1,735 research outputs found

    Developing A Road Freight Transport Performance Measurement System To Drive Sustainability:An Empirical Study Of Egyptian Road Freight Transport Companies

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    While several road freight performance measurement systems have been developed, only a limited number of quantified performance measurement frameworks encompassing diverse sets of performance metrics from multiple sustainable perspectives are available on a technological platform. These sets of metrics could be integrated as crucial performance indicators for assessing the operational performance of various road freight transport companies. These indicators include fuel efficiency, trip duration, vehicle loading, and cargo capacity. The objective of this research is to construct a conceptual road freight performance measurement framework that comprehensively incorporates performance elements from sustainable viewpoints (economic, environmental, and social), leveraging technology to measure the performance of road freight transport companies. This proposed framework aims to aid these companies in gauging their performance using technology, thus enhancing their operations towards sustainability.Within the road freight transport sector, several challenges exist, with congestion, road infrastructure maintenance, and driver training and qualifications being particularly pressing issues. The developed performance measurement framework offers the means for companies to evaluate the effects of technology integration on vehicles and overall performance. This allows companies to measure their performance from an operational standpoint rather than solely a strategic one, thereby identifying areas requiring improvement. Egypt was chosen as the empirical study location due to its relatively low level of technological integration within its road freight sector.This thesis employs an explanatory mixed methods approach, encompassing four distinct phases. The first phase entails a review to formulate the proposed theoretical performance measurement framework. Subsequently, the second phase involves conducting semi-structured interviews using a Delphi method to both develop a conceptual performance measurement framework and explore the present state of Egypt's road freight transport sector. Following this, the third phase encompasses surveys based on the results derived from Delphi analysis, involving diverse participants from the road freight transport industry. The aim is to validate the developed performance measurement framework through an empirical study conducted in Egypt. Lastly, the fourth phase centres around organizing focus groups involving stakeholders within road freight transport companies. The goal here is to propose a roadmap for implementing the developed road freight transport performance measurement framework within the Egyptian context.The primary theoretical contribution of this research is the development of a road freight transport performance measurement framework that integrates the three sustainability dimensions with technology. Additionally, this study offers practical guidance for the application of the developed framework in various countries and contexts. From a practical standpoint, this research aids road freight transport managers in evaluating their operational performance, thereby identifying challenges, devising action plans, and making informed decisions to mitigate these issues and enhance sustainability-oriented performance. Ultimately, the developed road freight transport performance measurement framework is poised to promote performance measurement aligned with technology, fostering progress towards achieving the sustainable development goals by 2030

    Digitalization and Development

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    This book examines the diffusion of digitalization and Industry 4.0 technologies in Malaysia by focusing on the ecosystem critical for its expansion. The chapters examine the digital proliferation in major sectors of agriculture, manufacturing, e-commerce and services, as well as the intermediary organizations essential for the orderly performance of socioeconomic agents. The book incisively reviews policy instruments critical for the effective and orderly development of the embedding organizations, and the regulatory framework needed to quicken the appropriation of socioeconomic synergies from digitalization and Industry 4.0 technologies. It highlights the importance of collaboration between government, academic and industry partners, as well as makes key recommendations on how to encourage adoption of IR4.0 technologies in the short- and long-term. This book bridges the concepts and applications of digitalization and Industry 4.0 and will be a must-read for policy makers seeking to quicken the adoption of its technologies

    Report on State Annual Accounts 2022 : Annex 4 State corporate holdings

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    As provided in section 46 of the Constitution, the Government submits to Parliament a report on the State annual accounts and information on the management of government finances and compliance with the budget including measures taken by the Government in response to the resolutions passed by Parliament. More detailed provisions on the report on the State annual accounts are set out in section 9a of the Government Act (715/2003) and sections 17 and 18 of the State Budget Act (42371988). Under section 18 of the Budget Act, the reports on central government finances, the management of central government finances and their operative effectiveness included in the government annual report shall provide true and sufficient information on compliance with the Budget, central government revenue and expenditure, central government financial position, and effectiveness (true and sufficient view). Legislatively, the contents of the report are more specifically governed by the requirements laid down in the State Budget Decree (1243/1992). The Report on State Annual Accounts for 2022 consists of five parts: - Report on State Annual Accounts - Annex 1 Financial performance by ministries - Annex 2 Financial statements - Annex 3 Measures taken in response to statements and opinions issued by Parliament - Annex 4 State corporate holding

    Annual Report 2022

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    An empirical investigation of the relationship between integration, dynamic capabilities and performance in supply chains

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    This research aimed to develop an empirical understanding of the relationships between integration, dynamic capabilities and performance in the supply chain domain, based on which, two conceptual frameworks were constructed to advance the field. The core motivation for the research was that, at the stage of writing the thesis, the combined relationship between the three concepts had not yet been examined, although their interrelationships have been studied individually. To achieve this aim, deductive and inductive reasoning logics were utilised to guide the qualitative study, which was undertaken via multiple case studies to investigate lines of enquiry that would address the research questions formulated. This is consistent with the author’s philosophical adoption of the ontology of relativism and the epistemology of constructionism, which was considered appropriate to address the research questions. Empirical data and evidence were collected, and various triangulation techniques were employed to ensure their credibility. Some key features of grounded theory coding techniques were drawn upon for data coding and analysis, generating two levels of findings. These revealed that whilst integration and dynamic capabilities were crucial in improving performance, the performance also informed the former. This reflects a cyclical and iterative approach rather than one purely based on linearity. Adopting a holistic approach towards the relationship was key in producing complementary strategies that can deliver sustainable supply chain performance. The research makes theoretical, methodological and practical contributions to the field of supply chain management. The theoretical contribution includes the development of two emerging conceptual frameworks at the micro and macro levels. The former provides greater specificity, as it allows meta-analytic evaluation of the three concepts and their dimensions, providing a detailed insight into their correlations. The latter gives a holistic view of their relationships and how they are connected, reflecting a middle-range theory that bridges theory and practice. The methodological contribution lies in presenting models that address gaps associated with the inconsistent use of terminologies in philosophical assumptions, and lack of rigor in deploying case study research methods. In terms of its practical contribution, this research offers insights that practitioners could adopt to enhance their performance. They can do so without necessarily having to forgo certain desired outcomes using targeted integrative strategies and drawing on their dynamic capabilities

    A feasibility study on integrating electric buses with waste gasification for a green public transport system and solid waste management

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    Waste management and public transport are two major issues requiring decarbonisation in the face of climate change and environmental concerns related to global warming. Green transport systems are classified as zero or low carbon alternatives to the fossil fuel-based approach and vehicles. These systems rely on zero emission fuels such as hydrogen. Thermochemical processes (e.g., gasification) and biochemical technologies (e.g., fermentation) can convert carbon-based feedstock such as waste to produce desirable products like hydrogen. Waste-to Hydrogen is proposed as a potential solution to provide both sustainable waste management and hydrogen production. Waste-to-Hydrogen (WtH) is a hybrid solution that simultaneously combines sustainable waste management and non-fossil-fuel based hydrogen production. The concept of distributed WtH systems, based on gasification and fermentation, is to support hydrogen fuel cell buses in Glasgow is considered as a potential solution zero emission transport development. Hydrogen has potential to replace petrol and diesel fuels and consequently become part the zero-carbon measures to aid the transition to cleaner energy sources. When hydrogen is produced from renewable or sustainable energy sources it can help decarbonise the energy and transport sector. To be attractive to policymakers and investors it is necessary for the hydrogen from a WtH system to demonstrate its carbon footprint is lower than conventional methods. By supporting the effort to reach carbon emission reduction targets, hydrogen is part of the solution to limit climate change, a global emergency. Providing research to support the roadmap of hydrogen-powered public transport to shape the direction of future technological improvement and policy formulation. As well as the potential to provide a clean versatile fuel through hydrogen, WtH can offer an alternative waste management practice that diverts waste away from landfill and incineration. By utilising and transforming waste into a useful energy resource, a value is applied which can encourage the development of sustainable disposal methods such as WtH conversion processes. Glasgow was chosen as the location for the study due to the large population which would supply regular amounts of waste to be used as feedstock. The city council is also actively trying to decarbonise local industries including transport, this is seen by the strategies and targets in place such as Net Zero by 2045. An aim of this study is to demonstrate how low carbon hydrogen production technologies could fit into the city’s transport and energy plan and support the hydrogen strategy, thereby benefitting the people of Glasgow. Whilst Glasgow does not currently use fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) for public transport, an intention to run a fleet has been presented through the publication of the Scottish Governments Hydrogen Policy Statement (2020) and Hydrogen Action Plan (2022). FCEB fleets in other parts of the UK notably London and Birmingham, have shown the environmental benefit through the annual carbon savings made. FCEBs are classified as zero emissions buses (ZEB) which the UK Department of Transport has stated can reduce carbon emissions by 46 tonnes per year and nitrogen oxide (NOx) by 23kg when compared to a diesel bus (UK Government Department for Transport, 2021). This study contributes to the growing evidence of the benefits of using hydrogen as a transport fuel in terms of the carbon savings as an alternative to conventional fossil fuels. Whilst the main concerns of the underdeveloped industrial status, relatively immature technology and high costs are explored. In practice WtH is currently limited to laboratory and pilot scale systems and requires further investment and policy support for advancements to be made. These bottlenecks and limitations are considered in the discussion section of this study. The research question centres around the economic and environmental feasibility of WtH within Glasgow. A feasible project would show the carbon savings compared to conventional methods in both aspects of waste management and hydrogen production. The feasibility is also a measurement of positive returns on economic investment where total project costs do not outweigh the environmental benefits associated with low carbon technologies. This study critically assesses the current situation for WtH development in terms of the environmental impact and potential carbon savings, economic implications, and cost benefits, plus transport and climate policy. The novelty of the study establishes a procedure for defining how WtH could support the growing hydrogen industry as a low carbon hydrogen production technique. The results from the environmental impact analysis and economic assessment add data sets to existing research in academia and energy industry. Life cycle assessment (LCA), cost benefit analysis (CBA) and multi-bjective optimization (MOO) have been conducted to determine the feasibility of WtH projects to support green transport systems and sustainable waste management schemes. A variety of WtH scenarios were designed based on biomass waste feedstock, hydrogen production reactors, and upstream and downstream system components. The WtH systems selected use thermochemical and biochemical technologies to convert the different waste feedstocks available in Glasgow with suitable operational conditions according to the waste characteristics. The waste considered in this study is biodegradable, carbon based and organic including household, plastics, waste wood products, as well as the wet fraction of waste such as food and sewage sludge. Five scenarios, four WtH technologies and one conventional hydrogen production technology of steam methane reforming (SMR), were designed to allow for comparison of environmental and economic results. The scenarios differ in waste feedstock type and technology leading to differences in hydrogen production rates, hydrogen yields, and process carbon emissions. Waste that is less suitable for thermochemical conversion processes can be utilised by biochemical technology to ensure the most efficient and least energy intensive method is applied. The environmental approach for this work focuses on the LCA method to evaluate environmental performance through the carbon saving potential using global warming potential (GWP) as the impact indicator for the WtH technologies. It was shown that WtH technologies could reduce <55% of CO2-eq emissions per kg H2 compared to SMR. Gasification treating municipal solid waste and waste wood had global warming potentials of 4.99 and 4.11 kg CO2-eq/kg H2 respectively, which were lower than dark fermentation treating wet waste at 6.6 kg CO2-eq/kg H2 and combined dark and photo fermentation at 6.4 kg CO2-eq/kg H2. The distance emissions of WtH-based electric fuel cell bus scenarios were 0.33-0.44 kg CO2-eq/km as compared to 0.89 kg CO2-eq/km for the SMR-based scenario. The economic assessment in this study uses cost benefit analysis to determine whether the carbon savings outweigh the expected cost of a WtH system. The CBA was conducted to compare the economic feasibility of the different WtH systems with the conventional SMR. A database was that includes, direct cost data on construction, maintenance, operations, infrastructure, and storage, along with indirect cost data comprising environmental impacts and externalities, cost of pollution, carbon taxes and subsidies was collated. The results are in the form of economic indicators Net present value (NPV), Internal rate of return (IRR), Benefit cost ratio (BCR) and Levelized cost of hydrogen (LCoH). The LCoH was calculated as 0.49 GBP/kg for the gasification systems using MSW feedstock and 0.52 GBP/kg for waste wood gasification. The LCoH for dark fermentation was calculated to be 0.52 GBP/kg and 0.59 GBP/kg for combined dark and photo fermentation systems. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to identify the most significant influential factors of distributed WtH systems. The results indicate that the conversion efficiency and the energy density of the waste had the largest impact for biochemical technology and thermochemical technologies, respectively. It is concluded that WtH could be economically feasible for hydrogen production in Glasgow. However, limitations including high capital expenditure will require cost reduction through technical advancements and carbon tax on conventional hydrogen production methods to improve the outlook for WtH. The multi-objective optimisation results suggest that optimisation is possible with the best solution calculated to minimise both total cost and GWP for the four Scenarios assessed in this work. The results from the three analysis types in this work, indicate the feasibility of WtH in Glasgow. The results suggest there is potential to utilise the waste generated within Glasgow to produce hydrogen, reduce the environmental impact of waste management practices, and provide economic benefit to both the energy and transport industry

    Linking Leadership, Investment Strategy and Competence to Organizational Performance with special reference to post-M&A firms

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    M&A is an important research topic in the areas of strategic management, organization development, leadership, management of change, and corporate culture. There are seminal works with solid empirical evidence of effective M&A strategic planning, leadership, competence, and effective cultural integration as success factors for realizing M&A strategic goals. However, managing the entire M&A strategic planning and execution process holistically with synergistic integration of the three domains that the 3H framework (Yu, 2019) advocates has not been studied. With due respect to the significance of the previous studies on single or couples of key independent variables, it appears that they have offered some necessary yet not sufficient conditions for securing effective M&A strategic planning and execution. It is envisaged that this study will help illuminate the holistic management approach in this important research topic. For this study, the main research problem statement is ‚ÄúM&A strategy, leadership and employee competence have a direct impact on the merged organizational performance. However, in order to realize the intended M&A synergies, it is hypothesized that the acquirer has to adopt a holistic approach to manage all these three constructs effectively and efficiently.‚ÄĚ This study provides a holistic view of the key factors affecting the performance of post-M&A performance. The findings of the study have been used to develop a 3H-M&A framework and model which link Leadership, Strategy and Competence to post-M&A organizational performance

    Essays in Applied Corporate Economy

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    This work includes the results of broad research carried out during the PhD course in Economics and Political Economy at the University of Genoa. The aim of my thesis is to apply empirical methods to investigate corporate finance issues. During these years, I have collected a unique dataset on the compensation and tenure of board members in Italy. In this dataset, each board member is represented by a row containing his or her generalities, role, tenure, and compensation, divided into more components: fixed salary, committee fee, benefits, bonus, equity instruments, and severance pay. This dataset is the starting point for my empirical research. The first chapter investigates the hardly discussed relationship between the two functions of accounting information in financial reporting: stewardship’ and valuation’s usefulness. This study explores the current debate on the expandability of the role of the stewardship function within 'decision usefulness' as the purpose of financial reporting. The main contribution of the chapter to the literature is the discovery of the existence of a positive relationship between the two usefulness of accounting information for 'top' board members, while no relationship was found for 'non-top' board members. The second and third chapters examine the relationship between firm performance and executive pay. In particular, the second chapter addresses this analysis using the 'tournament' model. It considers firm performance as a function of compensation and other firm characteristics. While the third chapter adopts the 'agency theory' model and sets up the reverse models by regressing compensation on firm performance. Using a wide range of empirical models, the second and third chapters take an innovative approach to studying the relationship between firm performance, executive pay, and other corporate governance indicators. For the first time, this relationship (in both causal directions) is analyzed along two unexplored dimensions: individual directors (rather than the CEO or the board as a whole) and individual components of total compensation (rather than total or cash compensation). This contributes to the literature by highlighting previously unconsidered variables, such as the different characteristics of different board members and their impact on the performance-pay’s and pay-performance’s relationships. Both chapters also contribute to an in-depth study of the sensitivity of pay to performance (and vice versa) in a context characterized by a corporate governance model that is very different from the ones typically studied in the literature

    Management of socio-economic transformations of business processes: current realities, global challenges, forecast scenarios and development prospects

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    The authors of the scientific monograph have come to the conclusion that –ľanagement of socio-economic transformations of business processes requires the use of mechanisms to support of entrepreneurship, sectors of the national economy, the financial system, and critical infrastructure. Basic research focuses on assessment the state of social service provision, analysing economic security, implementing innovation and introducing digital technologies. The research results have been implemented in the different models of costing, credit risk and capital management, tax control, use of artificial intelligence and blockchain. The results of the study can be used in the developing of policies, programmes and strategies for economic security, development of the agricultural sector, transformation of industrial policy, implementation of employment policy in decision-making at the level of ministries and agencies that regulate the management of socio-economic and European integration processes. The results can also be used by students and young scientists in the educational process and conducting scientific research on global challenges and creation scenarios for the development of socio-economic processes

    Nearshoring in Latin America : a new home for American textile and apparel companies based in China?

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    Si bien es costoso trasladar las operaciones fuera de China, muchas empresas están considerando hacerlo porque hacer negocios allí se está volviendo más costoso debido al aumento de los costos laborales y la amenaza constante del robo de propiedad intelectual. Otros factores que impulsan la salida de empresas de China incluyen la pandemia del coronavirus, la volatilidad del mercado, el conflicto en Ucrania, la interrupción de las cadenas de suministro globales y los temores de una guerra comercial entre China y EE. UU., el mayor importador del mundo. Debido a esto, algunas empresas estadounidenses se han reubicado o tienen la intención de reubicar sus operaciones de abastecimiento y producción fuera de China, utilizando el modelo de producción de proximidad llamado nearshoring. Por estas razones, el objetivo de este documento es determinar, a través de un estudio de análisis de caso, si es factible que las empresas estadounidenses que se especializan en la industria textil y de confecciones adopten procesos empresariales con un enfoque de regionalización, es decir, que puedan trasladar las empresas desde China a América Latina, específicamente en países como Brasil, Colombia, México o El Salvador. La metodología de esta tesis se basa en un enfoque de métodos mixtos. La metodología cualitativa incluye entrevistas no estructuradas a expertos del sector manufacturero y la cuantitativa incluye la recolección y análisis documental estadístico de los vínculos comerciales entre los países estudiados y EE.UU., las ventajas y desventajas en caso de que se consideren un destino de nearshoring, así como el estado actual de las industrias textiles y de confección en cada uno de ellos.Although moving operations out of China is expensive, many businesses are considering it because doing business there is becoming more expensive due to rising labor costs and the ongoing threat of intellectual property theft. Other factors driving business out of China include coronavirus pandemic, market volatility, the conflict in Ukraine, the disruption of global supply chains, and fears of a trade war between China and the US, the world's largest importer. Due to this, US businesses have relocated or intend to relocate their sourcing and production operations outside China, utilizing the nearshoring production model. Therefore, the objective of this document is to determine, through a case analysis study, if it is feasible for US companies that specialize in the textile and apparel industry to adopt business processes with a regionalization approach, that is, which can relocate companies from China to Latin America, specifically in countries such as Brazil, Colombia, Mexico or El Salvador. The methodology of this thesis is based on a mixed methods approach. The qualitative methodology includes unstructured interviews with experts from the manufacturing sector and the quantitative methodology includes the collection and statistical documentary analysis of the commercial links between the countries studied and the US, the advantages, and disadvantages in case they are considered a nearshoring destination, as well as the current state of the textile and clothing industries in each of them
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