25,319 research outputs found

    Coarse fish in Scotland: a threat or a resource?

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    This brief article summarizes the ecological role of non-salmonid fishes in Scottish fresh waters. Most government-sponsored research has focused on the ecologically valuable salmonids in this area, yet non-salmonid species are widely distributed in Scotland and play an important ecological role in freshwater ecosystems. The fish fauna of Scotland differs from other parts of the British Isles by being more impoverished following the end of the last Ice Age, ca. 10 000 years ago

    Aspects of the washout of salmonid eggs. 5. Attempts to assess the importance of washout as a cause of mortailty

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    The paper reviews the methodology of attempts to assess the importance of washout as a cause of loss of salmonid eggs and alevins. The results of this study are presented of various small-scale field trials using buried artificial salmonid eggs and tethered table tennis balls. The results suggested that, even when few eggs were actually lost by washout, some downstream movement of the upper layers of gravel and of artificial eggs might have taken place

    Central area redd project [Ribble, Hodder and Lune catchments]

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    Redd counting is an integral part of most Fishery Officers duties. The number and distribution of salmonid redds throughout salmonid catchments provides invaluable information on the range and extent of spawning by both salmon and sea trout. A project was initiated by the Fisheries Science and Management Team of Central Area, North West Region in England in liaison with the Flood Defence function. The main objective of this project was to assess redd count data for Central Area and attempt to quantify these data in order to produce a grading system that would highlight key salmonid spawning areas. By showing which were the main areas for salmon and sea trout spawning, better informed decisions could be made on whether or not in-stream Flood Defence works should be given the go-ahead. The main salmonid catchments in Central Area were broken into individual reaches, approximately 1 km in length. The number of redds in these individual reaches were then calculated and a density per lkm value was obtained for each reach. A grading system was devised which involved looking at the range of density per km values and dividing this by five to produce 5 classes, A - E. A sixth class (F) was used where the density per Ion value was 0.00. This grading system was calculated at two levels of detail. Grades for salmon and sea trout were produced for each individual catchment and also on an Area-wide level. Maps were produced using a range of colours to represent the grade for each reach. These maps provide a highly useful overview of the status of salmonid spawning for each catchment over individual years and highlight the key salmon and sea trout spawning areas in each catchment. These maps and the associated summary data should now provide Flood Defence and Fisheries staff with a fairly detailed overview of the status of spawning in any location within the. main salmonid catchments in Central Area. Although these maps are very useful they should only be used as a guide. The current practice of consulting with the local Fishery Officer should be continued to ensure that expert local knowledge is taken into account

    Responses of salmonids to habitat changes

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    Streams in western North America provide spawning and rearing habitats for several species of salmon and trout that are of substantial economic importance in the region. Timber that grows on lands through which these streams flow is also economically important, and its harvest can substantially change habitat conditions and aquatic production in salmonid streams. Undisturbed forests, the streams that flow through them, and the salmonid communities in these streams have intrinsic scientific, genetic, and cultural values in addition to their economic importance. The complex relations between salmonids and their physical environment, and the changes in these relations brought about by timber harvest, have been investigated extensively (see the bibliography by Macdonald et al. 1988). However, in spite of considerable evidence of profound changes in channel morphology and in light, temperature, and flow regimes associated with timber harvests, much uncertainty exists about the responses of salmonids to these changes

    Effects of flow regime on the young stages of salmonid fishes. Summary and conclusions based on results for 1981-1985

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    The main British salmonid species spawn in clean gravel in streams and rivers, many of them in the upland areas of Britain. The earliest stages of the life cycle (eggs and alevins) spend some months within the gravel of the river bed. During this period their survival rate can be strongly influenced by flow regime and by related phenomena such as movement of coarse river bed material, changes in water level and the deposition of silt. In recent years human influence upon the flow regimes of upland water courses and upon the sediment inputs to them has increased. In order to conserve and, if possible, enhance the populations of salmonid fishes a deeper understanding of the interrelationships between survival of young salmonids and flow-related phenomena is needed. The acquisition of appropriate information is the main aim of the present project, which included: Studies on silt movement and the infilling of gravel voids by fine sediments, together with initial studies on the relationship between intragravel oxygen supply rate and the survival of intragravel stages of salmonids; studies in the general field of egg washout. The latter investigated the physical background to gravel bed disruption, the examination of the physical characteristics of sites chosen for redds, dimensions of redds and burial depth of eggs relative to the size of the fish constructing the redd and a series of smaller studies on other aspects of egg washout

    Controls on spatial and temporal variations in sand delivery to salmonid spawning riffles

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    Fine sediment infiltration into gravel interstices is known to be detrimental to incubating salmonid embryos. Infiltration into spawning riffles can show large spatial variations at the scale of a morphological unit and over time, with significant implications for embryo survival. Furthermore, some process-based infiltration studies, and incubation-to-emergence models assume that fines are delivered to redds via suspension rather than bedload. This process-based 12-month study examined spatial patterns of predominantly sand infiltration into gravels in an upland trout stream, using infiltration baskets. An assessment of Rouse numbers for infiltrated sand indicated that it was transported predominantly as bedload at flow peaks. Clear temporal and spatial patterns existed, with highest rates of infiltration strongly associated with higher discharges (r2 = 0.7, p < .05). Seasonal variations in the delivery of different grain sizes were also a feature, with enhanced contributions of 0.5–2 mm sediment during elevated winter flows and 0.125–0.5 mm sediment during spring and summer; the latter is potentially harmful to the later stages of embryo incubation. Clear spatial patterns were also evident across riffles, with highest rates of infiltration tending to occur in areas of lower relative roughness—the areas competent to transport sand for longer periods. Incubation-to-emergence models should take into consideration spatial patterns of fine sediment dynamics at the pool–riffle scale, to improve prediction

    Saprolegnia infections of salmonid fish

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    This paper deals firstly with the identification and characteristics of fungal pathogens that colonize salmonids and then considers the relative importance of the condition of the host fish and the environmental factors which may influence the interaction between pathogen and host

    A survey of estuarine oxygen concentrations in relation to the passage of migratory salmonids

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    This report presents the first attempt at a national assessment of an Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for dissolved oxygen (DO) in estuaries with the objective of allowing the passage of migratory salmonids. Under the Control of Pollution Act, Water Authorities and River Purification Boards have powers to control discharges to estuaries and need to define an EQS for the calculation of consent conditions. The object of any such standards is to permit the existence of good quality salmonid fisheries with only very occasional restrictions to the passage of fish. The report gives brief summaries of the DO regime in estuaries, the oxygen requirements of salmonids, and of tentative standards proposed by various authorities. These standards are then compared with DO and fishery data from UK estuaries, provided by the appropriate regulatory authorities. It concludes that a minimum annual lower 95-percentile of 5.0 mg/1 will meet the objective in most estuaries, and that a lower value of 3.0 mg/1 will permit the establishment of a more restricted fishery. However, more stringent standards may be needed in estuaries containing high concentrations of toxic pollutants. containing high concentrations of toxic pollutants
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