping the metropolitan shopping habits of two elite families with estates in rural Warwickshire and houses in London: the Leighs of Stoneleigh Abbey and Newdigates of Arbury Hall. I argue that London retailers were both local and metropolitan – geographies of elite shopping being linked to the London residence and to key retail locations – and that men and women had different shopping geographies in part because of their different engagements in and with London

    THE STATUS OF THE AUTOMOBILE

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    The Garden Suburbs of Cairo. A morphological urban analysis of Zamālik, Ma‘ādī, and Heliopolis

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    During the British occupation of Egypt in the beginning of the 20th century, several suburban developments were established on the periphery of the city of Cairo. These initially attracted the small British community and later foreigners and Egyptians, mainly from the elite community. These suburban developments, including Ma‘ādī, Zamālik, Heliopolis, Qubbah-Gardens, and Garden City, became the fashionable residential quarters of Cairo. Until now, some of these areas still represent the distinguishable residential settlements of the city. Ma‘ādī, Zamālik, and Heliopolis specifically are nostalgically appropriated in the design of recent suburban developments around Greater Cairo. Some of the 20th century suburban developments around Cairo are labeled or described as “garden cities.” During the early 20th century, two thriving British town planning movements emerged, namely, the garden city movement and the garden suburb movement. This study investigates the hypothesis that these suburban developments, are indeed “garden suburbs” like the British movement, despite that few are labeled or described as “garden cities,”. Although several studies have examined the historical development of such settlements, their relation, however, to the British planning movements and their transfer process received little attention from planning historians. Few studies also analyze the urban design aspects that made these suburban developments distinguishable since their foundation and until today. To guide the validity of this study’s hypothesis, a set of research questions are formulated: (1) What is the difference between the garden city and the garden suburb movements? (2) How were the British planning movements transferred to Egypt? (3) What are the urban design aspects that makes these suburban developments distinguishable as garden suburbs? To answer these research questions, a historical morphological urban analysis is conducted through case studies. The study first studies the difference between the garden city and the garden suburb movements, mainly in Britain, through the analysis of publications on the promoter of both movements: for the garden city, E. Howards’ book “The Garden City of Tomorrow,” published in 1902, and for the garden suburb, R. Unwin’s books “Town Planning in Practice,” published in 1909, and “Nothing Gained from Overcrowding,” published in 1912. Then a morphological urban analysis of Letchworth Garden City and Brentham Garden Suburb, considered the first examples of each movement, is conducted. In order to analyze the transfer process, the study adopts M. Volait and J. Nasr’s theory on transporting planning, through investigating the authority in power responsible for the establishment of these suburban developments. This is followed by the morphological urban analysis of three suburban developments around Cairo, namely, Zamālik, Ma‘ādī, and Heliopolis. The morphological analysis focuses on the background of their establishment, authority in power responsible for the development, design principles, urban context, street typology, residential block typology, social infrastructure, and social target group. Finally, the study compares between Brentham, Letchworth, Zamālik, Ma‘ādī, and Heliopolis. The comparative analysis aims to highlight the differences between the studied cases of Cairo and how they are different from or alike the British movements. This study concludes that the suburban developments around Cairo during the British occupation, are in fact garden suburbs, despite that some are being described or labeled as garden city. This movement was exported via urban land development companies with foreign European capital, rather than via colonial dominance. It finally highlights a set of urban design aspects that distinguish them as garden suburbs of Cairo. This study hopes to support future conservation plan of these areas and the design of future suburban developments

    Maps, Tourism, and Historical Pedagogy: A Study of Power, Identity, and the Politics of Representation in Two Southern Cities

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    In what ways can historical power relationships be interpreted through a chronological analysis of historical maps, and how are these coded versions of history produced and reproduced through the modern tourist experience? I argue that historical maps can be interpreted to reveal the political influence and agendas inscribed upon the built environment. I review how the implications of these value systems can be seen in the cultural constructs and institutions that have been used over time to generate revenue through a two stage process,: first, through an analysis of historic and modern maps in two Southern cities, New Orleans and Charleston, South Carolina, and second, through personal ethnographic fieldwork. I analyze my findings to compare these two cities in their use of spatial representation to facilitate and contain a historic tourist industry that spawns local industries of historical tourism to both justify and codify these views as history

    New types of dwellings for prospective construction after 1981

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    Architectural considerations for the next stage of mass housing construction in the U.S.S.R. are explored. The architects are concerned with both the aesthetic and functional quality of the constructions, in terms of the prospective inhabitants as well as the environments in which they will be located. Experimental building designs emphasize: variety of appearance, environmental control, and the communal life

    Gold, Iron, and Stone: The Urban and Architectural History of Denver, Colorado

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    The state of Colorado and its capital city of Denver conjure up mental images of swift skiers flying down snowy slopes, hikers making their way through dense forests, and enormous mountain ranges penetrating the skyline with their jagged peaks. The image of Colorado is one of the scenic beauty of the outdoors that awaits any tourist, and its capital city is at the center of it all. Since its founding in 1858, Denver has gone from a small pioneering village to a large metropolis with a spot on the global map. The history and development of this city is a case study in flexibility and adaptation to changing conditions and circumstances. What factors, influences, and precedents shaped the course of Denver and how it grew? What forced the city to expand the way that it did? And most importantly, what influenced the architectural and urban development of Denver

    Medieval Manila: Life at the Dawn of the 20th Century

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    The Spanish established the city of Manila upon similar principles used tofound medieval European cities. However, Manila by the dawn of the 20thcentury was already an antiquated and obsolete human settlement. Thispaper depicts the crude life people endured inside the city, comparableto conditions in the medieval cities of Western Europe centuries before.It will establish that Manila was underdeveloped and poorly maintaineddespite three centuries of Spanish rule. This paper explores the lifeboth of the elite and of the ordinary resident of the Walled City, focusingon the aspects of house design, the social graces, urban problems,transportation, and communication

    Garantizando la integridad de la red vial como clave para resolver los problemas de capacidad de carreteras en las ciudades

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    Broadband highways are being built in major cities around the world to combat traffic congestion. At the same time, existing buildings are demolished or powerful overpasses are raised above them. However, it often turns out that newly created highways quickly exhaust their capacity, and traffic jams are formed on them again. This situation indicates that increasing the capacity of the highway does not solve the problem of traffic jams, but often aggravates it, since as a result of this increase, even more cars are drawn to the highway from adjacent territories, often exceeding their current capacity. At the same time, the streets in the surrounding areas are empty and their potential is not used to the full extent. This situation has arisen due to the disruption of the city road network by lengthy obstacles in the form of ravines, rivers, floodplains of small rivers, and railways. This situation can be corrected by "stitching" the streets over the gaps by building bridges and overpasses with a capacity corresponding to the capacity of the "stitched" streets. Most of the gaps fall on relatively small streets, which approach the banks of fairly wide floodplains of small rivers and streams, and this makes it advisable to build mainly small (with a span of 20-25 m) and relatively inexpensive bridges, with the number of spans sufficient to cover the floodplain and reach the levels of road surfaces of connected streets. There will be several hundred such bridges over the river barriers in a large city, for example, Moscow, and several hundred more, taking into account the required number of them over the railways, and in the end, about a thousand. It is proposed to erect bridge buildings instead of simple road bridges. Such structures combine two city functions; the first of them is transport, the second is public, residential, or economic, depending on the needs of the city and the environmental situation at the construction site. An important requirement for the second function is a quick return on the financial assets invested in the construction and income from the operation of the building acceptable to the investor. The bridge part of a bridge building should become the property of the city.Se están construyendo carreteras de banda ancha en las principales ciudades del mundo para combatir la congestión del tráfico. Al mismo tiempo, se derriban edificios existentes o se levantan poderosos pasos a desnivel sobre ellos. Sin embargo, a menudo resulta que las carreteras recién creadas agotan rápidamente su capacidad y se vuelven a formar atascos en ellas. Esta situación indica que aumentar la capacidad de la carretera no resuelve el problema de los atascos, pero muchas veces lo agrava, ya que como consecuencia de este aumento, se atraen aún más automóviles a la carretera desde territorios adyacentes, muchas veces superando su capacidad actual. Al mismo tiempo, las calles de los alrededores están vacías y su potencial no se aprovecha al máximo. Esta situación se ha producido debido a la interrupción de la red vial de la ciudad por largos obstáculos en forma de barrancos, ríos, llanuras aluviales de pequeños ríos y vías férreas. Esta situación puede corregirse "cosiendo" las calles sobre los huecos mediante la construcción de puentes y pasos superiores con una capacidad correspondiente a la capacidad de las calles "cosidas". La mayoría de los huecos caen en calles relativamente pequeñas, que se acercan a las riberas de llanuras aluviales bastante amplias de pequeños ríos y arroyos, por lo que es aconsejable construir puentes principalmente pequeños (con una luz de 20-25 m) y relativamente económicos, con el número de vanos suficientes para cubrir la llanura aluvial y alcanzar los niveles de superficies de carreteras de calles conectadas. Habrá varios cientos de puentes de este tipo sobre las barreras fluviales en una gran ciudad, por ejemplo, Moscú, y varios cientos más, teniendo en cuenta el número requerido de ellos sobre los ferrocarriles, y al final, alrededor de mil. Se propone la construcción de puentes en lugar de simples puentes de carretera. Tales estructuras combinan dos funciones de la ciudad; el primero de ellos es el transporte, el segundo es público, residencial o económico, según las necesidades de la ciudad y la situación ambiental en la obra. Un requisito importante para la segunda función es un rápido retorno de los activos financieros invertidos en la construcción y los ingresos de la operación del edificio aceptables para el inversor. La parte del puente de un edificio puente debe convertirse en propiedad de la ciudad
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