11,623 research outputs found

    Prevalence, awareness and reporting of symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea among hospitalized adult patients in Nigeria: A multicenter study

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    Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea is the most common form of sleep- disordered breathing in adults and children. It is associated with many adverse  health consequences. The objectives this study were to determine the prevalence, awareness and reporting of symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea among  hospitalized adult patients in Nigeria.Methods: This was a multicenter cross-sectional study involving 1420 adult patients admitted to general medical and surgical wards of selected hospitals from March to April 2013. A questionnaire embedded with Berlin questionnaire, Epworth sleepiness scale and questions on level of awareness and reporting of symptoms of sleep apnoea was used for data collection.Results: One-third of the patients (33.4%) reported snoring, 16.3% had excessive daytime sleepiness, 10.0% experienced daytime fatigue, and 8.0% experienced  drowsy driving. Approximately 5% reported witnessed apnoea and 18.0% had high risks for obstructive sleep apnoea. The frequency of high risk for sleep apnoea  increased with age and declined after 65 years and also increased with the body  mass index. Snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness and high risk for obstructive  sleep apnoea were more common in patients with chronic medical conditions and  who were admitted to the urban hospitals. The majority were not aware that snoring (77.3%) and excessive daytime sleepiness (65.8%) constitute a medical problem, and only 4.5% reported these symptoms to their doctors.Conclusions: The level of awareness and under-reporting of sleep apnoea symptoms are poor. The high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea symptoms from this study should form the basis for screening hospitalized patients with chronic medical condition across the country.Keywords: Obstructive sleep apnoea, Nigeria, Snoring, Prevalence, Awareness, Under-reportin

    Sleep-disordered breathing-do we have to change gears in heart failure?

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    The majority of patients with heart failure have sleep-disordered breathing (SDB)-with central (rather than obstructive) sleep apnoea becoming the predominant form in those with more severe disease. Cyclical apnoeas and hypopnoeas are associated with sleep disturbance, hypoxaemia, haemodynamic changes, and sympathetic activation. Such patients have a worse prognosis than those without SDB. Mask-based therapies of positive airway pressure targeted at SDB can improve measures of sleep quality and partially normalise the sleep and respiratory physiology, but recent randomised trials of cardiovascular outcomes in central sleep apnoea have been neutral or suggested the possibility of harm, likely from increased sudden death. Further randomised outcome studies (with cardiovascular mortality and hospitalisation endpoints) are required to determine whether mask-based treatment for SDB is appropriate for patients with chronic systolic heart failure and obstructive sleep apnoea, for those with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, and for those with decompensated heart failure. New therapies for sleep apnoea-such as implantable phrenic nerve stimulators-also require robust assessment. No longer can the surrogate endpoints of improvement in respiratory and sleep metrics be taken as adequate therapeutic outcome measures in patients with heart failure and sleep apnoea

    Obstructive sleep apnoea in obese adolescents and cardiometabolic risk markers

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    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT: In paediatric patients, obstructive sleep apnoea is associated with adiposity, especially visceral adiposity. In adults, obstructive sleep apnoea is also associated with a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. There are limited and conflicting paediatric studies examining the association between obstructive sleep apnoea and biomarkers of risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in youth. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: Obstructive sleep apnoea is linked with greater cardiometabolic risk markers in obese adolescents. Fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance may be especially linked with obstructive sleep apnoea among obese male Hispanic adolescents. The relationship between obstructive sleep apnoea and cardiometabolic abnormalities in obese adolescents should be considered when evaluating patients found to have obstructive sleep apnoea. BACKGROUND: Paediatric studies examining the association between obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and insulin sensitivity/cardiometabolic risk are limited and conflicting. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine if cardiometabolic risk markers are increased among obese youth with obstructive sleep apnoea as compared with their equally obese peers without OSA. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 96 patients (age 14.2‚ÄȬĪ‚ÄČ1.4 years) who underwent polysomnography for suspected OSA. Fasting lipids, glucose, insulin and haemoglobin A1 c (HbA1 c) were performed as part of routine clinical evaluation. Patients were categorized into two groups by degree of OSA as measured by the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI): none or mild OSA (AHI‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ5) and moderate or severe OSA (AHI‚ÄČ‚Č•‚ÄČ5). RESULTS: Despite the similar degrees of obesity, patients with moderate or severe OSA had higher fasting insulin (P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.037) and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR [P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.0497]) as compared with those with mild or no OSA. After controlling for body mass index, there was a positive association between the AHI and log‚ÄČHOMA-IR (P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.005). There was a positive relationship between arousals plus awakenings during the polysomnography and fasting triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS: OSA is linked with greater cardiometabolic risk markers in obese youth

    Sleep apnoea and cardiac surgery: Screening, prevalence and postoperative outcomes

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    Introduction: An excess of postoperative complications have been reported in patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) following surgical procedures, however, studies reporting outcomes in patients with OSA following cardiac surgery are sparse and of limited quality. The cause of worse surgical outcomes in the OSA population is unknown but deleterious effects of opiates/opioids, common pain relieve medication following surgery have previously been proposed. There is a move towards pre-operative screening for OSA prior to surgery but the best screening methodology has not yet been established and more importantly the effect of treatment, in particular Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP), on surgical outcomes in patients with OSA is unknown. Aim: This thesis examined the prevalence of sleep apnoea and its association with postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery. It also explored the usefulness of the STOP-Bang questionnaire, as a screening tool for OSA prior to cardiac surgery. In addition, current evidence regarding the effects of opiates/opioids and sedatives on patients with OSA was investigated and summarised in the Systematic Cochrane Review. The effect of morphine on severity of sleep apnoea in patients with moderate OSA was examined in a separate study. Methods: The prevalence and association of sleep apnoea with postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery and the usefulness of the STOP-Bang questionnaire in identifying patients at risk of OSA prior surgery was examined in a prospective, observational cohort study. The Systematic Cochrane review included randomised controlled trials examining the effects of opioids and sedatives, compared to placebo on severity of OSA in patients with established diagnosis of OSA. The effect of intravenous morphine sulphate on the severity of sleep apnoea was examined in a prospective, paired design trial which recruited patients with moderate OSA. Results: A high prevalence of sleep apnoea (47%) and a significant association between its severity and postoperative complications was found in 122 participants undergoing major cardiac surgery. The most significant risk factor for complications was found to be oxygen desaturations during the night reflecting the severity of sleep apnoea (OR=1.1 for each unit increase in oxygen desaturation index (ODI), 95% CI 1.02-1.17; p=0.014). It was found that the STOP-Bang scores between 0-2 would with high confidence exclude patients with at least moderate sleep apnoea prior surgery. The best diagnostic performance for diagnosis of at least moderate sleep apnoea was found at higher STOP-Bang scores of ‚Č•6 which could identify those patients who might benefit from a sleep study before cardiac surgery. A systematic Cochrane review found that opiates/opioids, sedatives and hypnotics have no deleterious effect on the severity of OSA but most of the studies included in the review were of short duration, small size and with indiscernible methodological quality. The results of the Systematic Cochrane Review informed the development of my study, studying the effect of opiate, morphine sulphate, on patients with moderate OSA. This showed no change in Apnoea/Hypopnoea Index (AHI) where median difference (MD) was -12.95, IQR 9.45, p=0.173 but showed significant improvement in sleep apnoea indices including: obstructive apnoea index (MD -2.7, IQR 7.37, p=0.03), central apnoea index (MD ‚Äď 0.35, IQR 0.83, p=0.04 ).However there was a fall in median nocturnal oxygen saturation. Conclusion: This thesis reports high prevalence of sleep apnoea which was also found to be a risk factor for postoperative complications in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery. In this population, STOP-Bang score ‚Č•6 could identify patients in need of a sleep study to identify those who may be at increased risk of postoperative complications. To date there is no strong evidence supporting deleterious effects of opioids/opiates on patients with OSA but larger studies are needed to clarify its effect.Funded by the Royal Papworth Hospital, department of the Respiratory Support and Sleep Centr

    Changes in the societal burden caused by sleep apnoea in Finland from 1996 to 2018 : A national registry study

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    Background In the current century, sleep apnoea has become a significant public health problem due to the obesity epidemic. To increase awareness, improve diagnostics, and improve treatment, Finland implemented a national sleep apnoea programme from 2002 to 2010. Here, we present changes in the societal burden caused by sleep apnoea from 1996 to 2018. Methods National register data were collected from the Care Register for Health Care, Statistics Finland, the Social Insurance Institution of Finland, and the Finnish Centre for Pensions. Disease prevalence, use of healthcare and social services, and societal costs were estimated. Findings The number of sleep apnoea patients increased in secondary care from 8 600 in 1996 to 61 000 in 2018. There was a continuous increase in outpatient visits in secondary care from 9 700 in 1996 to 122 000 in 2018 (1 160%) and in primary care from 10 000 in 2015 to 29 000 in 2018 (190%). Accordingly, the cumulative annual number of days off work for sleep apnoea increased from 1 100 to 46 000. However, disability pensions for sleep apnoea decreased from 820 to 550 (33%) during the observation period. Societal costs per patient decreased over 50% during the observation period ((sic) 2 800 to (sic)1 200). Interpretation The number of sleep apnoea patients in Finland increased remarkably during the observation period. To control this burden, diagnostic methods and treatment were revised and follow up was reorganised. Consequently, there was a significant decrease in societal costs per patient. The decrease in disability pensions suggests earlier diagnosis and improved treatment. The national sleep apnoea programme was one of the initiators for these improved outcomes. Funding The Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare and the Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa (HUH), Helsinki, Finland. Copyright (C) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)Peer reviewe
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