70,630 research outputs found

    The effect of peer-to-peer (P2P) accommodations on the local economy: evidence from Madrid

    Get PDF
    This paper investigates the effect of P2P accommodations on the local economy of the city of Madrid. We find that the arrival of Airbnb has fostered food and beverage services. We exploit the exogenous variation created by the timing and the unequal distribution of Airbnb listings across the urban geography to identify its effects on the number and employment of food and beverage services. Using an instrumental variable strategy, we find positive effects on both the number of restaurants and their employees: an increase in ten Airbnb rooms in a given census tract translates to one more restaurant, and the same increase in a given neighbourhood generates nine new tourist-related employees. The results are robust to sample composition, spatial spillovers and alternative measures of tourist-related activities. This paper contributes to the literature on the economic impacts of the platform economy on urban areas by providing evidence of positive economic externalities from P2P accommodations

    Efectividad de la pol铆tica de cooperaci贸n en innovaci贸n: evidencia emp铆rica espa帽ola

    Get PDF
    pp. 3-29En este trabajo se han desarrollado distintos modelos econom茅tricos a partir de datos de empresas innovadoras para determinar si las ayudas p煤blicas a la innovaci贸n provenientes de la Administraci贸n Central, las Comunidades Aut贸nomas y otros organismos (b谩sicamente ayudas europeas) influyen sobre la propensi贸n o probabilidad de las empresas innovadoras a establecer acuerdos de colaboraci贸n tecnol贸gica. Se analizan distintas formas de cooperaci贸n (vertical, horizontal o institucional). Los resultados globales indican que las ayudas p煤blicas tienen un efecto sobre la probabilidad cooperadora de las empresas respecto a la cooperaci贸n en general. Este efecto inductor se confirma para la cooperaci贸n privada-publica (o institucional) y para la cooperaci贸n horizontal, es decir, entre empresas competidoras. Las ayudas no reflejan un efecto sobre la cooperaci贸n entre clientes y proveedores (cooperaci贸n vertical).S

    Balancing the urban stomach: public health, food selling and consumption in London, c. 1558-1640

    Get PDF
    Until recently, public health histories have been predominantly shaped by medical and scientific perspectives, to the neglect of their wider social, economic and political contexts. These medically-minded studies have tended to present broad, sweeping narratives of health policy's explicit successes or failures, often focusing on extraordinary periods of epidemic disease viewed from a national context. This approach is problematic, particularly in studies of public health practice prior to 1800. Before the rise of modern scientific medicine, public health policies were more often influenced by shared social, cultural, economic and religious values which favoured maintaining hierarchy, stability and concern for 'the common good'. These values have frequently been overlooked by modern researchers. This has yielded pessimistic assessments of contemporary sanitation, implying that local authorities did not care about or prioritise the health of populations. Overly medicalised perspectives have further restricted historians' investigation and use of source material, their interpretation of multifaceted and sometimes contested cultural practices such as fasting, and their examination of habitual - and not just extraordinary - health actions. These perspectives have encouraged a focus on reactive - rather than preventative - measures. This thesis contributes to a growing body of research that expands our restrictive understandings of pre-modern public health. It focuses on how public health practices were regulated, monitored and expanded in later Tudor and early Stuart London, with a particular focus on consumption and food-selling. Acknowledging the fundamental public health value of maintaining urban foodways, it investigates how contemporaries sought to manage consumption, food production waste, and vending practices in the early modern City's wards and parishes. It delineates the practical and political distinctions between food and medicine, broadly investigates the activities, reputations of and correlations between London's guild and itinerant food vendors and licensed and irregular medical practitioners, traces the directions in which different kinds of public health policy filtered up or down, and explores how policies were enacted at a national and local level. Finally, it compares and contrasts habitual and extraordinary public health regulations, with a particular focus on how perceptions of and actual food shortages, paired with the omnipresent threat of disease, impacted broader aspects of civic life

    The labour supply and retirement of older workers: an empirical analysis

    Get PDF
    This thesis examines the labour supply of older workers, their movement into retirement, and any movement out of retirement and back into work. In particular the labour force participation, labour supply and wage elasticity and other income elasticity of work hours are estimated for older workers and compared to younger workers. The thesis goes on to look at the movement into retirement for older workers as a whole by examining cohorts by gender, wave and age. The thesis also presents a descriptive and quantitative 鈥 examination of the changes in income and happiness that occur as an individual retires. Finally the thesis examines the reasons why an individual may return to work from v . retirement. The results of the findings suggest: that younger workers are significantly more responsive to wage and household income changes than older worker

    The company she keeps : The social and interpersonal construction of girls same sex friendships

    Get PDF
    This thesis begins a critical analysis of girls' 'private' interpersonal and social relations as they are enacted within two school settings. It is the study of these marginal subordinated worlds productivity of forms of femininity which provides the main narrative of this project. I seek to understand these processes of (best) friendship construction through a feminist multi-disciplinary frame, drawing upon cultural studies, psychoanalysis and accounts of gender politics. I argue that the investments girls bring to their homosocial alliances and boundary drawing narry a psychological compulsion which is complexly connected to their own experiences within the mother/daughter bond as well as reflecting positively an immense social debt to the permissions girls have to be nurturant and ; negatively their own reproduction of oppressive exclusionary practices. Best friendship in particular gives girls therefore, the experience of 'monogamy' continuous of maternal/daughter identification, reminiscent of their positioning inside monopolistic forms of heterosexuality. But these subcultures also represent a subversive discontinuity to the public dominance of boys/teachers/adults in schools and to the ideologies and practices of heterosociality and heterosexuality. By taking seriously their transmission of the values of friendship in their chosen form of notes and diaries for example, I was able to access the means whereby they were able to resist their surveillance and control by those in power over them. I conclude by arguing that it is through a recognition of the valency of these indivisiblly positive and negative aspects to girls cultures that Equal Opportunities practitioners must begin if they are serious about their ambitions. Methods have to be made which enable girls to transfer their 'private' solidarities into the 'public' realm, which unquestionably demands contesting with them the causes and consequences of their implication in the divisions which also contaminate their lives and weaken them

    Strung pieces: on the aesthetics of television fiction series

    Get PDF
    As layered and long works, television fiction series have aesthetic properties that are built over time, bit by bit. This thesis develops a group of concepts that enable the study of these properties, It argues that a series is made of strung pieces, a system of related elements. The text begins by considering this sequential form within the fields of film and television. This opening chapter defines the object and methodology of research, arguing for a non-essentialist distinction between cinema and television and against the adequacy of textual and contextual analyses as approaches to the aesthetics of these shows. It proposes instead that these programmes should be described as televisual works that can be scrutinised through aesthetic analysis. The next chapters propose a sequence of interrelated concepts. The second chapter contends that series are composed of building blocks that can be either units into which series are divided or motifs that unify series and are dispersed across their pans. These blocks are patterned according to four kinds of relations or principles of composition. Repetition and variation are treated in tandem in the third chapter because of their close connection, given that variation emerges from established repetition. Exception and progression are also discussed together in the fourth chapter since they both require a long view of these serial works. The former, in order to be recognised as a deviation from the patterns of repetition and variation. The latter, In order to be understood in Its many dimensions as the series advances. Each of these concepts is further detailed with additional distinctions between types of units, motifs, repetitions, variations, and exceptions, using illustrative examples from numerous shows. In contrast, the section on progression uses a single series as case study, Carniv脿le (2003-05), because this is the overarching principle that encompasses all the others. The conclusion considers the findings of the research and suggests avenues for their application

    Studies of strategic performance management for classical organizations theory & practice

    Get PDF
    Nowadays, the activities of "Performance Management" have spread very broadly in actually every part of business and management. There are numerous practitioners and researchers from very different disciplines, who are involved in exploring the different contents of performance management. In this thesis, some relevant historic developments in performance management are first reviewed. This includes various theories and frameworks of performance management. Then several management science techniques are developed for assessing performance management, including new methods in Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Soft System Methodology (SSM). A theoretical framework for performance management and its practical procedures (five phases) are developed for "classic" organizations using soft system thinking, and the relationship with the existing theories are explored. Eventually these results are applied in three case studies to verify our theoretical development. One of the main contributions of this work is to point out, and to systematically explore the basic idea that the effective forms and structures of performance management for an organization are likely to depend greatly on the organizational configuration, in order to coordinate well with other management activities in the organization, which has seemingly been neglected in the existing literature of performance management research in the sense that there exists little known research that associated particular forms of performance management with the explicit assumptions of organizational configuration. By applying SSM, this thesis logically derives some main functional blocks of performance management in 'classic' organizations and clarifies the relationships between performance management and other management activities. Furthermore, it develops some new tools and procedures, which can hierarchically decompose organizational strategies and produce a practical model of specific implementation steps for "classic" organizations. Our approach integrates popular types of performance management models. Last but not least, this thesis presents findings from three major cases, which are quite different organizations in terms of management styles, ownership, and operating environment, to illustrate the fliexbility of the developed theoretical framework

    Unpleasant actuarial arithmetic: fair contribution rates for defined benefit pension schemes

    Get PDF
    We derive key properties of the actuarially fair contribution rate for defined benefit (DB) schemes, that equates scheme assets to liabilities for any given scheme member. The unpleasant actuarial arithmetic of both increased life expectancy and (especially) negative real yields has resulted in a massive rise in the fair contribution rate over recent decades. At present there appears to be little prospect of these rises being reversed. We analyse the implications for the viability of DB schemes, and consider the (potentially significant) impact of incorporating systematic risk into benefits

    Las cafeter铆as de especialidad de Lima y sus relaciones transaccionales en respuesta a la pandemia de Covid-19

    Get PDF
    El crecimiento del sector gastron贸mico a inicios de este siglo gener贸 un contexto de dinamismo que muestra claramente la importancia del an谩lisis de las relaciones transaccionales entre las distintas firmas. Un caso particular de esto es el de las cafeter铆as de especialidad, que se caracterizan por el 茅nfasis en la calidad de las bebidas preparadas y la experiencia que se brinda al consumidor. Estos est谩ndares de calidad tienen como consecuencia una mayor importancia en el mantenimiento de relaciones transaccionales que garanticen el cumplimiento de las condiciones de la transacci贸n. Por otra parte, el presente contexto de pandemia y las distintas regulaciones a los establecimientos gastron贸micos provocan que las firmas de cara al consumidor requieran adaptar sus relaciones, en respuesta a los nuevos costos que surgen para fijar los par谩metros de las transacciones y para llegar a los consumidores. Tras una revisi贸n de la literatura sobre la Teor铆a de Costos de Transacci贸n, se plantea, entonces, que los establecimientos han visto cambios en sus relaciones transaccionales. Espec铆ficamente, se espera que se haya optado por relaciones menos costosas para el abastecimiento de caf茅 como respuesta a los mayores costos de entablar relaciones m谩s estrechas con los productores; y relaciones m谩s cercanas con los proveedores de servicios de entrega como respuesta a la mayor frecuencia del uso de estos servicios, resultante de las restricciones al servicio en sala. Para poner a prueba estas hip贸tesis, se propone dise帽ar una encuesta, cuya aplicaci贸n en conjunto con entrevistas semiestructuradas descubrir谩 informaci贸n sobre las relaciones transaccionales de las cafeter铆as de especialidad de Lima.The growth of the gastronomic sector at the start of the current century caused a context of great activity which clearly shows the importance of analyzing the transactional relations between firms. Regarding this, a particular case is that of specialty coffee shops, characterized by their emphasis in the quality of the brewed product as well as consumer experience. These quality standards give rise to a greater importance in building transactional relations that guarantee compliance with the terms of the agreement to transact. On the other hand, the current context of health crisis and the diverse set of regulations that seek to respond to it are events that consumer-facing firms have had to adapt to; this includes adapting their transactional relations to reach consumers and settle agreements. With Transaction Cost Economics as the basis for the analysis, it is justified to propose that firms have had to change their transactional relations. Specifically, establishments would opt for less costly transactions to acquire their supply of coffee, as the cost of closer of more formal relations rises; they would also form closer relations with delivery services, because of the higher frequency of these transactions in response to the diminished in-store capacity. To test these hypotheses, the proposal is to design a survey whose deployment, together with semi-structured interviews, will reveal information regarding the transactional relations of the specialty coffee shops in Lima
    corecore