111,268 research outputs found

    Computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in Nepalese mustard seed oil based on fatty acid composition

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    The experiment was carried out for the computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in the mustard seed oil using chemometric technique based on fatty acid composition. Principal component analysis and K-mean clustering of fatty acid composition data showed 4 major mustard/rapeseed clusters, two of high erucic and two of low erucic mustard type. Soybean and other possible adulterants made a distinct cluster from them. The methodology for estimation of soybean oil adulteration was developed based on weighted least square error principle using Microsoft Excel Solver program. This principle was successfully validated on the real soybean mustard oil blends. Moreover, the method was further evaluated on the 4000 training set and 3999 validation set simulated blends of mustard and soybean oil based on 212 fatty acid composition data. The blending was simulated with data from different literature from different part of the world along with data collected in our laboratory. The simulated blend consisted of random mixture of up to 16 samples. These are more extreme conditions than that can usually be expected in real scenario

    Hedging Break-Even Biodiesel Production Costs Using Soybean Oil Futures

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    The effectiveness of hedging volatile input prices for biodiesel producers is examined over one- to eight-week time horizons. Results reveal that hedging break-even soybean costs with soybean oil futures offers significant reductions in input price risk. The degree of risk reduction is dependent upon type of hedge, naïve or risk-minimizing, and upon time horizon. In contrast, cross-hedging break-even poultry fat costs with soybean oil futures failed to reduce input price risk.biodiesel, hedging, poultry fat, soybean oil, Agribusiness, Demand and Price Analysis, Environmental Economics and Policy,

    Determination of Soybean Oil, Protein and Amino Acid Residues in Soybean Seeds by High Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMRS) and Near Infrared (NIRS)

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    A detailed account is presented of our high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-NMR) and near infrared (NIR) calibration models, methodologies and validation procedures, together with a large number of composition analyses for soybean seeds. NIR calibrations were developed based on both HR-NMR and analytical chemistry reference data for oil and twelve amino acid residues in mature soybeans and soybean embryos. This is our first report of HR-NMR determinations of amino acid profiles of proteins from whole soybean seeds, without protein extraction from the seed. It was found that the best results for both oil and protein calibrations were obtained with a Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS-1) analysis of our extensive NIR spectral data, acquired with either a DA7000 Dual Diode Array (Si and InGaAs detectors) instrument or with several Fourier Transform NIR (FT-NIR) spectrometers equipped with an integrating sphere/InGaAs detector accessory. In order to extend the bulk soybean samples calibration models to the analysis of single soybean seeds, we have analized in detail the component NIR spectra of all major soybean constituents through spectral deconvolutions for bulk, single and powdered soybean seeds. Baseline variations and light scattering effects in the NIR spectra were corrected, respectively, by calculating the first-order derivatives of the spectra and the Multiplicative Scattering Correction (MSC). The single soybean seed NIR spectra are broadly similar to those of bulk whole soybeans, with the exception of minor peaks in single soybean NIR spectra in the region from 950 to 1,000 nm. Based on previous experience with bulk soybean NIR calibrations, the PLS-1 calibration model was selected for protein, oil and moisture calibrations that we developed for single soybean seed analysis. In order to improve the reliability and robustness of our calibrations with the PLS-1 model we employed standard samples with a wide range of soybean constituent compositions: from 34% to 55% for protein, from 11% to 22% for oil and from 2% to 16% for moisture. Such calibrations are characterized by low standard errors and high degrees of correlation for all major soybean constituents. Morever, we obtained highly resolved NIR chemical images for selected regions of mature soybean embryos that allow for the quantitation of oil and protein components. Recent developments in high-resolution FT-NIR microspectroscopy extend the NIR sensitivity range to the picogram level, with submicron spatial resolution in the component distribution throughout intact soybean seeds and embryos. Such developments are potentially important for biotechnology applications that require rapid and ultra- sensitive analyses, such as those concerned with high-content microarrays in Genomics and Proteomics research. Other important applications of FT-NIR microspectroscopy are envisaged in biomedical research aimed at cancer prevention, the early detection of tumors by NIR-fluorescence, and identification of single cancer cells, or single virus particles in vivo by super-resolution microscopy/ microspectroscopy

    IMPACTS OF CORN AND SOYBEAN MEAL PRICE CHANGES ON THE DEMAND AND SUPPLY OF U.S. BROILERS

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    This study examined factors that affected the prices of corn and soybean meal and the impact of these prices on market demand and supply for U.S. broilers. An econometric model consisting of four structural equations and one identity was formulated and estimated using quarterly data from 1976 to 1996. One of the results reveals that soybean meal price flexibilities with respect to soybean prices were highly elastic in both the short and long run. This means that changes in soybean prices have a relatively large effect on meal price. In contrast, meal price and oil price moved in opposite directions. An increase in oil price encourages an increase in crushing oilseeds, resulting in an increase in both oil and meal supply. In addition, results indicated that a sustained increase in corn and soybean meal prices will have an immediate impact on broiler quantities and prices.Demand and Price Analysis,

    Impacts of China's Food Consumption on U.S. Soybean Exports

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    A model examines how the international and China’s market prices impact China’s soybean imports from the U.S. and South America. Based on soybean crushing ratios and a market clearing presumption, an equation of China’s soybean oil import prices is designed to achieve the goal.China's Soybean Imports, U.S. Soybean Exports, South American Soybean Exports, Price Elasticities, Soybean Crushing Ratios, Marke Clear, GMM, Agribusiness, International Relations/Trade, Q17,

    Actual Media Reports on GM Foods and Chinese Consumers' Willingness to Pay for GM Soybean Oil

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    Information has been proven to have significant impacts on consumers' behavior and willingness to pay (WTP). In this study, information on GM soybean oil is given in the form of real-life cases involving GM food. These cases recorded from actual media reports. Using a hybrid of the double-bounded and payment care elicitation approaches, Chinese consumers' WTP for soybean oil is examined both before and after these cases are presented to them. Results indicate that media reports on positive cases do not increase consumers' WTP significantly, while reports on negative cases drastically lower their WTP.Chinese consumers, double-bounded, soybean oil, willingness to pay, Consumer/Household Economics, Demand and Price Analysis,

    Development of Novel Calibrations for FT-NIR Analysis of Protein, Oil, Carbohydrates and Isoflavones in Foods

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    The development of calibration methodology for novel FT-NIRS analysis of soybean-based foods is presented together with high-precision NIRS spectra and composition measurements in terms of proteins, oil and carbohydrates in soybean-based foods/soy foods.
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    Influence of oxidized oils on digestibility of caseins in O/W emulsions

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    The impact of lipid oxidation on protein modifications in emulsions and the consequences on protein digestibility remains unclear. In this study, this impact is evaluated in casein (6 mg mL(-1)) based emulsions containing oxidized soybean or fish oil (3%) in presence (0.3%) or absence of the emulsifier Tween 20. Emulsions are prepared using oils at three oxidation levels and subsequently the impact on protein digestibility is evaluated after 24 h incubation at 4 degrees C. Remarkably, protein digestibility increases in emulsions containing medium and highly oxidized fish oil: 70 +/- 0.4% and 73 +/- 0.4% of the proteins are digested, respectively, whereas protein digestibility in emulsions containing low oxidized fish oil amounted to 63 +/- 0.4%. Protein digestibility in emulsions containing soybean oil stabilized by Tween 20 is not influenced by the oxidation level of the oil used. A remarkable tendency is observed for the malondialdehyde content of the emulsions depending on the presence of Tween 20. For soybean oil based emulsions, malondialdehyde concentrations are consistently higher in the presence of Tween 20. On the other hand, for the fish oil based emulsions an opposite trend is observed, except at the highest oxidation level evaluated, for which no significant differences can be detected. It is concluded that the composition of the interface in emulsions depends strongly upon the degree of oil oxidation and the presence of other emulsifiers. If the oil is more oxidized, less protein is present in the interface restricting the impact of lipid oxidation products on the proteins and hence their digestibility

    Cointegration and Causality Analysis of World Vegetable Oil and Crude Oil Prices

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    Because of the recent soaring petroleum price and growing environmental concerns, biodiesel has become an important alternative fuel. Biodiesel is the mono alky esters made from a vegetable oil, such as soybean or rapeseed oil, or sometimes from animal fats. The escalation in world petroleum price has stimulated the demand for biodiesel, which consequently expanded the use of vegetable oils. This paper investigates the long-run interdependence between major edible oil prices and examines the dynamic relationship between vegetable and crude oil prices. The data consists of 378 weekly observations extending from the first week of January in 1999 to the fourth week of March in 2006. We apply time-series analytical mechanisms and directed acyclic graphs to four major traded edible oils prices, including soybean, sunflower, rapeseed and palm oils, along with one weighted average world crude oil price. Tentative results suggest one long-run cointegration relationship among those five oil prices. Also, the edible oil markets are well linked in contemporaneous time with the palm oil market initiating the new information; however, soybean oil price dominates the edible oil markets in the long run. The influence of crude oil price on edible oil prices is not significant over the study period.Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,

    Potentials of moringa (Moringa oleifera) seed oil in enhancing the nutritional quality and stability of soybean oil

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    Partial hydrogenation method has been used to improve the stability of soybean oil, though it results in the production of trans-fatty acid. The objective of this study was to establish the potential of moringa oil to improve the stability and nutritional quality of soybean oil. Oil samples were extracted from sundried soybean and Moringa seeds using Soxhlet extraction techniques. Soybean powder was mixed with Moringa powder at ratio 50:50 and 70:30, and the oil was extracted afterward. The fatty acid profile of the extracted oil from these blends was studied using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS) technique. The results showed that commercial soybean oil and the blended soybean/moringa oil of ratio 50:50 and 70:30 had a polyunsaturated fatty acid of 52.70%, 22.18% and 35.73 % respectively; monounsaturated fatty acid 27.22%, 46.61% and 58.79% respectively; saturated fatty acid 19.01%, 19.02% and 17.86% respectively. Also, trans-fatty acid (0.003-0.395%) was obtained in the commercial soybean oil sample. The blended soybean/moringa oil offers a better option than the use of partially hydrogenation in commercial soybean oil. Keywords: Moringa seed oil, soybean oil, partial hydrogenation, trans-fatty acid, Oil blending
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