19,680 research outputs found

    Design of a maritime security plan for a ship based on its risk assessment in the maritime environment

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    RESUMEN. El presente estudio, se ha realizado como un ensayo académico y tiene como objetivo el diseño de un plan de protección de un buque. Nos hemos basado en las recomendaciones expuestas en el Convenio Internacional para la Seguridad de la Vida Humana en la Mar (SOLAS), en concreto, sobre el Capítulo XI-1 y XI-2, siendo este último el Código Internacional de Protección de Buques e Instalaciones Portuarias (PBIP). Para conseguir materializar mi objetivo, hemos realizado consultas bibliográficas de material didáctico de las asignaturas impartidas en el Máster de Ingeniería Náutica y Gestión Marítima como son: Formación Investigadora (M1477), Sistemas integrados de Gestión (M1478) y Auditoría de Gestión y Diseño de Planes de Emergencia y Seguridad en Buques y Empresas del Sector Marítimo (M1485). Así mismo, la asignatura de Protección de los Buques y de las Instalaciones Portuarias (G1069), del Grado en Ingeniería Náutica y Trasporte Marítimo me ha servido para configurar mi objetivo. De igual manera, se han realizado consultas legislativas en el marco normativo nacional, europeo e internacional. Consultas en la prensa internacional relacionada con el ámbito de la protección marítima. La participación en el ejercicio de la Armada Española CPX20, dentro de la asignatura G1069 y la utilización del material del ejercicio y la experiencia adquirida en el mismo para la mejora de los procedimientos de protección ha sido indispensable. Como complemento, hemos realizado la referencia bibliográfica con el sistema del Instituto de Ingenieros Eléctricos y Electrónicos (IEEE), para minimizar el impacto visual de la bibliografía en el texto. Desde el siglo V (a.C.) se registran indicios de conflictos en el ámbito marítimo en materia de seguridad y protección marítima, sin embargo, en el presente estudio, nos centraremos en los incidentes de protección acaecidos desde la década de 1910, relacionados con los periodos bélicos, guerras de corso y posteriormente los sucedidos en tiempo de paz, en el segundo periodo, a partir de la década de 1950 en adelante, haciendo alusión a los incidentes de protección marítima, como el secuestro del buque trasatlántico Achile Lauro, por el grupo terrorista Frente para la Liberación de Palestina (FLP), el secuestro del buque Santa María por el grupo armado (DRIL), Directorio Revolucionario Ibérico de Liberación, el ataque pirata al buque atunero español Alakrana perpetrado por piratas somalíes, el ataque terrorista al buque tanque M/V Limburg donde se utilizó una lancha semirrígida neumática teledirigida con explosivos para realizar el ataque terrorista, o el atentado terrorista con artefacto explosivo sucedido a bordo el Superferry14, cuando este se encontraba navegando, ostentando el mismo, el mayor número de víctimas registradas hasta el momento en un atentado de esta categoría. Así mismo, realizaremos una evolución histórica de la normativa en cuanto a protección marítima se refiere, a nivel nacional, europeo e Internacional. En segundo lugar, sentamos las bases para el diseño del plan de protección del buque, partiendo desde los requisitos fundamentales que debe tener nuestro plan de protección, definiendo los niveles de protección internacionalmente estipulados, las características y la zona de operaciones de nuestro buque hipotético, redactando una serie de procedimientos basados en función de las amenazas descritas en la guía de la Organización Tratado Atlántico Norte (O.T.A.N.), NCAGS, siglas en ingles de Naval Cooperation and Guidance for Shipping. Para ello, utilizaremos la herramienta D.A.F.O, Debilidades, Amenazas, Fortalezas, Oportunidades, para conocer la situación real en la que se encuentra el buque hipotético y plantear una estrategia de futuro, en cuanto a la protección marítima. En tercer lugar, utilizaremos el método secuencial de cálculo de riesgo Mosler, para cuantificar el riesgo de materialización de dichas amenazas, que afecten directamente a nuestro buque hipotético, para determinadas zonas de navegación y puertos de recalada, todo ello bajo el análisis del conocimiento crítico. Este estudio académico destaca de que la amenaza de ciberseguridad tanto de los buques como de las instalaciones portuarias está abierta y latente. Por consiguiente, las conclusiones que se aportan y las metodologías sobre protección marítima, se encuentran recogidas dentro del Convenio de Colaboración firmado entre el Ministerio de Defensa y la Escuela Técnica Superior de Náutica de la Universidad de Cantabria, para la investigación y mejora de los protocolos de seguridad marítima, publicado en el Boletín Oficial del Estado el 1 de agosto de 2019.ABSTRACT. This study has been carried out as an academic essay and its objective is to design a plan for the protection of a ship. We have based ourselves on the recommendations set out in the International Convention for the Safety of Human Life at Sea (SOLAS), specifically, on Chapter XI-1 and XI-2, the latter being the International Code for the Protection of Ships and Port Facilities (PBIP). To achieve my objective, we have carried out bibliographic consultations of didactic material of the subjects taught in the Master of Nautical Engineering and Maritime Management such as: Research Training (M1477), Integrated Management Systems (M1478) and Management Audit and Design of Plans of Emergency and Security in Ships and Companies of the Maritime Sector (M1485). Likewise, the subject of Protection of Ships and Port Facilities (G1069), of the Degree in Nautical Engineering and Maritime Transport has helped me to configure my objective. Similarly, legislative consultations have been carried out in the national, European and international regulatory framework. Consultations in the international press related to the field of maritime security. Participation in the exercise of the Spanish Navy CPX20, within the subject G1069 and the use of the exercise material and the experience acquired in it for the improvement of protection procedures has been essential. As a complement, we have made the bibliographic reference with the system of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), to minimize the visual impact of the bibliography in the text. Since the 5th century (BC) there have been indications of conflicts in the maritime field in matters of security and maritime protection, however, in this study, we will focus on protection incidents that occurred since the 1910s, related to the periods warfare, privateering wars, and later those that occurred in peacetime, in the second period, from the 1950s onwards, alluding to maritime security incidents, such as the hijacking of the transatlantic ship Achile Lauro by the group terrorist Front for the Liberation of Palestine (FLP), the hijacking of the Santa María ship by the armed group (DRIL) Iberian Revolutionary Liberation Directorate, the pirate attack on the Spanish tuna vessel Alakrana perpetrated by Somali pirates, the terrorist attack on the tanker M V Limburg where a remote-controlled zodiac with explosives was used to carry out the terrorist attack, or the terrorist attack with an explosive device that occurred on board the Superferry14 when it was sailing, showing the highest number of victims registered so far in an attack on this category. Likewise, we will carry out a historical evolution of the regulations regarding maritime protection at the national, European, and international level. On the second hand, we lay the foundations for the design of the ship's security plan, starting from the fundamental requirements that our security plan must have, defining the internationally stipulated security levels, the characteristics, and the area of operations of our hypothetical ship, writing a series of procedures based on the threats described in the guide of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Naval Cooperation and Guidance for Shipping (NCAGS). On the one hand, we will use the D.A.F.O tool, (Weaknesses, Threats, Strengths, Opportunities), to know the real situation in which the hypothetical ship is and propose a future strategy, in terms of maritime security. Any way, we will use the Mosler sequential risk calculation method to quantify the risk of materialization of said threats, which directly affect our hypothetical ship, for certain navigation areas and ports of call, all under the analysis of critical knowledge. This academic study highlights that the cybersecurity threat of both ships and port facilities is open and latent. Consequently, the conclusions that are provided and the methodologies on maritime protection are included in the Collaboration Agreement signed between the Ministry of Defense and the Higher Technical School of Nautical Studies of the University of Cantabria, for the investigation and improvement of the protocols of maritime security, published in the Official State Gazette on August 1, 2019.Máster en Ingeniería Náutica y Gestión Marítim

    A spatial explicit vulnerability assessment for a coastal socio-ecological Natura 2000 site

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    In line with the global trend, the Ria de Aveiro coastal lagoon is subjected to multiple co-occurring pressures threatening vital benefits flowing from nature to people. The main objective of this research was to assess the status of habitats important for ecosystem services in the Ria de Aveiro by identifying vulnerable areas to anthropogenic threats. The pressures from seven relevant human activities (recreation, services, aquaculture, agriculture, commercial development, unintended impacts from management, and invasive alien species) were analysed based on their spatiotemporal distribution (exposure) and impact over the EUNIS habitats (EUNIS codes A2.2, A2.22 – sand flats and beaches; A2.3 – mud flats; A2.61 – seagrasses; A2.5, A2.53C, A2.535, A2.545, A2.554 – salt marshes; and, X10 – ‘Bocage,’ a landscape of small-hedged fields) in seven distinct landscape units. A prospective scenario, co-developed for the year 2030, was evaluated using a map-based risk assessment tool and brought forward the near-term vulnerability of the seagrass biotope. The highest risks posed to intertidal habitats (mud flats and salt marshes) were driven mainly by environmental management activities that support critical socio-economic sectors. Our methodology evaluated plausible threats to habitats in the near term, established baseline knowledge for the adaptive management process in Ria de Aveiro Natura 2000 site, and showcased how future assessments can inform the operationalization of ecosystem-based management as new information becomes available

    Development of tobacco and nicotine policy : Proposals for action by the working group 2023

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    Development of tobacco and nicotine policy : Proposals for action by the working group 2023On 7 February 2022, the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health appointed a working group tasked with making proposals for legislative amendments and other measures that support and promote the end of the use of tobacco and nicotine products by 2030. The working group had three specific tasks related to preventing the use of all nicotine products (including nicotine replacement therapy products), improving the smoke-free environment of housing corporations and raising the purchasing age limit from 18 years of age. Achieving the objective of the Tobacco Act requires the continuation and development of the current systematic and determined implementation of measures and the introduction of new measures. In order to achieve this objective, the proposals presented by the working group will need to be implemented already at the beginning of the next government term. The measures proposed in the report create the conditions for eliminating the use of tobacco and other nicotine products. Further efforts are needed every few years to achieve this goal. The working group considers that the implementation of the new proposals should always be included in the next government programme. The working group's proposals concern taxation, prevention of starting the use of tobacco and nicotine products by young people, smoke-free environments, sales and marketing, support for quitting, passenger imports, regulation of new nicotine products, enhanced enforcement, and resourcing, monitoring and evaluation

    On the Mechanism of Building Core Competencies: a Study of Chinese Multinational Port Enterprises

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    This study aims to explore how Chinese multinational port enterprises (MNPEs) build their core competencies. Core competencies are firms’special capabilities and sources to gain sustainable competitive advantage (SCA) in marketplace, and the concept led to extensive research and debates. However, few studies include inquiries about the mechanisms of building core competencies in the context of Chinese MNPEs. Accordingly, answers were sought to three research questions: 1. What are the core competencies of the Chinese MNPEs? 2. What are the mechanisms that the Chinese MNPEs use to build their core competencies? 3. What are the paths that the Chinese MNPEs pursue to build their resources bases? The study adopted a multiple-case study design, focusing on building mechanism of core competencies with RBV. It selected purposively five Chinese leading MNPEs and three industry associations as Case Companies. The study revealed three main findings. First, it identified three generic core competencies possessed by Case Companies, i.e., innovation in business models and operations, utilisation of technologies, and acquisition of strategic resources. Second, it developed the conceptual framework of the Mechanism of Building Core Competencies (MBCC), which is a process of change of collective learning in effective and efficient utilization of resources of a firm in response to critical events. Third, it proposed three paths to build core competencies, i.e., enhancing collective learning, selecting sustainable processes, and building resource base. The study contributes to the knowledge of core competencies and RBV in three ways: (1) presenting three generic core competencies of the Chinese MNPEs, (2) proposing a new conceptual framework to explain how Chinese MNPEs build their core competencies, (3) suggesting a solid anchor point (MBCC) to explain the links among resources, core competencies, and SCA. The findings set benchmarks for Chinese logistics industry and provide guidelines to build core competencies

    Plato’s Later Moral Epistemology

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    This Ph.D. thesis aims to provide a comprehensive account of the relationship between ethics and epistemology in Plato’s late dialogues (specifically, Sophist, Statesman, Philebus, and Laws). While scholars have been concerned with understanding the extent to which Plato’s middle dialogues resonate with his early theory of ethical intellectualism (according to which knowledge is a necessary and sufficient condition for virtue), Plato’s later moral epistemology has received much less attention. The few scholars who have worked on the subject have argued that Plato’s late dialogues present a radical transformation of the epistemological and ethical ideas displayed in Plato’s earlier works. The scholarly debate has almost unanimously concluded that Plato’s late dialogues heavily revise the theory of ethical intellectualism that, arguably, features in the earlier works. Through an in-depth analysis of the late dialogues’ textual evidence, this thesis will show that the so-called Socratic theory of ethical intellectualism has not been abandoned by Plato in his late works. To this end, I will contend that the Sophist, the Statesman, the Philebus, and the Laws suggest that (philosophical) knowledge is the ultimate condition that a moral agent has to meet to be fully virtuous. In addition, taking for granted that philosophers alone can achieve a full and philosophical virtue, I will also show that Plato’s later moral epistemology extends beyond philosophers. For, while achieving philosophical knowledge is presented as a necessary and sufficient condition for being virtuous, I will argue that Plato’s late dialogues establish that opinion, if true, is sufficient for acting virtuously

    Metaphors of London fog, smoke and mist in Victorian and Edwardian Art and Literature

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    Julian Wolfreys has argued that after 1850 writers employed stock images of the city without allowing them to transform their texts. This thesis argues, on the contrary, that metaphorical uses of London fog were complex and subtle during the Victorian and Edwardian periods, at least until 1914. Fog represented, in particular, formlessness and the dissolution of boundaries. Examining the idea of fog in literature, verse, newspaper accounts and journal articles, as well as in the visual arts, as part of a common discourse about London and the state of its inhabitants, this thesis charts how the metaphorical appropriation of this idea changed over time. Four of Dickens's novels are used to track his use of fog as part of a discourse of the natural and unnatural in individual and society, identifying it with London in progressively more negative terms. Visual representations of fog by Constable, Turner, Whistler, Monet, Markino, O'Connor, Roberts and Wyllie and Coburn showed an increasing readiness to engage with this discourse. Social tensions in the city in the 1880s were articulated in art as well as in fiction. Authors like Hay and Barr showed the destruction of London by its fog because of its inhabitants' supposed degeneracy. As the social threat receded, apocalyptic scenarios gave way to a more optimistic view in the work of Owen and others. Henry James used fog as a metaphorical representation of the boundaries of gendered behaviour in public, and the problems faced by women who crossed them. The dissertation also examines fog and individual transgression, in novels and short stories by Lowndes, Stevenson, Conan Doyle and Joseph Conrad. After 1914, fog was no more than a crude signifier of Victorian London in literature, film and, later, television, deployed as a cliche instead of the subtle metaphorical idea discussed in this thesis

    TOWARDS AN UNDERSTANDING OF EFFORTFUL FUNDRAISING EXPERIENCES: USING INTERPRETATIVE PHENOMENOLOGICAL ANALYSIS IN FUNDRAISING RESEARCH

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    Physical-activity oriented community fundraising has experienced an exponential growth in popularity over the past 15 years. The aim of this study was to explore the value of effortful fundraising experiences, from the point of view of participants, and explore the impact that these experiences have on people’s lives. This study used an IPA approach to interview 23 individuals, recognising the role of participants as proxy (nonprofessional) fundraisers for charitable organisations, and the unique organisation donor dynamic that this creates. It also bought together relevant psychological theory related to physical activity fundraising experiences (through a narrative literature review) and used primary interview data to substantiate these. Effortful fundraising experiences are examined in detail to understand their significance to participants, and how such experiences influence their connection with a charity or cause. This was done with an idiographic focus at first, before examining convergences and divergences across the sample. This study found that effortful fundraising experiences can have a profound positive impact upon community fundraisers in both the short and the long term. Additionally, it found that these experiences can be opportunities for charitable organisations to create lasting meaningful relationships with participants, and foster mutually beneficial lifetime relationships with them. Further research is needed to test specific psychological theory in this context, including self-esteem theory, self determination theory, and the martyrdom effect (among others)

    Shopping for experts

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    This paper explores the socio-epistemic practice of shopping for experts. I argue that expert shopping is particularly likely to occur on what Thi Nguyen calls cognitive islands. To support my argument, I focus on macroeconomics. First, I make a prima-facie case for thinking that macroeconomics is a cognitive island. Then, I argue that ordinary people are particularly likely to engage in expert shopping when it comes to macroeconomic matters. In particular, I distinguish between two kinds of expert shopping, which I call cynical and wishful, and introduce the notion of assisted expert shopping, which occurs when people or organizations shop for experts on behalf of other people. I argue that assisted expert shopping can sometime result in what I call a propagandistic use of expertise. Finally, I critically examine some possible reasons for optimism and find them wanting. I conclude by suggesting that that much of what I said about shopping for macroeconomic experts might also apply mutatis mutandis to other policy-relevant domains of expertise

    The interplay of reason and emotion in legal reasoning

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    Until now, the law has been thought to be rational, but there have been many problems that cannot be explained by reason. To solve this problem, this thesis uses a utilitarian approach. Hume says that reason judges whether or not the relations between the two objects are in agreement, and that emotion is a fact itself and cannot be subject to truth or falsehood. Reason has long been thought to include the ability to reflect, but reflection itself cannot judge right or wrong. We can also reflect on our feelings or preferences, which are not subject to truth or falsehood. However, reason can judge whether the expressed emotions are consistent and whether the internal actual mind and the external expressed mind are different. Due to the bounded rationality of humans, utilitarian calculations to maximise happiness cannot be made for all problems; thus, in everyday life, we make rules, abide by them, and judge with them in general. Bounded rationality is the reason why law and deontological thinking are necessary in practical reasoning. The content of the law is the value system shared in society, which changes over time. In the economic method based on emotivism that supposes differences in preference, fairness can be maintained by adhering to the consistency of value judgement and principle of protecting minorities. In an economic form of utilitarianism, it is possible to explain the weighing of values, the exception of the law, and the development of legal systems. On top of that, we can improve the welfare of society and protect the rights of minorities by using the above mentioned approach
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