3,718 research outputs found

    RIP1-HAT1-SirT complex identification and targeting in treatment and prevention of cancer

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    Purpose: Alteration in cell death is a hallmark of cancer. A functional role regulating survival, apoptosis, and necroptosis has been attributed to RIP1/3 complexes.Experimental Design: We have investigated the role of RIP1 and the effects of MC2494 in cell death induction, using different methods as flow cytometry, transcriptome analysis, immunoprecipitation, enzymatic assays, transfections, mutagenesis, and in vivo studies with different mice models.Results: Here, we show that RIP1 is highly expressed in cancer, and we define a novel RIP1/3-SIRT1/2-HAT1/4 complex. Mass spectrometry identified five acetylations in the kinase and death domain of RIP1. The novel characterized pan-SIRT inhibitor, MC2494, increases RIP1 acetylation at two additional sites in the death domain. Mutagenesis of the acetylated lysine decreases RIP1-dependent cell death, suggesting a role for acetylation of the RIP1 complex in cell death modulation. Accordingly, MC2494 displays tumor-selective potential in vitro, in leukemic blasts ex vivo, and in vivo in both xenograft and allograft cancer models. Mechanistically, MC2494 induces bona fide tumor-restricted acetylated RIP1/caspase-8-mediated apoptosis. Excitingly, MC2494 displays tumor-preventive activity by blocking 7,12-dimethylbenz(α)anthracene-induced mammary gland hyperproliferation in vivoConclusions: These preventive features might prove useful in patients who may benefit from a recurrence-preventive approach with low toxicity during follow-up phases and in cases of established cancer predisposition. Thus, targeting the newly identified RIP1 complex may represent an attractive novel paradigm in cancer treatment and prevention

    Resveratrol induces apoptosis by modulating the reciprocal crosstalk between p53 and Sirt-1 in the CRC tumor microenvironment

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    Introduction: P53 represents a key player in apoptosis-induction in cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC) that ranks third worldwide in cancer prevalence as well as mortality statistics. Although a pro-apoptotic effect of resveratrol has been repeatedly proven in CRC cells, its pathway mechanisms are not completely understood, as there are controversial statements in the literature regarding its activation or inhibition of the counteracting proteins Sirt-1 and p53. Methods: CRC cells as wild-type (HCT-116 WT) or p53-deficient (HCT-116 p53-/-) were cultured using multicellular tumor microenvironment (TME) cultures containing T-lymphocytes and fibroblasts to elucidate the role of p53/Sirt-1 modulation in resveratrol’s concentration-dependent, pro-apoptotic, and thus anti-cancer effects. Results: Resveratrol dose-dependently inhibited viability, proliferation, plasticity as well as migration, and induced apoptosis in HCT-116 WT more effectively than in HCT-116 p53-/- cells. Moreover, resveratrol stimulated Sirt-1 expression when administered at low concentrations (10µM) to CRC-TME. In parallel, similar to the knockdown of Sirt-1 at the mRNA level, treatment with high-concentration resveratrol boosted the acetylation of p53, the expression of p21, Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3, and ultimately induced apoptosis in CRC WT but not in CRC p53-/- cells. Notably, increasing concentrations of resveratrol were found to promote hyperacetylation of p53 and FOXO3a as post-translational substrates of Sirt-1, indicating a negative regulatory loop between Sirt-1 and p53. Discussion: These results demonstrate for the first time, a negative reciprocal crosstalk between the regulatory circuits of p53 and Sirt-1, consequently, apoptosis induction by higher resveratrol concentrations in CRC-TME

    Sirtuin functions and modulation: from chemistry to the clinic

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    Sirtuins are NAD+ -dependent histone deacetylases regulating important metabolic pathways in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and are involved in many biological processes such as cell survival, senescence, proliferation, apoptosis, DNA repair, cell metabolism, and caloric restriction. The seven members of this family of enzymes are considered potential targets for the treatment of human pathologies including neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Furthermore, recent interest focusing on sirtuin modulators as epigenetic players in the regulation of fundamental biological pathways has prompted increased efforts to discover new small molecules able to modify sirtuin activity. Here, we review the role, mechanism of action, and biological function of the seven sirtuins, as well as their inhibitors and activators

    Sirtuins 1–7 expression in human adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous and visceral fat depots: influence of obesity and hypoxia

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    The sirtuin family comprises seven NAD+-dependent deacetylases which control the overall health of organisms through the regulation of pleiotropic metabolic pathways. Sirtuins are important modulators of adipose tissue metabolism and their expression is higher in lean than obese subjects. At present, the role of sirtuins in adipose-derived stem cells has not been investigated yet. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the expression of the complete panel of sirtuins in adipose-derived stem cells isolated from both subcutaneous and visceral fat of non-obese and obese subjects. We aimed at investigating the influence of obesity on sirtuins' levels, their role in obesity-associated inflammation, and the relationship with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta, which also plays functions in adipose tissue metabolism. The mRNA levels in the four types of adipose-derived stem cells were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, in untreated cells and also after 8 h of hypoxia exposure. Correlations among sirtuins' expression and clinical and molecular parameters were also analyzed. We found that sirtuin1-6 exhibited significant higher mRNA expression in visceral adipose-derived stem cells compared to subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells of non-obese subjects. Sirtuin1-6 levels were markedly reduced in visceral adipose-derived stem cells of obese patients. Sirtuins' expression in visceral adipose-derived stem cells correlated negatively with body mass index and C-reactive protein and positively with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta. Finally, only in the visceral adipose-derived stem cells of obese patients hypoxia-induced mRNA expression of all of the sirtuins. Our results highlight that sirtuins' levels in adipose-derived stem cells are consistent with protective effects against visceral obesity and inflammation, and suggest a transcriptional mechanism through which acute hypoxia up-regulates sirtuins in the visceral adipose-derived stem cells of obese patients

    Resveratrol mediated modulation of Sirt-1/Runx2 promotes osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells: potential role of Runx2 deacetylation.

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    Osteogenic repair in response to bone injury is characterized by activation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to osteoblasts. This study determined whether activation of Sirt-1 (a NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase) by the phytoestrogen resveratrol affects osteogenic differentiation. Monolayer and high-density cultures of MSCs and pre-osteoblastic cells were treated with an osteogenic induction medium with/without the Sirt-1 inhibitor nicotinamide or/and resveratrol in a concentration dependent manner. MSCs and pre-osteoblastic cells differentiated to osteoblasts when exposed to osteogenic-induction medium. The osteogenic response was blocked by nicotinamide, resulting in adipogenic differentiation and expression of the adipose transcription regulator PPAR-γ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor). However, in nicotinamide-treated cultures, pre-treatment with resveratrol significantly enhanced osteogenesis by increasing expression of Runx2 (bone specific transcription factor) and decreasing expression of PPAR-γ. Activation of Sirt-1 by resveratrol in MSCs increased its binding to PPAR-γ and repressed PPAR-γ activity by involving its cofactor NCoR (nuclear receptor co-repressor). The modulatory effects of resveratrol on nicotinamide-induced expression of PPAR-γ and its cofactor NCoR were found to be mediated, at least in part, by Sirt-1/Runx2 association and deacetylation of Runx2. Finally, knockdown of Sirt-1 by using antisense oligonucleotides downregulated the expression of Sirt-1 protein and abolished the inhibitory effects of resveratrol, namely nicotinamide-induced Sirt-1 suppression and Runx2 acetylation, suggesting that the acetylated content of Runx2 is related to downregulated Sirt-1 expression. These data support a critical role for Runx2 acetylation/deacetylation during osteogenic differentiation in MSCs in vitro. (242 words in abstract)

    Effects of niacin restriction on sirtuin and PARP responses to photodamage in human skin.

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    Sirtuins (SIRTs) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs), NAD(+)-dependent enzymes, link cellular energy status with responses to environmental stresses. Skin is frequently exposed to the DNA damaging effects of UV irradiation, a known etiology in skin cancer. Thus, understanding the defense mechanisms in response to UV, including the role of SIRTs and PARPs, may be important in developing skin cancer prevention strategies. Here, we report expression of the seven SIRT family members in human skin. SIRTs gene expressions are progressively upregulated in A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells (SIRTs1 and 3), actinic keratoses (SIRTs 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7) and squamous cell carcinoma (SIRTs 1-7). Photodamage induces dynamic changes in SIRT expression with upregulation of both SIRT1 and SIRT4 mRNAs. Specific losses of SIRT proteins occur early after photodamage followed by accumulation later, especially for SIRT4. Niacin restriction, which decreases NAD(+), the sirtuin substrate, results in an increase in acetylated proteins, upregulation of SIRTs 2 and 4, increased inherent DNA damage, alterations in SIRT responses to photodamage, abrogation of PARP activation following photodamage, and increased sensitivity to photodamage that is completely reversed by repleting niacin. These data support the hypothesis that SIRTs and PARPs play important roles in resistance to photodamage and identify specific SIRTs that respond to photodamage and may be targets for skin cancer prevention

    Fine-tuning of SIRT1 expression is essential to protect the liver from cholestatic liver disease

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    Cholestasis comprises aetiologically heterogeneous conditions characterized by accumulation of bile acids in the liver that actively contribute to liver damage. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) regulates liver regeneration and bile acid metabolism by modulating farnesoid X receptor (FXR); we here investigate its role in cholestatic liver disease. We determined SIRT1 expression in livers from patients with cholestatic disease, in two experimental models of cholestasis, as well as in human and murine liver cells in response to bile acid loading. SIRT1-overexpressing (SIRT oe ) and hepatocyte-specific SIRT1-KO (knockout) mice (SIRT hep–/– ) were subjected to bile duct ligation (BDL) and were fed with a 0.1% DDC (3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine) diet to determine the biological relevance of SIRT1 during cholestasis. The effect of NorUDCA (24-norursodeoxycholic acid) was tested in BDL/SIRT oe mice. We found that SIRT1 was highly expressed in livers from cholestatic patients, mice after BDL, and Mdr2 knockout mice (Mdr2 –/– ) animals. The detrimental effects of SIRT1 during cholestasis were validated in vivo and in vitro. SIRT oe mice showed exacerbated parenchymal injury whereas SIRT hep–/– mice evidenced a moderate improvement after BDL and 0.1% DDC feeding. Likewise, hepatocytes isolated from SIRT oe mice showed increased apoptosis in response to bile acids, whereas a significant reduction was observed in SIRT hep–/– hepatocytes. Importantly, the decrease, but not complete inhibition, of SIRT1 exerted by norUDCA treatment correlated with pronounced improvement in liver parenchyma in BDL/SIRT oe mice. Interestingly, both SIRT1 overexpression and hepatocyte-specific SIRT1 depletion correlated with inhibition of FXR, whereas modulation of SIRT1 by NorUDCA associated with restored FXR signaling. Conclusion: SIRT1 expression is increased during human and murine cholestasis. Fine-tuning expression of SIRT1 is essential to protect the liver from cholestatic liver damage

    Application of Small Epigenetic Modulators in Pediatric Medulloblastoma

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    Medulloblastoma is one of the most frequent among pediatric brain tumors, and it has been classified in various subgroups. Some of them already benefit from quite good therapeutic options, whereas others urgently need novel therapeutic approaches. Epigenetic modulators have long been studied in various types of cancer. Within this review, we summarize the main preclinical studies regarding epigenetic targets (such as HDAC, SIRT, BET, EZH2, G9a, LSD1, and DNMT) inhibitors in medulloblastoma. Furthermore, we shed light on the increasing number of applications of drug combinations as well as hybrid compounds involving epigenetic mechanisms. Nevertheless, in the studies published so far, mainly un-specific or old modulators have been used, and the PKs (brain permeability) have not been well-evaluated. Thus, these findings should be considered as a starting point for further improvement and not as a final result
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