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    SW 100.02: Introduction to Social Welfare

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    SW 300.01: Human Behavior and Social Environment

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    SW 100.01: Introduction to Social Welfare

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    Lyophilized spore dispenser

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    A lyophilized spore dispenser is provided which produces a finely divided, monoparticulate cloud of bacterial spores. The spores are contained within a tightly sealed chamber, and a turbulator orifice connected to an air supply source provides a jet of air which stirs up the spores and causes the spores to be suspended in eddy currents within the chamber. This air jet also produces a positive pressure within the chamber which forces the spores out of an injection orifice

    SW 100.01: Introduction to Social Welfare

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    Summoning the wind: Hydrodynamic cooperation of forcibly ejected fungal spores

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    The forcibly launched spores of the crop pathogen \emph{Sclerotinia sclerotiorum} must eject through many centimeters of nearly still air to reach the flowers of the plants that the fungus infects. Because of their microscopic size, individually ejected spores are quickly brought to rest by drag. In the accompanying fluid dynamics video we show experimental and numerical simulations that demonstrate how, by coordinating the nearly simultaneous ejection of hundreds of thousands of spores,\emph{Sclerotinia} and other species of apothecial fungus are able to sculpt a flow of air that carries spores across the boundary layer and around intervening obstacles. Many spores are sacrificed to create this flow of air. Although high speed imaging of spore launch in a wild isolate of the dung fungus \emph{Ascobolus} shows that the synchronization of spore ejections is self-organized, which could lead to spores delaying their ejection to avoid being sacrificed, simulations and asymptotic analysis show that, close the fruit body, ejected spores form a sheet-like jet that advances across the fruit body as more spores are ejected. By ejecting on the arrival of the sheet spores maximize \emph{both} their range and their contribution to the cooperative wind.Comment: Submission to the DFD 2009 Gallery of Fluid Motio

    SW 100.01: Introduction to Social Welfare

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    SW 300.01: Human Behavior and Social Environment

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