823 research outputs found

    Racial differences in bone turnover rate and hyperparathyroidism in hemodialysis patients

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    Serum Leptin and Bone Mineral Density in Hemodialysis Patients with or without Liver Diseases

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    Introduction: Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that plays an important role in regulating appetite and energy expenditure. Our aim was to evaluate serum leptin level in hemodialysis (HD) patients with or without chronic liver disease (CLD) and study the relationship between serum leptin level and bone mineral density in these groups of patients. Methods: we recruited 20 healthy volunteers as controls (group I), 20 patients on regular HD with normal liver function (group II), 20 CLD patients with normal kidney function (group III) and 20 patients on regular HD with CLD (group IV). We measured serum calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone (PTH), total alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum leptin, 24-hours urinary hydroxyproline and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumber spine and femoral neck by DEXA scan. Results: Serum leptin level was significantly higher (P <0.001) in HD patients and CLD patients compared to controls. Its level was also significantly elevated in HD patients without liver disease (group II) compared to patients with CLD who had no renal failure (group III). Urinary hydroxyproline level was increased in both HD patients and CLD patients. We detected a positive correlation between serum leptin level and urinary hydroxyproline in all patient groups. There was a significant decrease in BMD in HD and CLD patients. BMD was significantly lower in HD patients without CLD compared to HD patients with CLD. There was a significant negative correlation between serum leptin level and BMD in CLD patients without renal disease but not in other groups (r = - 0.6, P = 0.01). Conclusion: Serum leptin is elevated in HD patients with or without liver disease and in CLD patients. Serum leptin level is inversely correlated with BMD in CLD patients without renal disease.Keywords: Bone Mineral Density; Cirrhosis; Chronic Liver Disease; Hemodialysis; Lepti

    Biochemical and genetic markers of mineral bone disease in South African patients with chronic kidney disease

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    A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Johannesburg, 2017.Background Abnormalities of mineral bone disease have been consistently associated with adverse clinical outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The consequences of these changes have also been shown to differ across races. However, in Africa the impact of derangements of CKD -mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) on patients with CKD is largely unknown. In addition, studies from the USA have reported racial variations in markers of CKD and it remains unclear whether genetic factors may explain this discrepancy in the levels of biochemical markers of CKD-MBD across ethnic groups. Therefore, this study has been conducted to determine the existence of racial differences in the levels of fibroblast growth factor 23(FGF23) and traditional markers of mineral bone metabolism in a heterogeneous African CKD population, and to provide important insights into the pattern and genetic variability of CKD-MBD in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods This was a cross sectional multicenter study carried out from April 2015 to May 2016, involving two hundred and ninety three CKD patients from three renal units in Johannesburg, South Africa. The retrospective arm of this study involved two hundred and thirteen patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) from two dialysis centers in Johannesburg between January 2009 and March 2016. The first part of this study described the pattern of CKD-MBD in MHD patients using traditional markers of CKD-MBD. The second part of the study looked into the spectrum of CKD-MBD and racial variations in markers of CKD-MBD in pre dialysis and dialysis patients. This was followed by the genetic aspect of the study that examined the influence of vitamin D receptor polymorphisms on biochemical markers of mineral bone disorders. Lastly, the study also evaluated the association between markers of CKD-MBD and mortality in MHD patients. Results The prevalence of hyperparathyroidism (iPTH>150 pg/mL), hyperphosphataemia, hypocalcaemia and 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency (150 pg/mL and total alkaline phosphatase > 112 U/L) suggestive of high turnover bone disease, was present in 47.3 % of the study population. The odds ratios for developing secondary hyperparathyroidism with hypocalcaemia and hyperphosphataemia were 5.32 (95% CI 1.10 - 25.9, P =0.03) and 3.06 (95 % CI 1.15 - 8.10, P =0.02) respectively. The 293 CKD patients (208 blacks, 85 whites) had an overall mean age of 51.1±13.6 years, and black patients were significantly younger than the white patients (48.4 ±.13.6 versus 57.1±15.5 years; p<0.001). In comparison to whites, blacks had higher median iPTH (498 [37-1084] versus 274[131-595] pg/ml; P=0.03), alkaline phosphatase (122[89-192] versus 103[74-144] U/L; P=0.03) and mean 25- hydroxyvitamin D (26.8±12.7 versus 22.7 ±12.2 ng/ml, P=0.01) levels, while their median FGF23 (100 [34-639] versus 233[80-1370] pg/ml; P=0.002) and mean serum phosphate (1.3±0.5 versus 1.5±0.5, P =0.001) levels were significantly lower. With the exception of vitamin D receptor (VDR) Taq I polymorphism, the distribution of the VDR polymorphisms differs significantly between blacks and whites. In hemodialysis patients, the BsmI Bb genotype was significantly associated with moderate secondary hyperparathyroidism (OR, 3.88; 95 CI 1.13-13.25, P=0.03) and severe hyperparathyroidism (OR, 2.54; 95 CI 1.08-5.96, P=0.03). Patients with high total alkaline phosphatase (TAP) had significantly higher risk of death compared to patients with TAP 2.75 mmol/L was associated with increased risk of death compared to patients within levels of 2.10–2.37 mmol/L (HR 6.34, 95% CI 1.40–28.76; P = 0.02). The HR for death in white patients compared to black patients was 6.88; 95% CI 1.82–25.88; P = 0.004. Conclusions Secondary hyperparathyroidism and 25–hydroxyvitamin D deficiency were common in our haemodialysis patients. The study also highlighted the existence of racial differences in the circulating markers of mineral bone disorders in our African CKD population. In addition, the study showed that both moderate and severe secondary hyperparathyroidism are predicted by the BsmI Bb genotype, and the over expression of this genotype in black patients may partly explain the ethnic variations in the severity of secondary hyperparathyroidism in the CKD population. High levels of serum alkaline phosphatase, hypercalcaemia, and white race are associated with increased risk of death in MHD patients.LG201

    Biochemical and genetic markers of mineral bone disease in South African patients with chronic kidney disease

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    A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Johannesburg, 2017.Background Abnormalities of mineral bone disease have been consistently associated with adverse clinical outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The consequences of these changes have also been shown to differ across races. However, in Africa the impact of derangements of CKD -mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) on patients with CKD is largely unknown. In addition, studies from the USA have reported racial variations in markers of CKD and it remains unclear whether genetic factors may explain this discrepancy in the levels of biochemical markers of CKD-MBD across ethnic groups. Therefore, this study has been conducted to determine the existence of racial differences in the levels of fibroblast growth factor 23(FGF23) and traditional markers of mineral bone metabolism in a heterogeneous African CKD population, and to provide important insights into the pattern and genetic variability of CKD-MBD in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods This was a cross sectional multicenter study carried out from April 2015 to May 2016, involving two hundred and ninety three CKD patients from three renal units in Johannesburg, South Africa. The retrospective arm of this study involved two hundred and thirteen patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) from two dialysis centers in Johannesburg between January 2009 and March 2016. The first part of this study described the pattern of CKD-MBD in MHD patients using traditional markers of CKD-MBD. The second part of the study looked into the spectrum of CKD-MBD and racial variations in markers of CKD-MBD in pre dialysis and dialysis patients. This was followed by the genetic aspect of the study that examined the influence of vitamin D receptor polymorphisms on biochemical markers of mineral bone disorders. Lastly, the study also evaluated the association between markers of CKD-MBD and mortality in MHD patients. Results The prevalence of hyperparathyroidism (iPTH>150 pg/mL), hyperphosphataemia, hypocalcaemia and 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency (150 pg/mL and total alkaline phosphatase > 112 U/L) suggestive of high turnover bone disease, was present in 47.3 % of the study population. The odds ratios for developing secondary hyperparathyroidism with hypocalcaemia and hyperphosphataemia were 5.32 (95% CI 1.10 - 25.9, P =0.03) and 3.06 (95 % CI 1.15 - 8.10, P =0.02) respectively. The 293 CKD patients (208 blacks, 85 whites) had an overall mean age of 51.1±13.6 years, and black patients were significantly younger than the white patients (48.4 ±.13.6 versus 57.1±15.5 years; p<0.001). In comparison to whites, blacks had higher median iPTH (498 [37-1084] versus 274[131-595] pg/ml; P=0.03), alkaline phosphatase (122[89-192] versus 103[74-144] U/L; P=0.03) and mean 25- hydroxyvitamin D (26.8±12.7 versus 22.7 ±12.2 ng/ml, P=0.01) levels, while their median FGF23 (100 [34-639] versus 233[80-1370] pg/ml; P=0.002) and mean serum phosphate (1.3±0.5 versus 1.5±0.5, P =0.001) levels were significantly lower. With the exception of vitamin D receptor (VDR) Taq I polymorphism, the distribution of the VDR polymorphisms differs significantly between blacks and whites. In hemodialysis patients, the BsmI Bb genotype was significantly associated with moderate secondary hyperparathyroidism (OR, 3.88; 95 CI 1.13-13.25, P=0.03) and severe hyperparathyroidism (OR, 2.54; 95 CI 1.08-5.96, P=0.03). Patients with high total alkaline phosphatase (TAP) had significantly higher risk of death compared to patients with TAP 2.75 mmol/L was associated with increased risk of death compared to patients within levels of 2.10–2.37 mmol/L (HR 6.34, 95% CI 1.40–28.76; P = 0.02). The HR for death in white patients compared to black patients was 6.88; 95% CI 1.82–25.88; P = 0.004. Conclusions Secondary hyperparathyroidism and 25–hydroxyvitamin D deficiency were common in our haemodialysis patients. The study also highlighted the existence of racial differences in the circulating markers of mineral bone disorders in our African CKD population. In addition, the study showed that both moderate and severe secondary hyperparathyroidism are predicted by the BsmI Bb genotype, and the over expression of this genotype in black patients may partly explain the ethnic variations in the severity of secondary hyperparathyroidism in the CKD population. High levels of serum alkaline phosphatase, hypercalcaemia, and white race are associated with increased risk of death in MHD patients.LG201

    Diagnostic Accuracy of Bone Turnover Markers and Bone Histology in Patients With CKD Treated by Dialysis

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    BACKGROUND: The management of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder requires the assessment of bone turnover, which most often is based on parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentration, the utility of which remains controversial. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional retrospective diagnostic test study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 492 dialysis patients from Brazil, Portugal, Turkey, and Venezuela with prior bone biopsy and stored (-20 °C) serum. INDEX TESTS: Samples were analyzed for PTH (intact [iPTH] and whole PTH), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bALP), and amino-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP). REFERENCE TEST: Bone histomorphometric assessment of turnover (bone formation rate/bone surface [BFR/BS]) and receiver operating characteristic curves for discriminating diagnostic ability. RESULTS: The biomarkers iPTH and bALP or combinations thereof allowed discrimination of low from nonlow and high from nonhigh BFR/BS, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve > 0.70 but 323.0 pg/mL. The best cutoff for bALP to discriminate low from nonlow BFR/BS was <33.1 U/L, and for high from nonhigh BFR/BS, 42.1U/L. Using the KDIGO practice guideline PTH values of greater than 2 but less than 9 times the upper limit of normal, sensitivity and specificity of iPTH level to discriminate low from nonlow turnover bone disease were 65.7% and 65.3%, and to discriminate high from nonhigh were 37.0% and 85.8%, respectively. LIMITATIONS: Cross-sectional design without consideration of therapy. Potential limited generalizability with samples from 4 countries. CONCLUSIONS: The serum biomarkers iPTH, whole PTH, and bALP were able to discriminate low from nonlow BFR/BS, whereas iPTH and bALP were able to discriminate high from nonhigh BFR/BS. Prospective studies are required to determine whether evaluating trends in biomarker concentrations could guide therapeutic decisions.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Prevention and treatment of renal osteodystrophy in children on chronic renal failure: European guidelines

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    Childhood renal osteodystrophy (ROD) is the consequence of disturbances of the calcium-regulating hormones vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) as well as of the somatotroph hormone axis associated with local modulation of bone and growth cartilage function. The resulting growth retardation and the potentially rapid onset of ROD in children are different from ROD in adults. The biochemical changes of ROD as well as its prevention and treatment affect calcium and phosphorus homeostasis and are directly associated with the development of cardiovascular disease in pediatric renal patients. The aims of the clinical and biochemical surveillance of pediatric patients with CRF or on dialysis are prevention of hyperphosphatemia, avoidance of hypercalcemia and keeping the calcium phosphorus product below 5 mmol(2)/l(2). The PTH levels should be within the normal range in chronic renal failure (CRF) and up to 2–3 times the upper limit of normal levels in dialysed children. Prevention of ROD is expected to result in improved growth and less vascular calcification

    Higher Proportion of Non-1-84 PTH Fragments in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients Compared to Hemodialysis Patients Using Solutions Containing 1.75 mmol/l Calcium

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    Background: The prevalence of low- turnover bone disease (LTBD) in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients is higher than in hemodialysis (HD) patients. LTBD patients may be at risk for vascular calcification, and cardiovascular disease. Current therapy for chronic kidney disease metabolic bone disorders (CKD-MBD) is guided by biochemical parameters, as bone biopsy is not used in routine clinical care.Methods: We assessed intact PTH (iPTH: 1-84PTH plus non-1-84PTH), 1-84PTH, and the 1-84PTH/non-1-84PTH ratio in 129 hemodialysis and 73 PD prevalent patients dialyzed with solutions containing 1.75 mmol/L calcium.Results: Hemodialysis and PD patients presented similar iPTH and tCa values and prevalence of putative LTBD as defined according to KDOQI iPTH cut-off levels or 1-84 PTH levels. However, iCa accounted for a higher percentage of tCa in PD (53%) than in hemodialysis (39%) p &lt; 0.001, and the 1-84PTH/non-1-84PTH ratio was lower in PD than in hemodialysis patients (0.44 ± 0.12) vs. (0.60 ± 0.10), p &lt; 0.001. The prevalence of putative LTBD when using the coexistence of 1-84PTH/non-1-84PTH ratio &lt; 1.0 and iPTH &lt; 420 pg/m, was higher in PD than in hemodialysis patients (73 vs. 16% respectively, p &lt; 0.001). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, dialysis modality was the main determinant of the 1-84PTH/non-1-84PTH ratio.Conclusion: Solutions containing 1.75 mmol/L calciums are associated to a higher proportion of non-1-84PTH fragments in PD than in HD patients. Different analytical criteria result in widely different estimates of LTBD prevalence, thus impairing the ability of clinicians to optimize therapy for CKD-MBD

    Evaluation of Bone Remodeling in Hemodialysis Patients: Serum Biochemistry, Circulating Cytokines and Bone Histomorphometry

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    BACKGROUND: To optimize the noninvasive evaluation of bone remodeling, we evaluated, besides routine serum markers, serum levels of several cytokines involved in bone turnover. METHODS: A transiliac bone biopsy was performed in 47 hemodialysis patients. Serum levels of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH; 1-84), total alkaline phosphatases (tAP), calcium, phosphate and aluminum (Al) were measured. Circulating levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6r) were determined using ELISA. Circulating IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were simultaneously quantified by flow cytometric immunoassay. RESULTS: Patients with low/normal bone formation rate (L/N-BFR) had significantly lower serum iPTH (p300 pg/mL in association with tAP >120 U/L showed low sensitivity (58.8%) and low negative predictive value (44.0%) for the diagnosis of high BFR disease. An iPTH <300 pg/mL in association with normal or low tAP, <120 U/L, was associated with low sensitivity (66.7%) but high specificity (97.1%) for the diagnosis of L/N-BFR. Serum IL-1, IL-6, IL-12p70 and TNF-alpha were positively correlated with BFR, serum IL1-Ra and IL-10 with bone area, and by multiple regression analysis, tAP and IL-6 were independently predictive of BFR. CONCLUSIONS: Significant associations were found between several circulating cytokines and bone histomorphometry in dialysis patients. The usefulness of these determinations in the noninvasive evaluation of bone remodeling needs to be confirmed in larger dialysis populations

    Age-dependent parathormone levels and different CKD-MBD treatment practices of dialysis patients in Hungary - results from a nationwide clinical audit

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    BACKGROUND: Achieving target levels of laboratory parameters of bone and mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is important but also difficult in those living with end-stage kidney disease. This study aimed to determine if there are age-related differences in chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) characteristics, including treatment practice in Hungarian dialysis patients. METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively from a large cohort of dialysis patients in Hungary. Patients on hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis were also included. The enrolled patients were allocated into two groups based on their age (=65 years). Characteristics of the age groups and differences in disease-related (epidemiology, laboratory, and treatment practice) parameters between the groups were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 5008 patients were included in the analysis and the mean age was 63.4+/-14.2 years. A total of 47.2% of patients were women, 32.8% had diabetes, and 11.4% were on peritoneal dialysis. Diabetes (37.9% vs 27.3%), bone disease (42.9% vs 34.1%), and soft tissue calcification (56.3% vs 44.7%) were more prevalent in the older group than the younger group (p<0.001 for all). We found an inverse relationship between age and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels (p<0.001). Serum PTH levels were lower in patients with diabetes compared with those without diabetes below 80 years (p<0.001). Diabetes and age were independently associated with serum PTH levels (interaction: diabetes x age groups, p=0.138). Older patients were more likely than younger patients to achieve laboratory target ranges for each parameter (Ca: 66.9% vs 62.1%, p<0.001; PO4: 52.6% vs 49.2%, p<0.05; and PTH: 50.6% vs 46.6%, p<0.01), and for combined parameters (19.8% vs 15.8%, p<0.001). Older patients were less likely to receive related medication than younger patients (66.9% vs 79.7%, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The achievement of laboratory target ranges for bone and mineral metabolism and clinical practice in CKD depends on the age of the patients. A greater proportion of older patients met target criteria and received less medication compared with younger patients
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