7,805 research outputs found

    The Development of Methods to Improve In Vitro Embryo Production in Pigs and Cattle

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    The global livestock industry is continually tasked with developing innovative solutions to meet rising food demand. In both economically developed and developing countries, sustainable supplies are essential for the continuous advances in productivity through genetic selection to improve feed conversion efficiency, disease resistance, and fertility. The interval between conception and birth, however, limits the rate at which these enhancements can be implemented. Furthermore, companies often export breeding animals to developing countries to boost genetic quality, but this comes with production, environmental, and logistical costs, as well as ethical issues. In vitro embryo production (IVP) is an emergent technology that is progressively being applied to livestock breeding. IVP could bring incredible economic and environmental benefits, serving to increase selection intensity and facilitate the transport of genetically favourable livestock in a highly assistive, inexpensive, and bio-secure manner. Therefore, the main purpose of this thesis was to improve the efficiency of IVP procedures. IVP offers attractive benefits to breeders, such as increasing the offspring numbers derived from high genetic value animals, in less time, and at a cheaper cost than those produced in vivo. Moreover, it facilitates the study of the genetic constitution of the embryos to transfer only those carrying commercially desirable traits to improve genetic selection. IVP is key to reducing the transportation of live animals as the transport of embryos decreases the costs and reduces the risk of pathogen or disease transmission, favouring biosecurity. With this in mind, this thesis had five specific aims: The first was to improve embryo quality with the addition of cytokines to porcine IVM media. This was successfully achieved as improvements were observed in oocyte maturation and developmental competence to produce higher quality embryos than those produced without cytokine supplementation. The second aim was to assess the effect of different sperm selection methods on basic boar sperm parameters and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) outcomes. This aim was partly successful in that it identified a microfluidic chip-based system as a selection method that produces similar parameters and IVF outcomes to density gradient selection, but with less morphological abnormalities. The third was to compare the slow freezing of boar sperm against modified vitrification protocols. The development of a suitable vitrification protocol was successful in preserving basic sperm parameters, but further work is needed to improve the efficiency compared to slow freezing, the "gold standard" in the breeding industry. The fourth aim was to use preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidies (PGT A) and SNP chip data from genomic estimated breeding values to screen in vitro produced bovine embryos. This allowed for the identification of chromosomal abnormalities and their origin, which when applied to embryo selection can yield improved pregnancy and live birth rates. The final aim was to use PGT-A to screen the inner-cell mass and trophectoderm of in vivo and IVP bovine embryos to identify and analyse chromosomal abnormalities. A comparison of the data between the inner-cell mass and trophectoderm revealed that trophectoderm biopsies reflect the true ploidy status of the embryo and demonstrate a reliable mean for screening embryos. Taken together, these results have improved the efficiency of porcine and cattle IVP procedures, furthering the development of techniques used for livestock animals

    W, L of M/M/c without end-end security.

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    The rapid replacement of PSTN with VOIP networks indicates the definitive phase-out of the PBX/PABX with smartphone-based VOIP technology that uses WLAN connectivity for local communication; however, security remains a key issue, regardless of the communication coverage area. Session initiation protocol (SIP) is one of the most widely adopted VOIP connection establishment protocols but requires added security. On the Internet, different security protocols, such as HTTPS (SSL/TLS), IPSec, and S/MIME, are used to protect SIP communication. These protocols require sophisticated infrastructure and some pose a significant overhead that may deteriorate SIP performance. In this article, we propose the following: i) avoid using Internet bandwidth and complex Internet protocols for local communication within an organization, but harness WLAN connectivity, ii) use multi-threaded or multicore computer systems to handle concurrent calls instead of installing hardware-based SIP servers, and iii) run each thread in a separate core. Cryptography is a key tool for securely transmitting confidential data for long- and short-range communication, and the Diffie-Hellman (DH) protocol has consistently been a popular choice for secret key exchanges. Primarily, used for symmetric key sharing, it has been proven effective in generating public/private key pairs, sharing public keys securely over public channels, and subsequently deriving shared secret keys from private/public keys. This key exchange scheme was proposed to safeguard VOIP communication within WLANs, which rely on the SIP for messaging and multimedia communication. For ensuring an efficient implementation of SIP, the system was rigorously analyzed using the M/M/1 and M/M/c queuing models. We analyze the behavior of SIP servers with queuing models with and without end-to-end security and increase users’ trust in SIP security by providing a transparent sense of end-to-end security as they create and manage their private and public keys instead of relying on the underlying SIP technology. This research implements instant messaging, voice conversation, and secret key generation over DH while implementing and observing the role of multi-threading in multiqueue systems that serve incoming calls. By increasing the number of threads from one to two, the SIP response time improved from 20.23809 to 0.08070 min at an arrival rate of 4250 calls/day and a service rate of three calls/min. Similarly, by adding one to seven threads, the queue length was reduced by four calls/min. Implementing secure media streaming and reliable AES-based signaling for session confidentiality and integrity introduces a minor 8-ms tradeoff in SIP service performance. However, the advantages of implementing added security outweigh this limitation.</div

    The Implications, Magnitude, and Development of Traumatic Brain Injury for Individuals Undergoing Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder

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    There is an established bidirectional relation between substance use and traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). Despite the high rate of prescribing opioids for pain management following a TBI and the epidemic of opioid use disorder (OUD) in the United States, scarce research has specifically analyzed the association between TBI and OUD. In a series of three interrelated manuscripts, the present study will first examine the prevalence and features of TBIs among persons seeking treatment for OUD. Next, the present study will evaluate the association between TBI and indicators of risky health behaviors and OUD severity, including the risk of overdose and polysubstance use. The predictive ability of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, impulsivity, depression, and chronic pain on odds of having had a TBI will also be calculated. Last, a systematic review will be conducted to provide comprehensive guidelines for effective methods of tailoring OUD treatment to mitigate the effects of TBI on treatment outcomes. Altogether, the findings will aid in the understanding of the development of TBI for persons with OUD, provide insight into common clinical complexities for patients with OUD and TBI, and offer guidance on how best to tailor interventions to increase substance use treatment efficacy for persons with TBI

    Examples of SIP messages.

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    The rapid replacement of PSTN with VOIP networks indicates the definitive phase-out of the PBX/PABX with smartphone-based VOIP technology that uses WLAN connectivity for local communication; however, security remains a key issue, regardless of the communication coverage area. Session initiation protocol (SIP) is one of the most widely adopted VOIP connection establishment protocols but requires added security. On the Internet, different security protocols, such as HTTPS (SSL/TLS), IPSec, and S/MIME, are used to protect SIP communication. These protocols require sophisticated infrastructure and some pose a significant overhead that may deteriorate SIP performance. In this article, we propose the following: i) avoid using Internet bandwidth and complex Internet protocols for local communication within an organization, but harness WLAN connectivity, ii) use multi-threaded or multicore computer systems to handle concurrent calls instead of installing hardware-based SIP servers, and iii) run each thread in a separate core. Cryptography is a key tool for securely transmitting confidential data for long- and short-range communication, and the Diffie-Hellman (DH) protocol has consistently been a popular choice for secret key exchanges. Primarily, used for symmetric key sharing, it has been proven effective in generating public/private key pairs, sharing public keys securely over public channels, and subsequently deriving shared secret keys from private/public keys. This key exchange scheme was proposed to safeguard VOIP communication within WLANs, which rely on the SIP for messaging and multimedia communication. For ensuring an efficient implementation of SIP, the system was rigorously analyzed using the M/M/1 and M/M/c queuing models. We analyze the behavior of SIP servers with queuing models with and without end-to-end security and increase users’ trust in SIP security by providing a transparent sense of end-to-end security as they create and manage their private and public keys instead of relying on the underlying SIP technology. This research implements instant messaging, voice conversation, and secret key generation over DH while implementing and observing the role of multi-threading in multiqueue systems that serve incoming calls. By increasing the number of threads from one to two, the SIP response time improved from 20.23809 to 0.08070 min at an arrival rate of 4250 calls/day and a service rate of three calls/min. Similarly, by adding one to seven threads, the queue length was reduced by four calls/min. Implementing secure media streaming and reliable AES-based signaling for session confidentiality and integrity introduces a minor 8-ms tradeoff in SIP service performance. However, the advantages of implementing added security outweigh this limitation.</div

    M/M/1 queuing model.

    No full text
    The rapid replacement of PSTN with VOIP networks indicates the definitive phase-out of the PBX/PABX with smartphone-based VOIP technology that uses WLAN connectivity for local communication; however, security remains a key issue, regardless of the communication coverage area. Session initiation protocol (SIP) is one of the most widely adopted VOIP connection establishment protocols but requires added security. On the Internet, different security protocols, such as HTTPS (SSL/TLS), IPSec, and S/MIME, are used to protect SIP communication. These protocols require sophisticated infrastructure and some pose a significant overhead that may deteriorate SIP performance. In this article, we propose the following: i) avoid using Internet bandwidth and complex Internet protocols for local communication within an organization, but harness WLAN connectivity, ii) use multi-threaded or multicore computer systems to handle concurrent calls instead of installing hardware-based SIP servers, and iii) run each thread in a separate core. Cryptography is a key tool for securely transmitting confidential data for long- and short-range communication, and the Diffie-Hellman (DH) protocol has consistently been a popular choice for secret key exchanges. Primarily, used for symmetric key sharing, it has been proven effective in generating public/private key pairs, sharing public keys securely over public channels, and subsequently deriving shared secret keys from private/public keys. This key exchange scheme was proposed to safeguard VOIP communication within WLANs, which rely on the SIP for messaging and multimedia communication. For ensuring an efficient implementation of SIP, the system was rigorously analyzed using the M/M/1 and M/M/c queuing models. We analyze the behavior of SIP servers with queuing models with and without end-to-end security and increase users’ trust in SIP security by providing a transparent sense of end-to-end security as they create and manage their private and public keys instead of relying on the underlying SIP technology. This research implements instant messaging, voice conversation, and secret key generation over DH while implementing and observing the role of multi-threading in multiqueue systems that serve incoming calls. By increasing the number of threads from one to two, the SIP response time improved from 20.23809 to 0.08070 min at an arrival rate of 4250 calls/day and a service rate of three calls/min. Similarly, by adding one to seven threads, the queue length was reduced by four calls/min. Implementing secure media streaming and reliable AES-based signaling for session confidentiality and integrity introduces a minor 8-ms tradeoff in SIP service performance. However, the advantages of implementing added security outweigh this limitation.</div

    Proposed model.

    No full text
    The rapid replacement of PSTN with VOIP networks indicates the definitive phase-out of the PBX/PABX with smartphone-based VOIP technology that uses WLAN connectivity for local communication; however, security remains a key issue, regardless of the communication coverage area. Session initiation protocol (SIP) is one of the most widely adopted VOIP connection establishment protocols but requires added security. On the Internet, different security protocols, such as HTTPS (SSL/TLS), IPSec, and S/MIME, are used to protect SIP communication. These protocols require sophisticated infrastructure and some pose a significant overhead that may deteriorate SIP performance. In this article, we propose the following: i) avoid using Internet bandwidth and complex Internet protocols for local communication within an organization, but harness WLAN connectivity, ii) use multi-threaded or multicore computer systems to handle concurrent calls instead of installing hardware-based SIP servers, and iii) run each thread in a separate core. Cryptography is a key tool for securely transmitting confidential data for long- and short-range communication, and the Diffie-Hellman (DH) protocol has consistently been a popular choice for secret key exchanges. Primarily, used for symmetric key sharing, it has been proven effective in generating public/private key pairs, sharing public keys securely over public channels, and subsequently deriving shared secret keys from private/public keys. This key exchange scheme was proposed to safeguard VOIP communication within WLANs, which rely on the SIP for messaging and multimedia communication. For ensuring an efficient implementation of SIP, the system was rigorously analyzed using the M/M/1 and M/M/c queuing models. We analyze the behavior of SIP servers with queuing models with and without end-to-end security and increase users’ trust in SIP security by providing a transparent sense of end-to-end security as they create and manage their private and public keys instead of relying on the underlying SIP technology. This research implements instant messaging, voice conversation, and secret key generation over DH while implementing and observing the role of multi-threading in multiqueue systems that serve incoming calls. By increasing the number of threads from one to two, the SIP response time improved from 20.23809 to 0.08070 min at an arrival rate of 4250 calls/day and a service rate of three calls/min. Similarly, by adding one to seven threads, the queue length was reduced by four calls/min. Implementing secure media streaming and reliable AES-based signaling for session confidentiality and integrity introduces a minor 8-ms tradeoff in SIP service performance. However, the advantages of implementing added security outweigh this limitation.</div

    S2 Data -

    No full text
    The rapid replacement of PSTN with VOIP networks indicates the definitive phase-out of the PBX/PABX with smartphone-based VOIP technology that uses WLAN connectivity for local communication; however, security remains a key issue, regardless of the communication coverage area. Session initiation protocol (SIP) is one of the most widely adopted VOIP connection establishment protocols but requires added security. On the Internet, different security protocols, such as HTTPS (SSL/TLS), IPSec, and S/MIME, are used to protect SIP communication. These protocols require sophisticated infrastructure and some pose a significant overhead that may deteriorate SIP performance. In this article, we propose the following: i) avoid using Internet bandwidth and complex Internet protocols for local communication within an organization, but harness WLAN connectivity, ii) use multi-threaded or multicore computer systems to handle concurrent calls instead of installing hardware-based SIP servers, and iii) run each thread in a separate core. Cryptography is a key tool for securely transmitting confidential data for long- and short-range communication, and the Diffie-Hellman (DH) protocol has consistently been a popular choice for secret key exchanges. Primarily, used for symmetric key sharing, it has been proven effective in generating public/private key pairs, sharing public keys securely over public channels, and subsequently deriving shared secret keys from private/public keys. This key exchange scheme was proposed to safeguard VOIP communication within WLANs, which rely on the SIP for messaging and multimedia communication. For ensuring an efficient implementation of SIP, the system was rigorously analyzed using the M/M/1 and M/M/c queuing models. We analyze the behavior of SIP servers with queuing models with and without end-to-end security and increase users’ trust in SIP security by providing a transparent sense of end-to-end security as they create and manage their private and public keys instead of relying on the underlying SIP technology. This research implements instant messaging, voice conversation, and secret key generation over DH while implementing and observing the role of multi-threading in multiqueue systems that serve incoming calls. By increasing the number of threads from one to two, the SIP response time improved from 20.23809 to 0.08070 min at an arrival rate of 4250 calls/day and a service rate of three calls/min. Similarly, by adding one to seven threads, the queue length was reduced by four calls/min. Implementing secure media streaming and reliable AES-based signaling for session confidentiality and integrity introduces a minor 8-ms tradeoff in SIP service performance. However, the advantages of implementing added security outweigh this limitation.</div

    Active and assisted living ecosystem for the elderly

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    A novel ecosystem to promote the physical, emotional and psychic health and well-being of the elderly is presented. Our proposal was designed to add several services developed to meet the needs of the senior population, namely services to improve social inclusion and increase contribution to society. Moreover, the solution monitors the vital signs of elderly individuals, as well as environmental parameters and behavior patterns, in order to seek eminent danger situations and predict potential hazardous issues, acting in accordance with the various alert levels specified for each individual. The platform was tested by seniors in a real scenario. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed ecosystem was well accepted and is easy to use by seniors

    Probability that there is no callers.

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    The rapid replacement of PSTN with VOIP networks indicates the definitive phase-out of the PBX/PABX with smartphone-based VOIP technology that uses WLAN connectivity for local communication; however, security remains a key issue, regardless of the communication coverage area. Session initiation protocol (SIP) is one of the most widely adopted VOIP connection establishment protocols but requires added security. On the Internet, different security protocols, such as HTTPS (SSL/TLS), IPSec, and S/MIME, are used to protect SIP communication. These protocols require sophisticated infrastructure and some pose a significant overhead that may deteriorate SIP performance. In this article, we propose the following: i) avoid using Internet bandwidth and complex Internet protocols for local communication within an organization, but harness WLAN connectivity, ii) use multi-threaded or multicore computer systems to handle concurrent calls instead of installing hardware-based SIP servers, and iii) run each thread in a separate core. Cryptography is a key tool for securely transmitting confidential data for long- and short-range communication, and the Diffie-Hellman (DH) protocol has consistently been a popular choice for secret key exchanges. Primarily, used for symmetric key sharing, it has been proven effective in generating public/private key pairs, sharing public keys securely over public channels, and subsequently deriving shared secret keys from private/public keys. This key exchange scheme was proposed to safeguard VOIP communication within WLANs, which rely on the SIP for messaging and multimedia communication. For ensuring an efficient implementation of SIP, the system was rigorously analyzed using the M/M/1 and M/M/c queuing models. We analyze the behavior of SIP servers with queuing models with and without end-to-end security and increase users’ trust in SIP security by providing a transparent sense of end-to-end security as they create and manage their private and public keys instead of relying on the underlying SIP technology. This research implements instant messaging, voice conversation, and secret key generation over DH while implementing and observing the role of multi-threading in multiqueue systems that serve incoming calls. By increasing the number of threads from one to two, the SIP response time improved from 20.23809 to 0.08070 min at an arrival rate of 4250 calls/day and a service rate of three calls/min. Similarly, by adding one to seven threads, the queue length was reduced by four calls/min. Implementing secure media streaming and reliable AES-based signaling for session confidentiality and integrity introduces a minor 8-ms tradeoff in SIP service performance. However, the advantages of implementing added security outweigh this limitation.</div

    Comparison of related studies on SIP.

    No full text
    The rapid replacement of PSTN with VOIP networks indicates the definitive phase-out of the PBX/PABX with smartphone-based VOIP technology that uses WLAN connectivity for local communication; however, security remains a key issue, regardless of the communication coverage area. Session initiation protocol (SIP) is one of the most widely adopted VOIP connection establishment protocols but requires added security. On the Internet, different security protocols, such as HTTPS (SSL/TLS), IPSec, and S/MIME, are used to protect SIP communication. These protocols require sophisticated infrastructure and some pose a significant overhead that may deteriorate SIP performance. In this article, we propose the following: i) avoid using Internet bandwidth and complex Internet protocols for local communication within an organization, but harness WLAN connectivity, ii) use multi-threaded or multicore computer systems to handle concurrent calls instead of installing hardware-based SIP servers, and iii) run each thread in a separate core. Cryptography is a key tool for securely transmitting confidential data for long- and short-range communication, and the Diffie-Hellman (DH) protocol has consistently been a popular choice for secret key exchanges. Primarily, used for symmetric key sharing, it has been proven effective in generating public/private key pairs, sharing public keys securely over public channels, and subsequently deriving shared secret keys from private/public keys. This key exchange scheme was proposed to safeguard VOIP communication within WLANs, which rely on the SIP for messaging and multimedia communication. For ensuring an efficient implementation of SIP, the system was rigorously analyzed using the M/M/1 and M/M/c queuing models. We analyze the behavior of SIP servers with queuing models with and without end-to-end security and increase users’ trust in SIP security by providing a transparent sense of end-to-end security as they create and manage their private and public keys instead of relying on the underlying SIP technology. This research implements instant messaging, voice conversation, and secret key generation over DH while implementing and observing the role of multi-threading in multiqueue systems that serve incoming calls. By increasing the number of threads from one to two, the SIP response time improved from 20.23809 to 0.08070 min at an arrival rate of 4250 calls/day and a service rate of three calls/min. Similarly, by adding one to seven threads, the queue length was reduced by four calls/min. Implementing secure media streaming and reliable AES-based signaling for session confidentiality and integrity introduces a minor 8-ms tradeoff in SIP service performance. However, the advantages of implementing added security outweigh this limitation.</div
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