1,506,822 research outputs found

    Frequently Asked Questions: 2022 Public Access Policy Guidance

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    Includes a list of frequently asked questions and answers for the 2022 White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) Public Access Policy guidance, including answering questions such as What is meant by public access to federally funded research? and What impact will the policy guidance have on specific business models for scholarly publishing

    Science, Technology and U.S. Economic Policy

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    Volume 3 - Paper #44_44ScienceTechnologyandUSeconomical.pdf: 194 downloads, before Oct. 1, 2020

    Tools for Soil Organic Carbon Estimation and Management

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    Land degradation neutrality (LDN) is achieved if land degradation is avoided or reduced, and new degradation is balanced by reversing degradation elsewhere in the same land type through restoration or rehabilitation. The primary instrument for avoiding and reducing degradation is the application of sustainable land management (SLM) approaches and technologies. Because of its multifunctional roles and its sensitivity to land management, soil organic carbon (SOC) is one of the three global indicators for LDN, so predicting and monitoring change in SOC is vital to achieving LDN targets. Measuring SOC is challenging because SOC stock is highly variable across landscapes, even within the same soil type and land use, and SOC stock fluctuates over time. Predicting the potential change in SOC stock due to changes in land management is also a challenge. Accurate evaluation of SOC stock change resulting SCIENCE-POLICY BRIEF Tools for Soil Organic Carbon Estimation and Management from SLM interventions is often limited by the availability of data and the performance of tools/models for SOC assessment. Therefore, targeted investment in SOC estimation is vital. Guidance on harmonized methods that provide accurate estimations of changes in SOC stocks resulting from SLM interventions is required. Software tools and biophysical models for SOC assessment can help “fill the gaps” in measured datasets for SOC estimation. The following decision trees will guide efforts to predict change in SOC under alternative SLM practices, and monitor SOC change in response to SLM interventions, and thereby support decision-makers to pursue the right SLM interventions in the right locations, at the right time, at the right scale with the overall goal to increase or maintain SOC and improve soil health in support of LDN achievement

    Integrating Species Traits into Species Pools

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    Despite decades of research on the species‐pool concept and the recent explosion of interest in trait‐based frameworks in ecology and biogeography, surprisingly little is known about how spatial and temporal changes in species‐pool functional diversity (SPFD) influence biodiversity and the processes underlying community assembly. Current trait‐based frameworks focus primarily on community assembly from a static regional species pool, without considering how spatial or temporal variation in SPFD alters the relative importance of deterministic and stochastic assembly processes. Likewise, species‐pool concepts primarily focus on how the number of species in the species pool influences local biodiversity. However, species pools with similar richness can vary substantially in functional‐trait diversity, which can strongly influence community assembly and biodiversity responses to environmental change. Here, we integrate recent advances in community ecology, trait‐based ecology, and biogeography to provide a more comprehensive framework that explicitly considers how variation in SPFD, among regions and within regions through time, influences the relative importance of community assembly processes and patterns of biodiversity. First, we provide a brief overview of the primary ecological and evolutionary processes that create differences in SPFD among regions and within regions through time. We then illustrate how SPFD may influence fundamental processes of local community assembly (dispersal, ecological drift, niche selection). Higher SPFD may increase the relative importance of deterministic community assembly when greater functional diversity in the species pool increases niche selection across environmental gradients. In contrast, lower SPFD may increase the relative importance of stochastic community assembly when high functional redundancy in the species pool increases the influence of dispersal history or ecological drift. Next, we outline experimental and observational approaches for testing the influence of SPFD on assembly processes and biodiversity. Finally, we highlight applications of this framework for restoration and conservation. This species‐pool functional diversity framework has the potential to advance our understanding of how local‐ and regional‐scale processes jointly influence patterns of biodiversity across biogeographic regions, changes in biodiversity within regions over time, and restoration outcomes and conservation efforts in ecosystems altered by environmental change

    Initial Hydraulic modelling and Levee Stability Analysis of the Triple M Ranch Restoration Project

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    “Advanced Watershed Science and Policy (ESSP 660)” is a graduate class taught in the Master of Science in Coastal and Watershed Science & Policy program at California State University Monterey Bay (CSUMB). In 2007, the class was taught in four 4-week modules, each focusing on a local watershed issue. This report is one outcome of one of those 4-week modules taught in the fall 2007 session. (Document contains 32 pages