690 research outputs found

    Famine, exchange networks, and the village community: a comparative analysis of the subsistence crises of the 1740s and the 1840s in Flanders

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    This article focuses on local agency in two near-famines in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Flanders. Our comparative analysis of the food crises of 1740 and 1845-1847 in Flanders exposes the local mechanisms of coping and protection, both in an informal and a formal way. The main thesis is that the impact of hunger crises in peasant societies is directly related to the level of stress absorption within the local village community. Our findings contradict the traditional vision of a more-or-less straightforward shift in famine crisis management from rural, local and informal to urban, supra-local and formal. The success of surmounting a food crisis has always had local roots

    Finding Value In Empire Of Cotton

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    The Chinese civil service

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    Annual lectures held in honor of George E. Morriso

    Scarcity in the Modern World

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    Scarcity in the Modern World brings together world-renowned scholars to examine how concerns about the scarcity of environmental resources such as water, food, energy and materials have developed, and subsequently been managed, from the 18th to the 21st century. These multi-disciplinary contributions situate contemporary concerns about scarcity within their longer history, and address recent forecasts and debates surrounding the future scarcity of fossil fuels, renewable energy and water up to 2075. This book offers a fresh way of tackling the current challenge of meeting global needs in an increasingly resource-stressed environment. By bringing together scholars from a variety of academic disciplines, this volume provides an innovative multi-disciplinary perspective that corrects previous scholarship which has discussed scientific and cultural issues separately. In doing so, it recognizes that this challenge is complex and cannot be addressed by a single discipline, but requires a concerted effort to think about its political and social, as well as technical and economic dimensions. This volume is essential for all students and scholars of environmental and economic history

    Bangladesh: Economic Growth in a Vulnerable Limited Access Order

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    Scarcity in the Modern World

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    Scarcity in the Modern World brings together world-renowned scholars to examine how concerns about the scarcity of environmental resources such as water, food, energy and materials have developed, and subsequently been managed, from the 18th to the 21st century. These multi-disciplinary contributions situate contemporary concerns about scarcity within their longer history, and address recent forecasts and debates surrounding the future scarcity of fossil fuels, renewable energy and water up to 2075. This book offers a fresh way of tackling the current challenge of meeting global needs in an increasingly resource-stressed environment. By bringing together scholars from a variety of academic disciplines, this volume provides an innovative multi-disciplinary perspective that corrects previous scholarship which has discussed scientific and cultural issues separately. In doing so, it recognizes that this challenge is complex and cannot be addressed by a single discipline, but requires a concerted effort to think about its political and social, as well as technical and economic dimensions. This volume is essential for all students and scholars of environmental and economic history

    Learning to Dream: Education, Aspiration, and Working Lives in Colonial India (1880s-1940s)

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    This thesis studies the relationship of the labouring poor with education and schooling in colonial India (1880s-1940s). It places this relationship in a complicated web of desires, intentions, and aspirations held by workers and their employers. Those who performed labour (artisans, agrarian labourers, factory-workers) and those who extracted labour (elites including factory employers, feudal elites, and colonial officials) had different expectations from the education system. The thesis centrally explores workers’ dreams of not wanting to be workers and not behaving as “workers” (the prescribed and expected identity of the labouring castes). I argue that these desires and dreams unfolded, became concrete, and were realized at the site of education, and took the form of aspirations for a non-labouring career. The educational site, however, due to its control by elites, was designed to retain workers as manual labour, while training, disciplining, and educating them to serve under various old and new regimes of labour (railway workshops, factories, missionary industries, artisanal workshops, agrarian farms). I have explored the successes, failures, and transformations of these contradictory desires and visions of workers and of elites, and have shown that various actors such as teachers, elite workers, female workers, the middle classes, and colonial officials often mediated and restructured these desires and visions at various levels. Childhood and the night, I argue, becomes the specific moments of working lives through which ideas and elements of these contradictory desires and visions were concretized. They become a site of contestation, with workers asserting their control over these times in order to realise their aspirations, and elites seeking to control these moments with the intention of producing a certain type of worker subjectivity that fit well with the logics of commodity production and labour extraction. Chapter 1 discusses the multiple desires and aspirations of Lucknow artisans, changes in their notions of childhood and night, and their relationship with the Lucknow Industrial School which sought to produce a trained and disciplined labour force for railway workshops and other modern industries. Chapter 2 narrates the experiences of Dalit agrarian labourers’ demand for education from missionaries, and their struggles to move out of a certain type of labouring regime. It also discusses the politics of Christian missionaries, Arya Samajis, and the Harijan Sevak Sangh, who all sought to keep “untouchables” tied to a labouring life. Chapter 3 describes the changing notions of childhood among factory workers and employers with regard to worker-children. I explore the histories of factory schools and workers’ demand for education as their “political right”. Chapter 4 unfolds the moment of the night as a site for workers to subvert the normative image of the worker. I study their attendance at night schools, night-time reading rooms and libraries, and their employers’ struggles to colonise workers’ nights and other leisure time. The thesis hopes to contribute to the history of labour, education, childhood, life-cycle, caste and class, Christian missions, poverty, leisure, and the reproduction of capitalist and conservative socio-economic order. It also opens up the field of proletarian childhood, working class literary culture, and the night as topics of research in the South Asian history

    Factors affecting learning effectiveness in international joint ventures (IJV): An empirical analysis of Indian IJVs

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    Increasing globalization of the business environment has prompted companies to form cross-border alliances. The need to form joint ventures is evident from the increase in the number of international joint ventures (IJV) in the US as well as in other nations. Researchers are also attempting to identify relationships that foster longevity in IJVs. This study contributes to the research in the field of IJVs by examining issues relating to the learning effectiveness of IJVs. Research (Harrigan, 1985; Kogut, 1998; Beamish, 1994) has shown that there are three main approaches for joint venture formation, which are transaction cost approach, strategic behavior approach, and organizational learning approach. This paper focused on the organizational learning approach. Inkpen (1995) states that learning does take place in all IJVs. It is, therefore, important to understand the variables that cultivate effective learning. This study examined learning effectiveness as being dependent on organizational culture, organizational trust, partner commitment to the IJV, age of the IJV, and cultural similarity between partners in the IJV. Literature has provided evidence that these variables are important contributors to the effectiveness of organizational learning (Fiol and Lyles, 1985; Simons, 1995; Sollman, 1995; Kramer and Tyler, 1996). This study was conducted on Indian IJVs. The data was collected from the top 1000 IJVs based on dollar sales in India (500 Asian and 500 non-Asian IJVs). The survey instrument, which consisted of a culture measure, a trust measure, a commitment measure, a learning effectiveness measure, and relevant open ended questions regarding age and cultural similarity, was administered through mail to the top Indian official in the IJV. Statistical analyses of 133 responses out of 1000 received from top-level Indian officials in Indian IJVs suggest that trust, commitment, age of the IJV, and organizational culture are all positively related to learning effectiveness in Indian IJVs. The findings also suggest differences in the level of trust and the level of commitment based on different types of organizational culture. The overall findings suggest that learning effectiveness is dependent on trust, commitment, age of the IJV, and the organizational culture of the Indian parent. This study also indicates that national cultural differences between the IJV partners do not seem to affect the level of learning that takes place in the Indian IJVs. This research will assist not only researchers in developing new theories and integrating old ones, but also help practitioners in understanding the role of organizational culture on learning effectiveness. Organizations can identify the types of culture that foster effective learning and attempt to incorporate them in order to succeed in learning from their partners. This research will also add to the literature that focuses on developing countries and encourage further research in other developing nations (e.g., Latin American nations and African nations). Finally, the study discusses the managerial implications of the findings and provides direction for future research

    Beyond “Austerity vs. Expansion”: Elements for a Structural Theory of Liquidity Policy

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    Recent years have been marked by a sustained, often inconclusive, debate between two opposing views of economic policy. Economists mainly concerned about the economic fluctuations associated with inflationary pressures, credit bubbles and bankruptcies, have turned to "austerity policies" as ways to restore confidence and make investment decisions attractive. On the other hand, other economists worried about deflationary pressures, liquidity shortages and unemployment have turned to expansionary policies designed to create a virtuous circle of consumer and investor confidence, leading to higher overall spending and self-sustaining growth. This article argues that a conceptual shift is needed to provide an adequate explanation of the fluctuations in a modern industrial economy and to provide effective guidance for stabilization and growth policy in the short and medium term. The article draws attention to the structural theory of economic fluctuations and crises formulated at the turn of the 20th century and suggests that this theory provides the conceptual elements needed to overcome the micro-macro dichotomy and understand the differentiated response patterns to shocks characterizing industrial economies. The article lays the groundwork for future discussions, highlighting the central role of aggregation levels and sectoral interdependencies as a mechanism for generating macroeconomic relations. It then examines the structural asymmetries that characterize economic dynamics, as well as the resulting opportunities and constraints of economic policy. The article concludes with the presentation of the elements of a structural theory of liquidity policy and its implications for the relationship between austerity and stimulation as a means of stabilization
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