13,750 research outputs found

    Short and long-read genome sequencing methodologies for somatic variant detection; genomic analysis of a patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

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    Recent advances in throughput and accuracy mean that the Oxford Nanopore Technologies PromethiON platform is a now a viable solution for genome sequencing. Much of the validation of bioinformatic tools for this long-read data has focussed on calling germline variants (including structural variants). Somatic variants are outnumbered many-fold by germline variants and their detection is further complicated by the effects of tumour purity/subclonality. Here, we evaluate the extent to which Nanopore sequencing enables detection and analysis of somatic variation. We do this through sequencing tumour and germline genomes for a patient with diffuse B-cell lymphoma and comparing results with 150 bp short-read sequencing of the same samples. Calling germline single nucleotide variants (SNVs) from specific chromosomes of the long-read data achieved good specificity and sensitivity. However, results of somatic SNV calling highlight the need for the development of specialised joint calling algorithms. We find the comparative genome-wide performance of different tools varies significantly between structural variant types, and suggest long reads are especially advantageous for calling large somatic deletions and duplications. Finally, we highlight the utility of long reads for phasing clinically relevant variants, confirming that a somatic 1.6 Mb deletion and a p.(Arg249Met) mutation involving TP53 are oriented in trans

    ISOWN: accurate somatic mutation identification in the absence of normal tissue controls.

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    BackgroundA key step in cancer genome analysis is the identification of somatic mutations in the tumor. This is typically done by comparing the genome of the tumor to the reference genome sequence derived from a normal tissue taken from the same donor. However, there are a variety of common scenarios in which matched normal tissue is not available for comparison.ResultsIn this work, we describe an algorithm to distinguish somatic single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in next-generation sequencing data from germline polymorphisms in the absence of normal samples using a machine learning approach. Our algorithm was evaluated using a family of supervised learning classifications across six different cancer types and ~1600 samples, including cell lines, fresh frozen tissues, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues; we tested our algorithm with both deep targeted and whole-exome sequencing data. Our algorithm correctly classified between 95 and 98% of somatic mutations with F1-measure ranges from 75.9 to 98.6% depending on the tumor type. We have released the algorithm as a software package called ISOWN (Identification of SOmatic mutations Without matching Normal tissues).ConclusionsIn this work, we describe the development, implementation, and validation of ISOWN, an accurate algorithm for predicting somatic mutations in cancer tissues in the absence of matching normal tissues. ISOWN is available as Open Source under Apache License 2.0 from https://github.com/ikalatskaya/ISOWN

    SNPredict: A Machine Learning Approach for Detecting Low Frequency Variants in Cancer

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    Cancer is a genetic disease caused by the accumulation of DNA variants such as single nucleotide changes or insertions/deletions in DNA. DNA variants can cause silencing of tumor suppressor genes or increase the activity of oncogenes. In order to come up with successful therapies for cancer patients, these DNA variants need to be identified accurately. DNA variants can be identified by comparing DNA sequence of tumor tissue to a non-tumor tissue by using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology. But the problem of detecting variants in cancer is hard because many of these variant occurs only in a small subpopulation of the tumor tissue. It becomes a challenge to distinguish these low frequency variants from sequencing errors, which are common in today\u27s NGS methods. Several algorithms have been made and implemented as a tool to identify such variants in cancer. However, it has been previously shown that there is low concordance in the results produced by these tools. Moreover, the number of false positives tend to significantly increase when these tools are faced with low frequency variants. This study presents SNPredict, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) detection pipeline that aims to utilize the results of multiple variant callers to produce a consensus output with higher accuracy than any of the individual tool with the help of machine learning techniques. By extracting features from the consensus output that describe traits associated with an individual variant call, it creates binary classifiers that predict a SNP’s true state and therefore help in distinguishing a sequencing error from a true variant

    A cancer cell-line titration series for evaluating somatic classification.

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    BackgroundAccurate detection of somatic single nucleotide variants and small insertions and deletions from DNA sequencing experiments of tumour-normal pairs is a challenging task. Tumour samples are often contaminated with normal cells confounding the available evidence for the somatic variants. Furthermore, tumours are heterogeneous so sub-clonal variants are observed at reduced allele frequencies. We present here a cell-line titration series dataset that can be used to evaluate somatic variant calling pipelines with the goal of reliably calling true somatic mutations at low allele frequencies.ResultsCell-line DNA was mixed with matched normal DNA at 8 different ratios to generate samples with known tumour cellularities, and exome sequenced on Illumina HiSeq to depths of >300√ó. The data was processed with several different variant calling pipelines and verification experiments were performed to assay >1500 somatic variant candidates using Ion Torrent PGM as an orthogonal technology. By examining the variants called at varying cellularities and depths of coverage, we show that the best performing pipelines are able to maintain a high level of precision at any cellularity. In addition, we estimate the number of true somatic variants undetected as cellularity and coverage decrease.ConclusionsOur cell-line titration series dataset, along with the associated verification results, was effective for this evaluation and will serve as a valuable dataset for future somatic calling algorithm development. The data is available for further analysis at the European Genome-phenome Archive under accession number EGAS00001001016. Data access requires registration through the International Cancer Genome Consortium's Data Access Compliance Office (ICGC DACO)

    VarDict: a novel and versatile variant caller for next-generation sequencing in cancer research

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    Accurate variant calling in next generation sequencing (NGS) is critical to understand cancer genomes better. Here we present VarDict, a novel and versatile variant caller for both DNA- and RNA-sequencing data. VarDict simultaneously calls SNV, MNV, InDels, complex and structural variants, expanding the detected genetic driver landscape of tumors. It performs local realignments on the fly for more accurate allele frequency estimation. VarDict performance scales linearly to sequencing depth, enabling ultra-deep sequencing used to explore tumor evolution or detect tumor DNA circulating in blood. In addition, VarDict performs amplicon aware variant calling for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based targeted sequencing often used in diagnostic settings, and is able to detect PCR artifacts. Finally, VarDict also detects differences in somatic and loss of heterozygosity variants between paired samples. VarDict reprocessing of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Lung Adenocarcinoma dataset called known driver mutations in KRAS, EGFR, BRAF, PIK3CA and MET in 16% more patients than previously published variant calls. We believe VarDict will greatly facilitate application of NGS in clinical cancer research

    The driver landscape of sporadic chordoma.

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    Chordoma is a malignant, often incurable bone tumour showing notochordal differentiation. Here, we defined the somatic driver landscape of 104 cases of sporadic chordoma. We reveal somatic duplications of the notochordal transcription factor brachyury (T) in up to 27% of cases. These variants recapitulate the rearrangement architecture of the pathogenic germline duplications of T that underlie familial chordoma. In addition, we find potentially clinically actionable PI3K signalling mutations in 16% of cases. Intriguingly, one of the most frequently altered genes, mutated exclusively by inactivating mutation, was LYST (10%), which may represent a novel cancer gene in chordoma.Chordoma is a rare often incurable malignant bone tumour. Here, the authors investigate driver mutations of sporadic chordoma in 104 cases, revealing duplications in notochordal transcription factor brachyury (T), PI3K signalling mutations, and mutations in LYST, a potential novel cancer gene in chordoma

    Towards Better Understanding of Artifacts in Variant Calling from High-Coverage Samples

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    Motivation: Whole-genome high-coverage sequencing has been widely used for personal and cancer genomics as well as in various research areas. However, in the lack of an unbiased whole-genome truth set, the global error rate of variant calls and the leading causal artifacts still remain unclear even given the great efforts in the evaluation of variant calling methods. Results: We made ten SNP and INDEL call sets with two read mappers and five variant callers, both on a haploid human genome and a diploid genome at a similar coverage. By investigating false heterozygous calls in the haploid genome, we identified the erroneous realignment in low-complexity regions and the incomplete reference genome with respect to the sample as the two major sources of errors, which press for continued improvements in these two areas. We estimated that the error rate of raw genotype calls is as high as 1 in 10-15kb, but the error rate of post-filtered calls is reduced to 1 in 100-200kb without significant compromise on the sensitivity. Availability: BWA-MEM alignment: http://bit.ly/1g8XqRt; Scripts: https://github.com/lh3/varcmp; Additional data: https://figshare.com/articles/Towards_better_understanding_of_artifacts_in_variating_calling_from_high_coverage_samples/981073Comment: Published versio
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