53,665 research outputs found

    Cultural adaption of mental health services to the Sami. A qualitative study on the incorporation of Sami language and culture into mental health services

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    The Sami people in Norway have a statutory right to receive equitable health services, adapted in accordance with Sami language and culture. However, limited research is available regarding the impact and of Sami culture and language within mental health services. Aim - The overall aim of the study was to explore, identify and describe the significance of culture and language in mental health services as experienced by clinicians and Sami patients, to enhance the understanding of the cultural and linguistic adaptation of the services to the Sami. Methods - The data was co-constructed in individual interviews with clinicians and Sami patients in mental health clinics in northern Norway. The data were analysed thematically. Results - The study demonstrated that Sami patients’ language choice is influenced by a complexity of social and cultural factors. Bilingual Sami patients have different preferences for what they can talk about, in which language, in what way and with whom. However, the result must not be confused with saying that Sami-speaking patients do not need Sami-speaking therapy. Essentialist descriptions of Sami culture were several, but ways to incorporate cultural and linguistic aspects into mental health services were limited. Organisational support for language appropriate services was limited. Culturally adapted clinical interventions were lacking. Incorporation of culture and language was random, provided by the individual clinician within the structural frames and with the knowledge available. Concluding remarks - The study indicates that the incorporation of language and culture into mental health care is a complex process involving strategies at three levels; institutional systems and structures, health professionals’ cultural assumptions and analytical competence, and cultural assessment of interventions within mental health treatment. Stereotypical portrayals of Sami culture narrow the understanding of Sami identity, delimit the identification of Sami-speakers and simplifies possible impacts of culture within health care. Therefore, the question is not what culture “is”, but how culture unfolds in human encounters

    A note on language preservation - with special reference to Sami in northern Scandinavia

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    This paper discusses the situation of the Sami (Lapp) language of northern Scandinavia in the context of increasing language loss all over the world. Optimistic estimates suggest 30,000 speakers of Sami today, with a clear majority in Norway. After a long period of suppression from local and central authorities the Norwegian state now supports actively the use of Sami. It is pointed out that two areas or domains are especially vital for the continued use of the language: 1) traditional Sami activities such as reindeer breeding, hunting, fishing, and handicrafts; and 2) the families. Here the linguistic development of mixed families (Sami/non-Sami) seems to be of fundamental importance

    Skolt Sami, the makings of a pluricentric language, where does it stand?

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    This paper will provide a brief description of Skolt Sami and how it might be construed as a pluricentric language. Historical factors are identified that might contribute to a pluricentric identity: geographic location and political history; shortages of language documentation, and the establishment of a normative body for the development of a standard language. Skolt Sami is assessed in the context of Sami languages and is forwarded as one of a closely related yet distinct language group. Here the issue then becomes one of facilitating diversity even for under-documented languages. And we aptly describe opportunities in language technology that have been utilized to this end. Finally, brief insight is given for other Uralic languages with regard to pluricentric character and possibilities for language users to facilitate the maintenance of their individual language needs.Peer reviewe

    Isaac Olsen - The First Missionary Among the Sami People in Finnmark

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    This article deals with Isaac Olsen, a Norwegian who was an itinerant catechist and teacher among the Sami people in Finnmark, Northern Norway. The author claims that Isaac Olsen, as a forerunner to the Sami missionary Thomas von Westen, in fact was the first missionary among the Sami people in Finnmark. Isaac Olsen came to Finnmark just after 1700, learned the Sami language and started his work among the Sami population in Eastern Finnmark. He got to know the Sami people well, and they gave him information about Sami pre-Christian religious practice, among other names of places of sacrifice. These names, in addition to many other pieces of information, were written down by Isaac Olsen in a copybook that has been preserved. The article discusses in great detail the contents of this book, which contains valuable knowledge about Early Modern Sami culture and religion. Isaac Olsen, also as a pioneer, translated Danish religious texts into the Sami language, called to Copenhagen to perform translation work by the Missionary College

    Comparative analysis of majority language influence on North Sámi prosody using WaveNet-based modeling

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    The Finnmark North Sami is a variety of North Sami language, an indigenous, endangered minority language spoken in the northernmost parts of Norway and Finland. The speakers of this language are bilingual, and regularly speak the majority language (Finnish or Norwegian) as well as their own North Sami variety. In this paper we investigate possible influences of these majority languages on prosodic characteristics of Finnmark North Sami, and associate them with prosodic patterns prevalent in the majority languages. We present a novel methodology that: (a) automatically finds the portions of speech (words) where the prosodic differences based on majority languages are most robustly manifested; and (b) analyzes the nature of these differences in terms of intonational patterns. For the first step, we trained convolutional WaveNet speech synthesis models on North Sami speech material, modified to contain purely prosodic information, and used conditioning embeddings to find words with the greatest differences between the varieties. The subsequent exploratory analysis suggests that the differences in intonational patterns between the two Finnmark North Sami varieties are not manifested uniformly across word types (based on part-of-speech category). Instead, we argue that the differences reflect phrase-level prosodic characteristics of the majority languages.Peer reviewe

    Dealing with racism: Colonial history and colonization of the mind in the autoethnographic and Indigenous film Sami Blood

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    This article explores how Sami Blood (2016), as an Indigenous film, addresses colonialism and its consequences. Sami Blood documents historical injustice, shame and how colonialism is internalized by the colonized, and mechanisms of systemic and individual racism. Based on analyses of the film, reviews and perspectives on colonialism and cinema, it is argued that Sami Blood contributes to reconciliation processes in contemporary society because it addresses past events and colonial practices from a Sámi perspective. Sami Blood is the first feature film to use the Indigenous South Sámi language, and the first with a female director, Amanda Kernell

    Mammographic screening in Sami speaking municipalities and a control group. Are early outcome measures influenced by ethnicity?

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    Objectives. Female citizens of Sami (the indigenous people of Norway) municipalities in northern Norway have a low risk of breast cancer. The objective of this study was to describe the attendance rate and outcome of the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) in the Sami-speaking municipalities and a control group. Study design. A retrospective registry-based study. Methods. The 8 municipalities included in the administration area of the Sami language law (Sami) were matched with a control group of 11 municipalities (non-Sami). Population data were accessed from Statistics Norway. Data regarding invitations and outcome in the NBCSP during the period 2001–2010 was derived from the Cancer Registry of Norway (CRN). The NBCSP targets women aged 50–69 years. Rates and percentages were compared using chi-square test with a p-value<0.05 as statistical significant. Results. The attendance rate in the NBCSP was 78% in the Sami and 75% in the non-Sami population (p< 0.01). The recall rates were 2.4 and 3.3% in the Sami and non-Sami population, respectively (p<0.01). The rate of invasive screen detected cancer was not significantly lower in the Sami group (p=0.14). The percentage of all breast cancers detected in the NBCSP among the Sami (67%) was lower compared with the non-Sami population (86%, p=0.06). Conclusion. Despite a lower risk of breast cancer, the Sami attended the NBCSP more frequently than the control group. The recall and cancer detection rate was lower among the Sami compared with the non-Sami group

    Sami speakers are less satisfied with general practitioners' services

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    Artikkel som viser at samisktalende er mindre fornøyd med legetjenester.OBJECTIVES: the government's Action Plan for Health and Social Services states as a goal that the Sami population's encounter with health and social services should be just as good as what the rest of the population experiences. The goal of this study is to investigate patient satisfaction with the municipal GP service in areas with both a Sami and Norwegian population. STUDY DESIGN: a cross-sectional population study using questionnaires. METHODS: the data were taken from the population based study of health and living conditions in areas with both Sami and Norwegian populations (SAMINOR) in which respondents were asked about their satisfaction with GP services in their municipalities. This population survey was carried out in the period 2002-2004. The analyses include 15,612 men and women aged 36-79. RESULTS: the Sami-speaking patients were less satisfied with the municipal GP service as a whole than were the Norwegian speakers; RR 2.4 (95% CI 2.1-2.7). They were less satisfied with the physicians' language skills; RR 5.8 (95% CI 4.8-7.0); and they felt that misunderstandings between physician and patient due to language problems were more frequent; RR 3.8 (95% CI 3.3-4.3). One-third expressed that they did not wish to use an interpreter. CONCLUSIONS: the results indicate that it is necessary to place greater emphasis on the physicians' language competency when hiring GPs in municipalities within the Administrative Area for the Sami Language. This could improve satisfaction with the physicians' services

    The politics of belonging in the Indigenous North

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    This chapter focuses on the politics of belonging. In the case of the Sami, it shows how a sense of belonging is expressed in relation to particular practices, material objects, temporal rhythms, forms of language and places. The language became the first 'official' marker of Sami culture after the ruling of the Committee for Sami Affairs in 1952. The 'recognition' comes from being involved in more informal networks or social relations as individuals are defined by their 'ties to recognised Sami families'. At the national level, legislation was enacted to recognise the Sami's unique culture and ancestry and their status as an Indigenous people who have the right to special protection. In discussing Nils-Aslak Valkeapaa's connections with Indigenous groups in North America, it is argued that a shared sense of belonging comes not only through political activism but also through 'the feelings that the similarity of life across the Arctic arouses,' including the environment, material objects and cultural practices.<br

    GPU-Based Data Processing for 2-D Microwave Imaging on MAST

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    The Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) diagnostic is a Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) diagnostic based at Culham Centre for Fusion Energy. The acceleration of the SAMI diagnostic data-processing code by a graphics processing unit is presented, demonstrating acceleration of up to 60 times compared to the original IDL (Interactive Data Language) data-processing code. SAMI will now be capable of intershot processing allowing pseudo-real-time control so that adjustments and optimizations can be made between shots. Additionally, for the first time the analysis of many shots will be possible
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