374 research outputs found

    The Megaric Possibility Paradox

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    In Metaphysics Theta 3 Aristotle attributes to the Megarics and unknown others a notorious modal thesis: (M) something can ŌÜ only if it is ŌÜ-ing. Aristotle does not tell us what motivated (M). Almost all scholars take Aristotle‚Äôs report to indicate that the Megarics defended (M) as a highly counterintuitive doctrine in modal metaphysics. But this reading faces several problems. First: what would motivate the Megarics to hold such a counterintuitive view? The existing literature tries, in various ways, to motivate (M) in a way neither trivial nor absurd. But, as we will argue, the main approaches end up attributing an unsustainable position to the Megarics. Second: most historical evidence for the Megaric lineage presents the group‚Äôs philosophical practice as dialectical or negative. So why think that the claim reported in Theta 3 presents a positive, and highly controversial, metaphysical claim? This paper addresses these problems by proposing a dialectical (or negative) reading of the Megarics in Theta 3. By ‚Äėdialectical‚Äô we here mean a mode of philosophizing that neither seeks to establish the truth or falsity of certain theses, nor takes a skeptical stance. There are different reasons why a philosopher might want to take up such a mode; in the case of the Megarics we argue that they might have wanted to put pressure on Aristotle‚Äôs idea of possibility and the ‚Äėtest‚Äô for possibility that Aristotle mentions in several works. Reading, as we do, (M) as (part of) a paradox about possibility and actuality, we argue that the Megarics‚Äô dialectical approach here aims to highlight a shortcoming of an intuitive conception of possibility, which underpins Aristotle‚Äôs idea of possibility and which features in his test for possibility

    Certain Aspects of the Limits of Socratic Dialogue in Moral Education

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    The main aim of our paper is to identify the potential limits of Socratic dialogue in moral education. These limits will be identified using a) the original ancient writings preserving several versions of Socrates’ dialogue, and b) modern writing on the Socrates’ dialogue in moral education. We will determine whether these limits are to be found in the writing of Plato or Xenophon, or rather in the problems and paradoxes of this type of education. We assume that a historical exploration of the original Socratic philosophy will help us to more easily identify the limits and problems in moral education. However, our intention is not to reject the Socratic dialogue as such, but merely to point out some of the potentially controversial aspects of its use in moral education.The main aim of our paper is to identify the potential limits of Socratic dialogue in moral education. These limits will be identified using a) the original ancient writings preserving several versions of Socrates’ dialogue, and b) modern writing on the Socrates’ dialogue in moral education. We will determine whether these limits are to be found in the writing of Plato or Xenophon, or rather in the problems and paradoxes of this type of education. We assume that a historical exploration of the original Socratic philosophy will help us to more easily identify the limits and problems in moral education. However, our intention is not to reject the Socratic dialogue as such, but merely to point out some of the potentially controversial aspects of its use in moral education

    The Indisputable Fact of the Baptism: The Problematic Consensus on John’s Baptism of Jesus

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    As there is now an emerging ‚ÄúQuest‚ÄĚ for the historical John the Baptist, it is important to look at how previous quests have treated his baptism of Jesus. Often regarded as a virtually indisputable fact of history, the baptism is asserted almost blindly without any argumentation or with only a few minimal points in its favor. In this essay, the case for the baptism is briefly evaluated and found to be entirely lacking, hinged instead on problematic assumptions and errant uses of the criteria of authenticity. Disavowing these uses, there instead emerges a rather simple set of arguments in favor of the baptism being ahistorical. It is argued that we do not have enough evidence to find the baptism historical, which has drastic ramifications on those attempting to produce biographies of both Jesus and John

    Peter Abelard’s Scito te ipsum facing Christian Socratism

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    Tal como √Čtienne Gilson se√Īal√≥, el siglo XII asiste a lo que denomin√≥ ‚Äúsocratismo cristiano‚ÄĚ: una revalorizaci√≥n te√≥rica y pr√°ctica de la sentencia d√©lfica ‚ÄúNosce te ipsum‚ÄĚ. Uno de los fil√≥sofos que suele ser incluido en esta corriente es Pedro Abelardo, autor de una obra llamada Scito te ipsum (Con√≥cete a ti mismo). Rainer Ilgner, sin embargo, guiado por un esp√≠ritu primordialmente filol√≥gico, ha denunciado que el maestro palatino no hizo m√°s que ‚Äúusurpar‚ÄĚ la m√°xima a partir de la cual pensadores como Hugo de San V√≠ctor o Bernardo de Claraval s√≠ edificaron sus respectivas propuestas morales. Nuestro objetivo principal, pues, es contrastar su tesis desde un punto de vista filos√≥fico. Para ello, hemos dividido este art√≠culo en dos grandes momentos: en el primero, explicaremos en qu√© consiste el socratismo cristiano y cu√°l es la relaci√≥n que, seg√ļn diferentes autores, guardar√≠a con √©l la teor√≠a √©tica de Abelardo; en un segundo momento, realizaremos un an√°lisis filos√≥fico de las principales premisas de la teor√≠a √©tica abelardiana de modo tal que nos permita corroborar o refutar la acusaci√≥n de Ilgner.As √Čtienne Gilson held up, during the 12th century arose a movement he called ‚ÄúChristian Socratism‚ÄĚ: a practical and theoretical appreciation of the Delphic Sentence ‚ÄúNosce te ipsum‚ÄĚ. A philosopher usually included in its ranks is Peter Abelard, author of a work named Scito te ipsum (Know Yourself). Nonetheless, Rainer Ilgner, guided mainly by a philological spirit, accused him of having usurped that maxim, on which authors such Hugh of St. Victor or Bernard of Clairvaux did base their respective moral proposals. The main purpose of this paper is to contrast Ilgner‚Äôs thesis from a philosophical approach. To do this, the article is divided into two major sections: in the first one, I will explain what Christian Socratism consists of and how ‚ÄĒaccording to different authors‚ÄĒ Abelard‚Äôs Ethics would be related to this; in the second one, I will do a philosophical analysis of the main Abelardian ethical premises to be able to corroborate or refuse Ilgner‚Äôs accusation

    Wearing Virtue: Plato’s Republic V, 449a-457b and the Socratic Debate on Women’s Nature

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    In Plato’s Republic V, 449a-457b, Socrates argues that the guardian class of Kallipolis will comprise both men and women and that women with the appropriate nature ought to receive the same education and fulfill the same tasks as their male counterparts. In this article I argue, against competing interpretations of this claim as dependent either on the necessity of abolishing the oikos or on eugenic principles, that Socrates’ argument ought to be understood as a genuine argument about women’s natural capabilities and ought to be interpreted in light of the Socratic debate about women’s virtues. Moreover, I show that the legal language mobilized, combined with polemical references to Aristophanes, serves the purpose of evoking Socrates’ trial, thus alerting the reader to the seriousness of the proposal in question

    The Tragedy of the Self:Lectures on Global Hermeneutics

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    Why do human beings interpret their overall experience in terms of selfhood? How was the notion and sense of self shaped at different times and in different cultures? What sort of problems or paradoxes did these constructions face? These lectures address these and related questions by sketching a roadmap of possible theoretical avenues for conceiving of the self, bringing to the foreground its soteriological implications, while also testing this theoretical outlook against insights offered by various disciplines. Exploring the crosscultural spectrum of possible ways of conceiving of the self invites the more existential question of whether any of these possibilities might offer resources for dealing with the tragedies of today’s world, or maybe even saving it from some of them

    Nietzsche’s Ecce homo, Notebooks and Letters: 1888-1889

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    Nietzsche‚Äôs Ecce homo, Notebooks and Letters: 1888-1889 / Translation by Daniel Fidel Ferrer. ¬©2023 Daniel Fidel Ferrer. All rights reserved. Ecce homo: How One Becomes What One Is (Ecce homo: Wie man wird, was man ist). Who should read Nietzsche? You can disagree with everything Nietzsche wrote and re-read Nietzsche to sharpen your attack. Philosophy. Not for use without adult supervision (required). Philosophy is a designated area for adults only. Read at your own risk. You have the pleasure of reading and of course disagree with all philosophy. Warning philosophical ideas are present. Reading Nietzsche does not mean you will gain anything, in fact, you might lose your previous ideas. Nietzsche does not call this book an autobiography (he has written many short autobiographical sketches before); but rather, uses the expression ‚ÄúI tell myself my life‚ÄĚ. Nietzsche was the past philosopher who wrote about our future, ‚ÄúThe time is coming when the struggle for the domination of the earth will be waged - it will be waged in the name of basic philosophical doctrines.‚ÄĚ KGWB/NF-1881, 11[273]. The world has seen plenty of wars and death, since 1881. The process of the domination of the earth and world is still on-going. What is Nietzsche‚Äôs overall project with Ecce homo? Main Leitmotifs in Ecce homo. Christianity as the denial of the will to life, revaluation of all values (Umwerthung aller Werthe), Amor fati, Dionysus as a god and his philosophy (future project for Nietzsche), overthrowing idols, two worlds (‚Äútrue world" finally became a fable) against Plato eternal world and forms, eternal recurrence or the eternal return of the same (Nietzsche heaviest thought, also his most abysmal thought ‚Äúabgr√ľndlichsten Gedanken‚ÄĚ), opposite and counterpart to type of person decadent (d√©cadent), ‚ÄúI count the overcoming of pity among the noble virtues‚ÄĚ, against the concept of God (Christian), overman or superman (√úbermensch), Will to Power (Wille zur Macht), great politics, immoralist, morality of the Christian church, and Declaration of war (‚ÄúKriegserkl√§rung‚ÄĚ). Table of Contents Motto [page 3]. Epigraph [pages 4-6]. Preface to the Translation of Ecce homo [pages 7-16] Major Leitmotifs in Nietzsche [pages 17-24]. Translations from Nietzsche‚Äôs German to English include. 1). Ecce homo: How One Becomes What One Is (Ecce homo: Wie man wird, was man ist. [pages 25-113]. 2). This poem was included in the first publications of Ecce homo (1908). Glory and Eternity (Ruhm und Ewigkeit). [pages 114-124]. 3). These are all of Nietzsche‚Äôs last notebooks (complete) they are numbered 21, 22, 23, and 24. There are a total of 82 notes. Final notes by Nietzsche from the Nachlass (Nachla√ü). Sometime in German called the Notizheft. Nietzsche‚Äôs notebooks that include some drafts for Ecce homo and other topics he was thinking during his last writings. Dating from October 1888 until early Janurary 1889. [pages 125-191]. 4). Nietzsche‚Äôs Letters Regarding Ecce homo. Nietzsche‚Äôs letters starting at the end of October 1888 discussing Ecce homo. These are not always the complete letters but include all of the passages of Nietzsche discussing Ecce homo. Complete translation of the last letter Nietzsche wrote. Dated until BVN-1889. #1256. Letter to Jacob Burckhardt in Basel. Turin, about 6 January 1889. [pages 192-223]. Bibliographies [pages 224-254]. Nietzsche‚Äôs Philosophy Final Thoughts [pages 255-259]. Enjoy reading Nietzsche's last book

    In the absence of God: case studies on the use and value of Nietzsche in avant-gardist thought 1905-1945

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    This thesis considers how Nietzsche was interpreted and misinterpreted by a range of artists and writers who were prominent in avant-garde circles in the first half of the twentieth century. Through a series of case studies, I address Nietzsche‚Äôs reception among a variety of avant-gardists, and the effect of his thought on their overall milieux and personal projects. I ask what were the conditions that made his philosophy so appealing and useful for these figures‚ÄĒeven in cases of misuse/misinterpretation. With the prominence of fascism growing in Western Europe in these years, a further complication of cultural political context affected his reception and interpretation due to the appropriation of his philosophy by fascist thinkers, and I therefore also ask how this altered his use among avant-gardists of varying political affections. The principal avantgardists studied are, in sequence, Wassily Kandinsky, Hugo Ball, Richard Huelsenbeck, F.T Marinetti, Wyndham Lewis, Georges Bataille, and Andr√© Masson

    What is power? The future geo-philosophy of Europe according to the late Nietzsche

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    This paper consists of two sections. In the first I will describe the characteristics power must possess, according to Nietzsche, in order to foster a true spiritual growth, namely, to establish aristocratic values and make them prosper, while in the second I will outline which prospects Nietzsche wishes for the future of Europe. The two are clearly intertwined, given that, in the eyes of Nietzsche, Europe is the very embodiment of the aristocratic ideal

    Dioniso contra Sócrates: notas sobre metafísica, otimismo e pessimismo em O nascimento da tragédia de Friedrich Nietzsche

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    This paper aims to expose the Dionysian contradoutrine to optimism from the discussion of the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche's interpretation of Socrates in the book The Birth of Tragedy. Our discussion brings into perspective the Nietzschean critique of the so-called aesthetic Socratism, which places Socratic philosophy far from its proposal for the Dionysian in art. To this end, we reconstruct Nietzsche's arguments and investigate their scope, as well as present Paul de Man's considerations on the emerging tension. As a conclusion, we point to the scope of the concepts of pessimism and optimism within the constructed scope.¬†Este artigo tem o objetivo de expor a contra doutrina dionis√≠aca ao otimismo a partir da discuss√£o sobre a interpreta√ß√£o que o fil√≥sofo Friedrich Nietzsche faz de S√≥crates no livro O nascimento da trag√©dia. Nossa discuss√£o traz em perspectiva a cr√≠tica nietzschiana ao denominado socratismo est√©tico, o qual coloca a filosofia socr√°tica longe da sua proposta para o dionis√≠aco na arte. Para tanto, reconstru√≠mos os argumentos de Nietzsche e investigamos o alcance dos mesmos, como tamb√©m apresentamos as considera√ß√Ķes de Paul de Man sobre a tens√£o emergente. Como conclus√£o, apontamos para a abrang√™ncia dos conceitos de pessimismo e otimismo dentro do escopo constru√≠do.
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