16,517 research outputs found

    Analysis of Fall Incidence Rate and Risk Factors at a Tertiary Care Hospital Setting for Inpatient Neurological Care using the Morse Fall Scale: A Prospective Study

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    Introduction: Falls are the most common adverse events related to a patient safety in healthcare institutions. Falls during hospitalisation, particularly in inpatient rehabilitation facilities, are a common phenomenon among hospitalised individuals. The rationale of the present study is to reduce the incidence of falls by early identification of fall risk using an outcome measure. Aim: The aim of this study is to identify the fall incidence rate and associated factors responsible for falls in inpatients with neurological diseases using the Morse Fall Scale (MFS). Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 128 patients hospitalised in the Medicine and Neurosurgery Units of Justice KS Hegde Charitable Hospital in Mangaluru, Karnataka, Southern India. The study was conducted from March 2022 to March 2023. Factors were analysed through direct patient interviews, and fall risk scores were identified using the MFS during admission and discharge. Categorical variables were presented as frequency and percentage, while descriptive variables were presented as Mean±Standard Deviation. The pre-post comparison of the outcome measure was conducted using the Z-test. Results: The fall incidence rate in neurological inpatients was found to be 15 (11.7%), and the majority of the population belonged to moderate to high-risk of falls. During the hospitalisation period, 99 (77.3%) individuals had a fear of falling, while 29 (22.7%) did not have any fear of falling. Among the study population, 113 (88.3%) had no falls during their hospitalisation, while 15 (11.7%) experienced falls. The majority of subjects had a moderate risk of falls: 63 (49.2%) upon admission and 68 (53.1%) at discharge. There was a significant difference in the MFS scores between admission and discharge (p-value=0.024). Conclusion: The present study concludes that the MFS enables the identification of individuals at risk of falling. The variables related to these findings were the use of continuous medications, balance issues, fear of falling, followed by other factors such as age, length of hospital stay, previous hospitalisation, and sensory disorders

    Exploring farmers’ communication pattern and satisfaction regarding the adoption of Agromet advisory services in semi-arid regions of southern India

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    Agriculture is significantly impacted by the variability in weather patterns, imposing substantial constraints on farmers’ ability to make informed tactical and strategic decisions regarding their crops. Seasonal climate projections have shown potential for informing agricultural decisions, but the actual adoption of climate information by farmers has been relatively slow and limited. The present study was conducted with the objective of investigating the characteristics of adopters, the communication network, and the level of farmer’s satisfaction concerning the adoption and continued use of Agromet Advisories Services (AAS). Two semi-arid districts, namely Kurnool and Anantapur in Andhra Pradesh, were purposively selected, wherein 280 farmers constituted the sampling frame. In this study, social network analysis (SNA) was conducted to examine the peer-to-peer communication patterns, while importance-performance analysis (IPA) was employed to evaluate farmer’s satisfaction, contributing to the continued adoption of AAS. The findings revealed that with regard to personality and communication characteristics, farmers were in the low category for their ability to cope with uncertainties and risk and even for their information-seeking behavior. Furthermore, the results showed farmers to be highly satisfied with the overall adoption of AAS. However, the IPA matrix revealed that among the nine attributes, the credibility of the forecasts needed refinement to promote sustained adoption. Excessive emphasis was placed on attributes such as the frequency of forecasts, which could be channeled into other initiatives. Peer-to-peer communication emerged as a crucial strategy in the adoption of AAS. Governments, non-governmental organizations, and extension functionaries should make a concerted effort to enhance the continued adoption of AAS by involving local stakeholders in sharing and participating in climate information production, forming farmer’s groups, and focusing on farmers’ literacy toward AAS

    Differences in enteric methane emissions across four dairy production systems in the urbanizing environment of an Indian megacity

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    Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are rapidly urbanizing, leading to a high demand for high-quality animal products. Production increase is seen as a key to meeting this demand and reducing the global environmental impact of low-yielding dairy production system (DPS) often found in LMICs. Therefore, the present study assesses the relationship between enteric methane emissions and different dairy production strategies, taking DPS in the rural–urban interface of Bengaluru, an Indian megacity, as a case study. Twenty-eight dairy farms, evenly distributed across four DPS, were monitored for 1 year (eight visits at 6-week intervals). Following IPCC 2006 guidelines and a Tier 2 approach, enteric methane emissions from dairy cattle were calculated as carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2 eq). Dairy producers in ExtDPS, an extensive DPS found throughout the rural–urban interface of Bengaluru, fed their dairy cattle a high-quality diet, partly based on organic wastes from markets or neighbors, achieving 9.4 kg energy-corrected milk (ECM) per cow and day. Dairy producers in Semi-ADPS, a semi-intensive and rural DPS, fed an average quality diet and achieved the lowest milk production (7.9 kg ECM cow−1 day−1; p < 0.05). Dairy producers in Semi-BDPS, another semi-intensive and rural DPS, relied on average quality but more abundant feedstuffs and achieved a production of 10.0 kg ECM cow−1 day−1. A similar milk yield (10.1 kg ECM cow−1 day−1) was achieved by IntDPS, an intensive and rural DPS. The intensity of enteric methane emissions was the highest in Semi-BDPS (1.38 kg CO2-eq kg−1 ECM; p < 0.05), lowest in ExtDPS (0.79 kg CO2-eq kg−1 ECM; p < 0.05), and intermediate in semi-ADPS and IntDPS. The results highlight the close relationship between the intensity of enteric methane emissions and the intensification strategies chosen by dairy producers based on locally available resources. They also underline the importance of region- and system-specific environmental assessments of production systems in LMICs

    Assessing the Impact of Prime Age Composition and Biological Asset Intensity on Sustainable Growth: In Indonesia Agriculture Case

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    The study aims to examine the levels of sustainable growth influenced by the global climate, the prime age composition, the intensity of biological assets, and the certification of agricultural industry in Indonesia, which will provide an overview of the sensitivity of each factor to sustainable growth in the Company that will help in the development of the Company's future performance strategies that are synergistic with sustainability. The measurement method used in this study is the experimental quantitative method. The selection of samples for this study is based on the criteria that have been determined with the number of samples as many as 11 agricultural companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange (BEI). The results of the research conducted are the prime age composition, biological asset intensity, global climate change that moderates the composition of prime age and biological asset intensity, and plantation certification that moderates biological asset intensity has no significant effect on sustainable growth. Whereas certification that moderates the prime age composition has a significantly negative effect on the level of sustainable growth, this is due to the higher costs of demanding certification requirements. Other reasons that explain the variable's lack of effect are the influence of efficiency levels and management strategies, environmental development strategies of agricultural practices, and management factors which are believed to be more influential than the independent variables studied.The study aims to examine the levels of sustainable growth influenced by the global climate, the prime age composition, the intensity of biological assets, and the certification of agricultural industry in Indonesia, which will provide an overview of the sensitivity of each factor to sustainable growth in the Company that will help in the development of the Company's future performance strategies that are synergistic with sustainability. The measurement method used in this study is the experimental quantitative method. The selection of samples for this study is based on the criteria that have been determined with the number of samples as many as 11 agricultural companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange (BEI). The results of the research conducted are the prime age composition, biological asset intensity, global climate change that moderates the composition of prime age and biological asset intensity, and plantation certification that moderates biological asset intensity has no significant effect on sustainable growth. Whereas certification that moderates the prime age composition has a significantly negative effect on the level of sustainable growth, this is due to the higher costs of demanding certification requirements. Other reasons that explain the variable's lack of effect are the influence of efficiency levels and management strategies, environmental development strategies of agricultural practices, and management factors which are believed to be more influential than the independent variables studied

    Long-term land cover changes assessment in the Jiului Valley mining basin in Romania

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    Introduction: Highlighting and assessing land cover changes in a heterogeneous landscape, such as those with surface mining activities, allows for understanding the dynamics and status of the analyzed area. This paper focuses on the long-term land cover changes in the Jiului Valley, the largest mining basin in Romania, using Landsat temporal image series from 1988 to 2017.Methods: The images were classified using the supervised Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm incorporating four kernel functions and two common algorithms (Maximum Likelihood Classification - MLC) and (Minimum Distance - MD). Seven major land cover classes have been identified: forest, pasture, agricultural land, built-up areas, mined areas, dump sites, and water bodies. The accuracy of every classification algorithm was evaluated through independent validation, and the differences in accuracy were subsequently analyzed. Using the best-performing SVM-RBF algorithm, classified maps of the study area were developed and used for assessing land cover changes by post-classification comparison (PCC).Results and discussions: All three algorithms displayed an overall accuracy, ranging from 76.56% to 90.68%. The SVM algorithms outperformed MLC by 4.87%–8.80% and MD by 6.82%–10.67%. During the studied period, changes occurred within analyzed classes, both directly and indirectly: forest, built-up areas, mined areas, and water bodies experienced increases, whereas pasture, agricultural land, and dump areas saw declines. The most notable changes between 1988 and 2017 were observed in built-up and dump areas: the built-up areas increased by 110.7%, while the dump sites decreased by 53.0%. The mined class showed an average growth of 6.5%. By highlighting and mapping long-term land cover changes in this area, along with their underlying causes, it became possible to analyze the impact of land management and usage on sustainable development and conservation effort over time

    How do patients and providers navigate the “corruption complex” in mixed health systems? The case of Abuja, Nigeria.

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    INTRODUCTION: Over the last decades, scholars have sought to investigate the causes, manifestations, and impacts of corruption in healthcare. Most of this scholarship has focused on corruption as it occurs in public health facilities. However, in Nigeria, in which most residents attend private health facilities for at least some of their care needs, this focus is incomplete. In such contexts, it is important to understand corruption as it occurs across both public and private settings, and in the interactions between them. This study seeks to address this gap. It aims to examine how corruption is experienced by, and impacts upon, patients and providers as they navigate the “corruption complex” in the mixed health system of Abuja, Nigeria. OBJECTIVES: This over-arching aim is addressed via three interrelated objectives, as follows: 1.To investigate the experiences of patients and providers concerning the causes, manifestations, and impacts of corruption in public health facilities, in Abuja, Nigeria. 2.To investigate patients / provider experiences of corruption as they relate to private health facilities in Abuja, Nigeria. 3.To investigate how, and the extent to which, corruption is enabled by the co-existence of and interactions between public and private health facilities in the context of the mixed health system of Nigeria – and of Abuja in particular. METHODS: All three objectives are addressed via a qualitative exploratory study. Data was collected in Abuja, Nigeria’s Federal Capital Territory (between October 2021 to May 2022) through: (i) in-depth interviews with 53 key informants, representing a range of patient and provider types, and policymakers; and (ii) participant observation over eight months of fieldwork. The research took place in three secondary-level public health facilities (Gwarinpa, Kubwa, and Wuse General hospital) and three equivalent-sized private health facilities (Nissa, Garki, and King's Care Hospital) in Abuja. The empirical data was analysed using Braun and Clarke's (2006) reflexive thematic analysis approach and presented in a narrative form. Abuja was selected as the research setting, as the city is representative of the mixed health system structures that exist in Nigeria, especially in the country’s larger urban areas. RESULTS: Objective 1: Corruption in public health facilities is driven by a shortage of resources, low salaries, commercialisation of health and relationships between patients and providers, and weak accountability structures. Corruption takes various forms which include: bribery, informal payments, theft, influence- activities associated with nepotism, and pressure from informal rules. Impacts include erosion of the right to health care and patient dignity, alongside increased barriers to access, including financial barriers, especially for poorer patients. Objective 2: Corruption in private health facilities is driven by incentives aimed at profit maximisation, poor regulation, and lack of oversight. Corruption takes various forms which include: inappropriate or unnecessary prescriptions (often driven by the potential for kickbacks), forging of medical reports, over-invoicing, and other related types of fraud, and under/over-treatment of patients. Impacts include reductions to the quality of care provided and exacerbation of financial risks to patients. Objective 3: The nature of public-private sector interactions creates scope for several forms of corruption. For example, these interactions contribute to the causes of corruption in the public sector - especially the problem of scarcity of resources. Related manifestations include dual practice, absenteeism, and theft (e.g., diversion of patients, medical supplies, and equipment from public to private facilities). The impacts of such practices include inequities of access, for example, due to delays in and denials of needed services and additional financial barriers encountered in public facilities, alongside reductions to quality of care, pricing transparency and financial protection in private facilities. CONCLUSION: Patients experience corruption in both public and private health facilities in Abuja, Nigeria. The causes, manifestations and impacts of corruption differ across these settings. In the public sector, corruption creates financial and non-financial barriers to care – aggravating inequities of access. In the private health sector, corruption undermines quality of care and exacerbates financial risks. The public-private mix is itself implicated in the problem – giving rise to new opportunities for corruption, to the detriment of patients’ health and welfare. For policymakers in Nigeria to address the problem of corruption, a cross-sectoral approach - inclusive of the full range of providers within the mixed health system – will be required

    Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the people of Mosop, Nandi County in Kenya

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    Background: Throughout the history, nature has provided mankind with most of their basic needs, which include food, shelter, medicine, clothes, flavours, scents as well as raw materials. Given that they are an integral part of cultural heritage, medicinal plants have played a significant role in human healthcare systems around the world. Investigating various biological resources for use as medicines requires ethnomedicinal studies.Methods: Data on utilization of ethnomedicinal plants from local healers in Kenya’s Mosop Sub-County in Nandi County was documented through open-ended, semi-structured questionnaires. A number of quantitative indices, such as the Use Citation (UC), Informant Consensus Factor (ICF), Use Value (UV), Frequency of Citation (FoC) and Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC) were used to convey the potential medical benefits, vitality and variety of the ethnomedicine.Results: 102 informants provided information on 253 ethnomedicinal plant species, classified into 74 families. There were 249 native plant species identified, along with few exotic species: Senegalia senegal (L.) Britton, Persea americana Mill, Carica papaya L. and Solanum betaceum Cav. Of all recorded species, 32% and 27% were herbs and trees, respectively. Among plant parts, leaves were most frequently utilized (27%) and roots (26%), while decoctions (21%) were the most widely used formulations. The dominant family was Asteraceae, with 28 species, followed by Lamiaceae, with 19 species. The highest ICF value was 0.778 for a number of parasitic and infectious illnesses, including ringworms, athlete’s foot rot, tetanus, typhoid, intestinal parasites, abscesses, malaria, and amoebiasis. The study’s data validates the region’s widespread use of traditional medicinal plant remedies.Conclusion: The current study will lay a foundation of knowledge for future research investigations. The abundance of knowledge regarding ethnomedicinal species and their medicinal applications will stimulate further phytochemical and pharmacological research, which could lead to the discovery of potentially significant pharmaceuticals

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    Librarians’ Perceptions About Adoption and Uses of The Integrated Library Software

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    The main objective of this study was to investigate the factors that influenced the adoption of Koha-integrated library software by librarians in Sri Lankan universities and libraries and to examine the challenges that were encountered during the implementation process. Additionally, the study aimed to evaluate the librarians' perceptions of Koha's performance in Sri Lankan libraries. To gather data, a survey was conducted among a purposive sample of 75 university librarians in Sri Lanka. The results showed that librarians were attracted to Koha due to its multilingual support, desirable features, and functionality, popularity among professionals, and provision of the MARC 21 standard for cataloging. However, during the implementation process, librarians faced several challenges, including a lack of knowledge about operating systems, the complex process of migrating data from legacy systems, a lack of technical skills, and the need for a highly networked and integrated environment. Despite these challenges, the study found that librarians were generally satisfied with Koha's performance, particularly in the areas of circulation, cataloging, OPAC, and patron modules. The findings of this study can provide valuable insights for librarians who are considering implementing or using Koha in their libraries
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