1,063 research outputs found

    Temperature Reduction Technologies Meet Asphalt Pavement: Green and Sustainability

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    This Special Issue, "Temperature Reduction Technologies Meet Asphalt Pavement: Green and Sustainability", covers various subjects related to advanced temperature reduction technologies in bituminous materials. It can help civil engineers and material scientists better identify underlying views for sustainable pavement constructions

    Proceedings of SIRM 2023 - The 15th European Conference on Rotordynamics

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    It was our great honor and pleasure to host the SIRM Conference after 2003 and 2011 for the third time in Darmstadt. Rotordynamics covers a huge variety of different applications and challenges which are all in the scope of this conference. The conference was opened with a keynote lecture given by Rainer Nordmann, one of the three founders of SIRM “Schwingungen in rotierenden Maschinen”. In total 53 papers passed our strict review process and were presented. This impressively shows that rotordynamics is relevant as ever. These contributions cover a very wide spectrum of session topics: fluid bearings and seals; air foil bearings; magnetic bearings; rotor blade interaction; rotor fluid interactions; unbalance and balancing; vibrations in turbomachines; vibration control; instability; electrical machines; monitoring, identification and diagnosis; advanced numerical tools and nonlinearities as well as general rotordynamics. The international character of the conference has been significantly enhanced by the Scientific Board since the 14th SIRM resulting on one hand in an expanded Scientific Committee which meanwhile consists of 31 members from 13 different European countries and on the other hand in the new name “European Conference on Rotordynamics”. This new international profile has also been emphasized by participants of the 15th SIRM coming from 17 different countries out of three continents. We experienced a vital discussion and dialogue between industry and academia at the conference where roughly one third of the papers were presented by industry and two thirds by academia being an excellent basis to follow a bidirectional transfer what we call xchange at Technical University of Darmstadt. At this point we also want to give our special thanks to the eleven industry sponsors for their great support of the conference. On behalf of the Darmstadt Local Committee I welcome you to read the papers of the 15th SIRM giving you further insight into the topics and presentations

    Integrated Optical Fiber Sensor for Simultaneous Monitoring of Temperature, Vibration, and Strain in High Temperature Environment

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    Important high-temperature parts of an aero-engine, especially the power-related fuel system and rotor system, are directly related to the reliability and service life of the engine. The working environment of these parts is extremely harsh, usually overloaded with high temperature, vibration and strain which are the main factors leading to their failure. Therefore, the simultaneous measurement of high temperature, vibration, and strain is essential to monitor and ensure the safe operation of an aero-engine. In my thesis work, I have focused on the research and development of two new sensors for fuel and rotor systems of an aero-engine that need to withstand the same high temperature condition, typically at 900 °C or above, but with different requirements for vibration and strain measurement. Firstly, to meet the demand for high temperature operation, high vibration sensitivity, and high strain resolution in fuel systems, an integrated sensor based on two fiber Bragg gratings in series (Bi-FBG sensor) to simultaneously measure temperature, strain, and vibration is proposed and demonstrated. In this sensor, an L-shaped cantilever is introduced to improve the vibration sensitivity. By converting its free end displacement into a stress effect on the FBG, the sensitivity of the L-shaped cantilever is improved by about 400% compared with that of straight cantilevers. To compensate for the strain sensitivity of FBGs, a spring-beam strain sensitization structure is designed and the sensitivity is increased to 5.44 pm/ΌΔ by concentrating strain deformation. A novel decoupling method ‘Steps Decoupling and Temperature Compensation (SDTC)’ is proposed to address the interference between temperature, vibration, and strain. A model of sensing characteristics and interference of different parameters is established to achieve accurate signal decoupling. Experimental tests have been performed and demonstrated the good performance of the sensor. Secondly, a sensor based on cascaded three fiber Fabry-PĂ©rot interferometers in series (Tri-FFPI sensor) for multiparameter measurement is designed and demonstrated for engine rotor systems that require higher vibration frequencies and greater strain measurement requirements. In this sensor, the cascaded-FFPI structure is introduced to ensure high temperature and large strain simultaneous measurement. An FFPI with a cantilever for high vibration frequency measurement is designed with a miniaturized size and its geometric parameters optimization model is established to investigate the influencing factors of sensing characteristics. A cascaded-FFPI preparation method with chemical etching and offset fusion is proposed to maintain the flatness and high reflectivity of FFPIs’ surface, which contributes to the improvement of measurement accuracy. A new high-precision cavity length demodulation method is developed based on vector matching and clustering-competition particle swarm optimization (CCPSO) to improve the demodulation accuracy of cascaded-FFPI cavity lengths. By investigating the correlation relationship between the cascaded-FFPI spectral and multidimensional space, the cavity length demodulation is transformed into a search for the highest correlation value in space, solving the problem that the cavity length demodulation accuracy is limited by the resolution of spectral wavelengths. Different clustering and competition characteristics are designed in CCPSO to reduce the demodulation error by 87.2% compared with the commonly used particle swarm optimization method. Good performance and multiparameter decoupling have been successfully demonstrated in experimental tests

    A holistic review on fatigue properties of additively manufactured metals

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    Additive manufacturing (AM) technology is undergoing rapid development and emerging as an advanced technique that can fabricate complex near-net shaped and light-weight metallic parts with acceptable strength and fatigue performance. A number of studies have indicated that the strength or other mechanical properties of AM metals are comparable or even superior to that of conventionally manufactured metals, but the fatigue performance is still a thorny problem that may hinder the replacement of currently used metallic components by AM counterparts when the cyclic loading and thus fatigue failure dominates. This article reviews the state-of-art published data on the fatigue properties of AM metals, principally including SS--NN data and fatigue crack growth data. The AM techniques utilized to generate samples in this review include powder bed fusion (e.g., EBM, SLM, DMLS) and directed energy deposition (e.g., LENS, WAAM). Further, the fatigue properties of AM metallic materials that involve titanium alloys, aluminum alloys, stainless steel, nickel-based alloys, magnesium alloys, and high entropy alloys, are systematically overviewed. In addition, summary figures or tables for the published data on fatigue properties are presented for the above metals, the AM techniques, and the influencing factors (manufacturing parameters, e.g., built orientation, processing parameter, and post-processing). The effects of build direction, particle, geometry, manufacturing parameters, post-processing, and heat-treatment on fatigue properties, when available, are provided and discussed. The fatigue performance and main factors affecting the fatigue behavior of AM metals are finally compared and critically analyzed, thus potentially providing valuable guidance for improving the fatigue performance of AM metals.Comment: 201 pages, 154 figure

    A Combined Numerical and Experimental Approach for Rolling Bearing Modelling and Prognostics

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    Rolling-element bearings are widely employed components which cover a major role in the NVH behaviour of the mechanical systems in which they are inserted. Therefore, it is crucial to thoroughly understand their fundamental properties and accurately quantify their most relevant parameters. Moreover, their inevitable failure due to contact fatigue leads to the necessity of correctly describing their dynamic behaviour. In fact, they permit to develop diagnostic and prognostic schemes, which are heavily requested in the nowadays industrial scenario due to their increasingly important role in the development of efficient maintenance strategies. As a result, throughout the years several techniques have been developed by researchers to address different challenges related to the modelling of these components. Within this context, this thesis aims at improving the available methods and at proposing novel approaches to tackle the modelling of rolling-element bearings both in case of static and dynamic simulations. In particular, the dissertation is divided in three major topics related to this field, i.e. the estimation of bearing radial stiffness trough the finite-element method, the lumped-parameter modelling of defective bearings and the development of physics-based prognostic models. The first part of the thesis deals with the finite-element simulations of rolling-element bearings. In particular, the investigation aims at providing an efficient procedure for the generation of load-dependent meshes. The method is developed with the primary objective of determining the radial stiffness of the examined components. In this regard, the main contribution to the subject is the definition of mesh element dimensions on the basis of analytical formulae and in the proposed methodology for the estimation of bearing stiffness. Then, the second part describes a multi-objective optimization technique for the estimation of unknown parameters in lumped parameter models of defective bearings. In fact, it was observed that several parameters which are commonly inserted in these models are hardly measurable or rather denoted by a high degree of uncertainty. On this basis, an optimization procedure aimed at minimizing the difference between experimental and numerical results is proposed. The novelty of the technique lies in the approach developed to tackle the problem and its peculiar implementation in the context of bearing lumped-parameter models. Lastly, the final part of the dissertation is devoted to the development of physics-based prognostic models. Specifically, two models are detailed, both based on a novel degradation-related parameter, i.e. the Equivalent Damaged Volume (EDV). An algorithm capable of extracting this quantity from experimental data is detailed. Then, EDV values are used as input parameters for two prognostic models. The first one aims at predicting the bearing vibration under different operative conditions with respect to a given reference deterioration history. On the other hand, the objective of the second model is to predict the time until a certain threshold on the equivalent damaged volume is crossed, regardless of the applied load and the shaft rotation speed. Therefore, the original aspect of this latter part is the development of prognostic models based on a novel indicator specifically introduced in this work. Results obtained from all proposed models are validated through analytical methods retrieved from the literature and by comparison with data acquired on a dedicated test bench. To this end, a test rig which was set-up at the Engineering Department of the University of Ferrara was employed to perform two type of tests, i.e. stationary tests on bearings with artificial defects and run-to-failure tests on initially healthy bearings. The characteristics of acceleration signals acquired during both tests are extensively discussed.I cuscinetti a rotolamento sono componenti meccanici che influenzano in maniera considerevole il comportamento dinamico dei sistemi all’interno dei quali sono montati. Pertanto, Ăš di fondamentale importanza possedere strumenti atti alla stima dei loro parametri piĂč rilevanti e avere a disposizione modelli dedicati allo studio delle loro caratteristiche dinamiche. Questo aspetto Ăš di estrema importanza soprattutto nell’ottica dello sviluppo di schemi di diagnostica e prognostica, i quali sono sempre piĂč richiesti all’interno dello scenario industriale odierno. In questo contesto, questa tesi si propone di migliorare le tecniche numeriche giĂ  esistenti e di fornire nuovi approcci per la modellazione dei cuscinetti a rotolamento sia nel caso di problemi statici che dinamici. Nello specifico, il lavoro tratta in maniera dettagliata tre diversi argomenti relativi a questo tema, ossia la stima della rigidezza radiale tramite il metodo agli elementi finiti, la modellazione a parametri concentrati di cuscinetti con difetti e lo sviluppo di modelli di prognostica physics-based. La prima parte della tesi concerne la simulazione di cuscinetti a rotolamento tramite il metodo ad elementi finiti. In particolare, lo studio si propone di fornire una procedura per la generazione di griglie le cui dimensioni dipendano dal carico applicato. Il metodo Ăš sviluppato con l’obbiettivo di stimare in maniera computazionalmente efficace la rigidezza radiale del componente in esame. Pertanto, il contributo principale sul tema dato da questa prima parte riguarda il metodo analitico che permette di definire a priori le dimensioni degli elementi che costituiscono la mesh e la metodologia utilizzata per la stima della rigidezza. La seconda parte descrive una procedura di ottimizzazione multi obbiettivo per la stima dei parametri incogniti all’interno dei modelli a parametri concentrati di cuscinetti con difetti. Questa esigenza nasce dall’osservazione che numerosi parametri tipicamente inseriti in questa tipologia di modelli sono difficilmente misurabili oppure caratterizzati da un alto grado di incertezza. PerciĂČ, nella seconda parte viene introdotta una tecnica innovativa che consente di stimare i parametri di modello che minimizzano la differenza fra risultati numerici e sperimentali in diverse condizioni di funzionamento. Infine, l’ultima parte Ăš dedicata allo sviluppo di modelli di prognostica physics-based. A tal riguardo, vengono dettagliati due modelli basati su un nuovo indicatore di degrado del cuscinetto, denominato Equivalent Damaged Volume (EDV). Questo indicatore viene calcolato durante il funzionamento del cuscinetto tramite un algoritmo dedicato. I valori cosĂŹ ottenuti sono poi utilizzati come dati di input per i due modelli prognostici. Il primo mira a predire la vibrazione del cuscinetto in condizioni operative diverse rispetto ad una storia di degrado di riferimento. Diversamente, il secondo modello permette di prevedere il tempo rimanente prima del superamento di una soglia critica di volume equivalente danneggiato, indipendentemente da carico applicato e velocitĂ  di rotazione. Dunque, l’aspetto originale di quest’ultima parte ricade nello sviluppo di tecniche prognostiche basate su un nuovo indicatore introdotto ad-hoc in questo lavoro. I risultati ottenuti da tutti i modelli proposti sono validati grazie a metodi analitici di letteratura e a dati acquisiti in laboratorio per mezzo di un banco prova installato presso il Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’UniversitĂ  di Ferrara. Il banco prova Ăš stato utilizzato per realizzare due tipologie di prove, ossia test stazionari su cuscinetti che presentano difetti artificiali e prove di tipo run-to-failure su cuscinetti inizialmente sani. Le caratteristiche dei segnali di accelerazione acquisiti in entrambe le prove sono discussi in maniera esaustiva

    Applications and Properties of Magnetic Nanoparticles

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    This Special Issue aimed to cover the new developments in the synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoconstructs ranging from conventional metal oxide nanoparticles to novel molecule-based or hybrid multifunctional nano-objects. At the same time, the focus was on the potential of these novel magnetic nanoconstructs in several possible applications, e.g. sensing, energy storage, and nanomedicine

    Slip in radial cylindrical roller bearings and its influence on the formation of white etching cracks

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    UngĂŒnstige Betriebsbedingungen und unzureichende RadialkrĂ€fte fĂŒhren zu Schlupf in Radial-Zylinderrollenlagern. Das kann zu verschiedenen Ausfallmechanismen, wie Anschmierung, FressschĂ€den, Abplatzen und auch sogenannten White Etching Cracks (WEC) fĂŒhren, die bereits nach einem Bruchteil der berechneten Lagerlebensdauer auftreten können. In dieser Arbeit wird durch systematische Tests der Einfluss der Lagerbetriebsbedingungen (Radialkraft, Drehzahl und Öldurchfluss), sowie der AusfĂŒhrung des Lagers (Lager- und KĂ€figtyp, Material, FĂŒhrung und Toleranzklassen) auf die Entstehung des WĂ€lzkörper- und Satzschlupfs untersucht. Die WĂ€lzkörper vollrolliger Lager in der lastfreien Zone werden verzögert und sind in der Beschleunigungsphase einem vollstĂ€ndigen Rollenschlupf ausgesetzt. FĂŒr mit KĂ€fig ausgestattete Zylinderrollenlager ĂŒbertrifft der einteilige den zweiteiligen KĂ€fig durch eine geringere Schlupfneigung, besonders unter begrenztem Öldurchfluss. RollengefĂŒhrte KĂ€fige zwingen die Rollen dazu mit dem rotierenden Innenring zu interagieren, wodurch weniger Schlupf verursacht wird. Polyamid als KĂ€figwerkstoff bietet Gewichteinsparungen, wird aber bei hohen Lagertoleranzen nicht empfohlen, da es deformiert und somit einen höheren Schlupf bewirkt. Bei moderaten Lagertoleranzen tragen mehr Rollen zur BelastungsĂŒbertragung bei. Das kann zu höherem Rollenschlupf als bei hohen Toleranzen fĂŒhren, da verringerte TraktionskrĂ€fte auf die Rollen wirken. Wird ein Lager jedoch durch eine enge Toleranzklasse (TC) vorgespannt, kann der Schlupf unter jeglichen Betriebsbedingungen verhindert werden. Der Einfluss von Schlupf auf die Bildung von WEC am Innen- und Außenring eines Zylinderrollenlagers wurde in insgesamt vier Dauerlaufversuchen mit einem zweiphasigen Belastungsschema untersucht. WĂ€hrend der Niedriglastphase wird das Lager bei erhöhtem Schlupf betrieben und danach einer hohen Lastphase ausgesetzt, wĂ€hrend der ErmĂŒdungsrissfortschritt von WEC auftreten kann. Es wurde festgestellt, dass Betriebsbedingungen mit hohem Schlupf weniger kritisch fĂŒr die WEC-Bildung (an beiden Lagerringen) sind. Die sehr geringe Radialkraft, die in der Niedriglastphase aufgebracht wird, um einen hohen Schlupf zu ermöglichen, fĂŒhrt zu einer geringen FlĂ€chenpressung, die nicht WEC-kritisch ist. Ein weiterer Grund ist die lĂ€ngere Regenerationszeit zwischen zwei Überrollungen, die bei einem hohen Sollschlupf auftreten. Kritischer sind die dynamischen KraftverhĂ€ltnisse fĂŒr die stehenden Lagerringe. Sie wĂŒrden den Rollenschlupf unter der wechselnden Lastzonenbreite akkumulieren, was WEC-kritischer ist. Obwohl die vollrolligen Lager einen hohen Satzschlupf und 100%igen Rollenschlupf in der Lastzone erleiden, zeigten sie auch nach mehr als 3400 Teststunden, unter den fĂŒr KĂ€figlager sehr kritischen PrĂŒfbedingungen, keine Anzeichen eines WEC-Ausfalls.Unfavorable operating conditions and inadequate radial force cause slip to occur in radial cylindrical roller bearings. This can also lead to several failure mechanisms such as smearing, scuffing, spalling, and White Etching cracks (WEC) that can occur at a small percentage of the calculated bearing life. In this work, through systematic testing, the influence of the bearing operating conditions (radial force, speed, and lubricant flow rate) as well as the bearing’s design (bearing type, cage type, material, guidance as well as the clearance class) on the development of the roller- and the rolling set slip was studied. The rollers of the full complement bearing stall in the load-free zone, and they suffer from a 100% roller slip at the acceleration zone. For caged bearings, a single-part cage outperforms the two-part cages by having lower slip tendency under restricted oil flow rates. Cages that are roller-guided force the rollers to interact more with the rotating inner ring and thus suffer from an overall lower slip. For the cage material, Polyamide cages offer weight savings. However they are not recommended under elaborated clearance as they would deform and cause high slip. Under moderate clearance, more rollers contribute to the load transfer. This leads to higher roller slip than under higher clearance level due to the decrease in traction forces acting on each roller. However, preloading a bearing by using the TC clearance class while using a tight fitting for both rings my lead to the elimination of the slip under any operating conditions. The influence of slip on the formation of WEC on the inner and outer rings of a cylindrical roller bearing was studied by conducting a total of four endurance tests using a two-phase loading scheme. In the low-load phase, a slip-rich environment is introduced to the bearing during which lubricant smearing can take place. After that, a high load phase is introduced to the bearing during which, fatigue crack propagation of WEC is enabled. It was found that high-slip operating conditions are less critical for the WEC formation on both bearing rings. The very low radial force that must be used in the low load phase to allow such a high slip to occur would result in a low contact pressure that is not WEC-critical. Another reason is the longer regeneration time between two overrollings occurring at a high set slip. Dynamic force conditions are more critical for the stationary bearing rings. They would accumulate the roller slip under the changing load zone width which is more WEC-critical. Although suffering from high set slip and 100% roller slip in the load zone, full complement bearings didn’t show any sign of WEC failure even after testing them for more than 3400 hours under very critical testing conditions for caged bearings

    Review of advanced road materials, structures, equipment, and detection technologies

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    As a vital and integral component of transportation infrastructure, pavement has a direct and tangible impact on socio-economic sustainability. In recent years, an influx of groundbreaking and state-of-the-art materials, structures, equipment, and detection technologies related to road engineering have continually and progressively emerged, reshaping the landscape of pavement systems. There is a pressing and growing need for a timely summarization of the current research status and a clear identification of future research directions in these advanced and evolving technologies. Therefore, Journal of Road Engineering has undertaken the significant initiative of introducing a comprehensive review paper with the overarching theme of “advanced road materials, structures, equipment, and detection technologies”. This extensive and insightful review meticulously gathers and synthesizes research findings from 39 distinguished scholars, all of whom are affiliated with 19 renowned universities or research institutions specializing in the diverse and multidimensional field of highway engineering. It covers the current state and anticipates future development directions in the four major and interconnected domains of road engineering: advanced road materials, advanced road structures and performance evaluation, advanced road construction equipment and technology, and advanced road detection and assessment technologies
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