33,975 research outputs found

    Field measurements and modeling of gaseous NOx, SO2, HNO3 AND H2SO4 formation from a novel electrostatic precipitator

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    Post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC) is a leading technology to reduce CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants. Amine-based solvent PCC is a method for capturing CO2 however, sub-micrometer diameter particles in flue gas can have a detrimental effect on the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of solvent-based PCC. A novel electrostatic precipitator (ESP), utilizing soft X-ray photoionization, was developed and tested at Abbott Power Plant at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA to determine its effectiveness at capturing sub-micrometer diameter particles. This research investigated whether a novel ESP, utilizing soft X-ray photoionization, causes unintentional formation of gaseous species, including nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitric acid (HNO3) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Experimental and modeled results showed the emission rate of NO2 changed the most after passing through the novel ESP. For NO, NO2 and SO2, the best agreement between modeled and experimental data was observed on March 13th, 2020 with the average difference between emission at 2.7, 2.5, and 0.7 %, respectively. Furthermore, the model showed both flue gas temperature and volumetric flow rate would affect emission rate independently. It was shown the modeled NO2 emission rate increased a maximum of 44 % and 215 % at 400 K without and with the application of soft X-ray photoionization in the ESP, respectively. The modeled emission rate of NO decreased a maximum of 8 % and 41 % at 400 K without and with the application of soft X-ray photoionization, respectively. The modeled SO2 emission rate decreased by a maximum of 2 % overall while H2SO4 increased by a maximum of 7 %. Modeled HNO3 was shown to be generated in the ESP, however the emission rate was at a maximum of 2.6 mg/MJ. These results show that an ESP with or without the application of soft X-ray photoionization, can significantly alter emission rates of NO and NO2. However, the influence of soft X-ray photoionization in the ESP on gaseous NO and NO2 emission rates could not be verified during operation due to equipment issues. Gaseous H2SO4 and HNO3 were produced as well but to a lesser extent. The formation of gaseous NO2, in particular, is important for an amine solvent-based PCC process as degradation of solvent can occur posing economic and environmental costs. This research presents a model, based off flue gas temperature, pressure, volumetric flow rate, and flue gas composition that determines how the emission rates of gaseous NO, NO2, SO2, H2SO4 and HNO3 will be affected after passing through an ESP that utilizes soft X-ray photoionization. This is important because model parameters can be set to optimize the upstream conditions (temperature, pressure, flow rate, flue gas composition) so that formation of gaseous NO2 is minimized to reduce its effect in a solvent-based PCC process.U of I OnlyAuthor requested U of Illinois access only (OA after 2yrs) in Vireo ETD syste

    NODULATION, SEED YIELD AND ITS RELATED TRAITS RESPONSE OF COMMON BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L.) CULTIVARS TO NPS FERTILIZER UNDER ACIDIC SOIL

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    This study was aimed to evaluate the response of common bean cultivars to NPS fertilizer. Results revealed that the main effect of NPS rates, and cultivars highly significantly affected 50% days to flowering, number of primary branches per plant, pods per plant, hundred seeds weight, above-ground dry matter biomass, and grain yield. Nasir cv. provided highest  for all the studie parameters, among NPS rate, 100 kg ha-1 recorded the highest results for the  50% days to flowering, the number of primary branches per plant, pods per plant, hundred seeds weight, above-ground dry matter biomass, and seeds yield. The interaction effects of NPS rate and cultivars highly significantly influenced days to 90% physiological maturity, plant height, total and effective nodule number, and the number of seeds per pod. Thus, cultivar Nasir interaction with 100 kg ha-1 NPS rate resulted in higher total and effective nodule number, seeds per pod, and the less for plant height which was recorded highest result for Red Wolaita with 100 kg ha-1 NPS rate. This study was revealed that cultivar Nasir with the optimum amount of NPS fertilizer application, the common bean can produce a more effective nodule that is capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen for plant nourishment under acidic soil..It can be  concluded as the combined use of 100 kg ha-1 NPS with cultivar Nasir results in higher grain yield and soil fertility improvement through nitrogen fixation for succeeding crops

    Microbial Mitigation of Drought Stress in Plants: Adaptations to Climate Change

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    The global temperature is constantly increasing due to the phenomenon of climate change. Plants have developed various mechanisms to defend themselves against environmental stresses including drought stress. Apart from indigenous biochemical, physiological, and molecular mechanisms of adaptation to stress, the plant-associated microbes may also play a crucial role in plant drought tolerance. The endophytic and rhizospheric microbes perform various functions and produce different enzymes and compounds that play an important role in plants’ adaptation to various environmental stresses including drought stress. Some of the key mechanisms include production of growth hormones, siderophores, organic acids, induction of the ROS scavenging system, phosphate solubilization, and nitrogen fixation. However, the production of ACC deaminase in the plant-associated microbes has vital roles in reduction of ethylene levels under drought stress, resulting in improved plant growth and stress tolerance. Owing to the complex nature of drought tolerance, a multi-pronged approach would have to be adapted to further enhance the microbial-mediated drought tolerance in plants

    gasparrini/MCC-SO2

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    A Github repository that stores R code and data to reproduce the analyis presented in the article, "Short-Term association between sulfur dioxide and mortality: a multicountry analysis in 399 cities". DOI: doi.org/10.1289/ehp11112

    ВІДНОВЛЮВАНА ЕНЕРГЕТИКА:СУЧАСНІ ТЕНДЕНЦІЇ РОЗВИТКУ

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    The article summarizes some aspects of the current state of wind energy and outlines possible development prospects. Attention is focused on the requirements of Directive 2001/80/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of the EU "On integrated pollution prevention and control" and Directive 2010/75/EC of the European Parliament and the Council on industrial emissions (integrated prevention and control of pollution) and compliance with these conditions of the industrial policy of Ukraine . The current state of wind energy is considered, as a significant factor in countering global climate changes and improving the general state of energy security in the world, Europe and Ukraine. Prospects for the further development of wind energy are summarized. Territories of Ukraine, which are characterized by the highest wind energy potential and have favorable conditions for the production of electricity by wind power plants, are highlighted. It was noted that the use of RES is one of the main priorities of energy development for most developed countries. Wind energy is widely available and one of the cheapest sources among RES for the production of electricity in the world. Wind energy occupies the second place in the structure of RES after solar and is characterized by the fastest development of technologies and intensive growth of installed capacities due to the constant development of science and technology, which leads to increased availability, development of a wide range of equipment, as well as a decrease in costs for their production and exploitation. The world experience of implementing low-power wind and solar energy technologies, which can be used to increase the energy autonomy of enterprises, shows that the main advantages of their use, first of all, are the reduction of the ecological burden on the environment compared to traditional methods of obtaining electrical energy, due to the avoidance of emissions of harmful substances (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, dust, greenhouse gases), as well as the almost complete absence of waste.В статье обобщены некоторые аспекты современного состояния ветровой энергетики и обозначены возможные перспективы развития. Акцентировано внимание на требования Директивы Европарламента и Совета ЕС 2001/80/ЕС "О комплексном предотвращении и контроле загрязнений" и директивы 2010/75/ЕС Европейского Парламента и Совета о промышленных выбросах (интегрированное предотвращение и контроль загрязнения) и соответствие этим условиям . Рассмотрено современное состояние ветроэнергетики как весомого фактора противодействия глобальным изменениям климата и улучшению общего состояния энергетической безопасности в мире, Европе и Украине. Обобщены перспективы дальнейшего развития ветроэнергетики. Выделены территории Украины, которые характеризуются высоким ветроэнергетическим потенциалом и имеют благоприятные условия для производства электроэнергии ветровыми электростанциями. Отмечено, что использование ВИЭ является одним из основных приоритетов развития энергетики для большинства развитых стран. Энергия ветра является широко доступным и одним из самых дешевых источников среди ВИЭ для производства электрической энергии в мире. Ветроэнергетика занимает второе место в структуре ВИЭ после солнечной и характеризуется наиболее быстрым развитием технологий и интенсивным ростом установленных мощностей из-за постоянного развития науки, технологий, что приводит к увеличению доступности, развитию широкого спектра техники, а также снижению затрат на их производство и эксплуатацию. Мировой опыт внедрения технологий ветровой и солнечной энергетики малой мощности, которые могут быть использованы для повышения энергетической автономии предприятий, свидетельствует о том, что к основным преимуществам их использования прежде всего относится снижение экологической нагрузки на окружающую среду по сравнению с традиционными способами получения электрической энергии, за счет избегания выбросов вредных веществ (диоксида серы, оксидов азота, пыли, парниковых газов), а также почти полного отсутствия отходов.В статті узагальнено деякі аспекти сучасного стану вітрової енергетики та окреслено можливі перспективи розвитку. Акцентовано увагу на вимоги Директиви Європарламенту та Ради ЄС 2001/80/ЕС “Про комплексне запобігання і контроль забруднень” і директиви 2010/75/ЄС Європейського Парламенту та Ради про промислові викиди (інтегроване запобігання та контроль забруднення) та відповідність цим умовам промислової політики України. Розглянуто сучасний стан вітроенергетики, як вагомого чинника протидії глобальним змінам клімату та поліпшення загального стану енергетичної безпеки в світі, Європі та в Україні. Узагальнено перспективи подальшого розвитку вітроенергетики. Виділено території України, які характеризуються найвищим вітроенергетичним потенціалом і мають сприятливі умови для виробництва електроенергії вітровими електростанціями. Відзначено, що використання ВДЕ є одним із основних пріоритетів розвитку енергетики для більшості розвинених країн. Енергія вітру є широко доступним і одним з найдешевших джерел серед ВДЕ для виробництва електричної енергії в світі. Вітроенергетика займає друге місце в структурі ВДЕ після сонячної і характеризується найбільш швидким розвитком технологій та інтенсивним зростанням встановлених потужностей через постійний розвиток науки, технологій, що призводить до збільшення доступності, розвитку широкого спектра техніки, а також зниження витрат на їх виробництво та експлуатацію. Світовий досвід впровадження технологій вітрової та сонячної енергетики малої потужності, що можуть бути використані для підвищення енергетичної автономії підприємств, свідчить про те, що до основних переваг їх використання, перш за все, належить зниження екологічного навантаження на довкілля порівняно з традиційними способами отримання електричної енергії, за рахунок уникнення викидів шкідливих речовин (діоксиду сірки, оксидів азоту, пилу, парникових газів), а також майже повної відсутності відходів

    Measurement report: Summertime fluorescence characteristics of atmospheric water-soluble organic carbon in the marine boundary layer of the western Arctic Ocean

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    Accelerated warming and a decline in sea ice coverage in the summertime Arctic Ocean can significantly affect the emissions of marine organic aerosols and biogenic volatile organic compounds. However, how these changes affect the characteristics of atmospheric water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), which plays an important role in the climate system, remains unclear. Thus, to improve our understanding of WSOC characteristics in the rapidly changing Arctic Ocean, including its summertime fluorescence characteristics, we simultaneously measured atmospheric concentrations of ionic species and WSOC, a fluorescence excitation–emission matrix coupled with parallel factor (EEM-PARAFAC) analysis of WSOC, and marine biological parameters in surface seawaters of the western Arctic Ocean during the summer of 2016. WSOC was predominantly present as fine-mode aerosols (diameter &lt;2.5 µm, median =92 %), with the mean concentration being higher in the coastal water areas (462±130 ngC m−3) than in the sea-ice-covered areas (242±88.4 ngC m−3). Moreover, the WSOC in the fine-mode aerosols was positively correlated with the methanesulfonic acid in the fine-mode aerosol samples collected over the sea-ice-covered areas (r=0.88, p&lt;0.01, n=10), suggesting high rates of sea–air gas exchange and emissions of aerosol precursor gases due to sea ice retreat and increasingly available solar radiation during the Arctic summer. Two fluorescent components, humic-like C1 and protein-like C2, were identified by the PARAFAC modeling of fine-mode atmospheric WSOC. The two components varied regionally between coastal and sea-ice-covered areas, with low and high fluorescence intensities observed over the coastal areas and the sea-ice-covered areas, respectively. Further, the humification index of WSOC was correlated with the fluorescence intensity ratio of the humic-like C1 / protein-like C2 (r=0.89, p&lt;0.01) and the WSOC concentration in the fine-mode aerosols (r=0.66, p&lt;0.05), with the highest values observed in the coastal areas. Additionally, the WSOC concentration in the fine-mode aerosols was positively correlated with the fluorescence intensity ratio of the humic-like C1 / protein-like C2 (r = 0.77, p&lt;0.01) but was negatively correlated with the biological index (r=-0.69, p&lt;0.01). Overall, these results suggested that the WSOC in the fine-mode aerosols in the coastal areas showed a higher degree of polycondensation and higher aromaticity compared to that in the sea-ice-covered areas, where WSOC in the fine-mode aerosols was associated with relatively new, less oxygenated, and biologically derived secondary organic components. These findings can improve our understanding of the chemical and biological linkages of WSOC at the ocean–sea-ice–atmosphere interface.</p

    Bioenergy Production

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    In this chapter, an overview of bioenergy importance toward energy systems with low (zero or negative) greenhouse gas emissions and general conversion technologies to produce different types of bioenergy products from various biomass feedstock is presented. The bioenergy products from biomass cover all physical phases including solid (biochar), liquid (bio-oil and bio-crude oil), and gases phase (bio syngas) which make them an interesting field in terms of both academic types of research and industrial scale. A discussion on the available technologies for thermochemical, biochemical, and extraction processes is presented, which is followed by some important parameters on each separate process that cause the optimum production rate and desired products. In addition, in the final part, an overview of the technology readiness level for the processes is reported

    Insights into Physiological, Biochemical and Molecular Responses in Wheat under Salt Stress

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    Globally, wheat is a major staple food crop that provides 20% of food calories for 30% of the human population. Wheat growth and production are significantly affected by salt stress at various stages and adversely affect germination, vegetative growth, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, reproductive behavior, protein synthesis, enzymatic activity and finally hampered grain yield. Maintenance of low Na+/K+ ratio, antioxidants and hormonal regulation, and accumulation of compatible osmolytes such as glycine betaine, proline and trehalose help the wheat genotypes to mitigate the negative effects of salt stress. Recent studies have reported various mechanisms at the physiological, biochemical and molecular levels to adapt the salinity stress in various ecologies. Salt tolerant genotypes can be developed by conventional breeding approaches and through biotechnological approaches. This chapter reviews the updates on mechanisms and recent approaches to structure the salt-tolerant and high-yielding genotypes
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