3,854 research outputs found

    MicroRNAs in cardiac arrhythmia: DNA sequence variation of MiR-1 and MiR-133A in long QT syndrome.

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    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a genetic cardiac condition associated with prolonged ventricular repolarization, primarily a result of perturbations in cardiac ion channels, which predisposes individuals to life-threatening arrhythmias. Using DNA screening and sequencing methods, over 700 different LQTS-causing mutations have been identified in 13 genes worldwide. Despite this, the genetic cause of 30-50% of LQTS is presently unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (∼ 22 nucleotides) noncoding RNAs which post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by binding complementary sequences within messenger RNAs (mRNAs). The human genome encodes over 1800 miRNAs, which target about 60% of human genes. Consequently, miRNAs are likely to regulate many complex processes in the body, indeed aberrant expression of various miRNA species has been implicated in numerous disease states, including cardiovascular diseases. MiR-1 and MiR-133A are the most abundant miRNAs in the heart and have both been reported to regulate cardiac ion channels. We hypothesized that, as a consequence of their role in regulating cardiac ion channels, genetic variation in the genes which encode MiR-1 and MiR-133A might explain some cases of LQTS. Four miRNA genes (miR-1-1, miR-1-2, miR-133a-1 and miR-133a-2), which encode MiR-1 and MiR-133A, were sequenced in 125 LQTS probands. No genetic variants were identified in miR-1-1 or miR-133a-1; but in miR-1-2 we identified a single substitution (n.100A> G) and in miR-133a-2 we identified two substitutions (n.-19G> A and n.98C> T). None of the variants affect the mature miRNA products. Our findings indicate that sequence variants of miR-1-1, miR-1-2, miR-133a-1 and miR-133a-2 are not a cause of LQTS in this cohort

    Altered serological and cellular reactivity to H-2 antigens after target cell infection with vaccinia virus

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    MICE generate cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) which are able to lyse virus infected target cells in vitro after infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and pox-viruses1−3. CTL kill syngeneic and semiallogenic infected cells but not allogenic infected targets. Target cell lysis in these systems seems to be restricted by H-2 antigens, especially by the K or D end of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). In experiments where virus specific sensitised lymphocytes kill virus infected allogenic target cells4 the effector lymphocytes have not been characterised exactly. Recent investigations suggest that the active cell in this assay, at least in the measles infection, is a non-thymus derived cell (H. Kreth, personal communication). An H-2 restriction of cell mediated cytolysis (CMC) to trinitrophenol (TNP)-modified lymphocytes has also been described5. Zinkernagel and Doherty6 postulated that the CTL is directed against syngeneic H-2 antigens and viral antigens and they suggested an alteration of H-2 induced by the LCMV infection. Earlier7 we found a close topological relationship between H-2 antigens and the target antigen(s) responsible for CMC in the vaccinia system. Here we report experiments which were carried out to prove alteration of H-2 after infection of L-929 fibroblasts with vaccinia virus

    Effects of date palm fruit extracts on skin mucosal immunity, immune related genes expression and growth performance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry

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    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of date palm fruit extracts (DPFE) on skin mucosal immunity, immune related genes expression and growth performance of fry common carp (Cyprinus carpio). One hundred and twenty specimens (4.06 ± 0.13 g) were supplied and allocated into six aquaria; specimens in three aquaria were fed non-supplemented diet (control) while the fish in the other 3 aquaria were fed with DPFE at 200 ml kg-1. At the end of feeding trial (8 weeks) skin mucus immune parameters (total immunoglobulins, lysozyme, protease and alkaline phosphatase activity) and immune related gene expression (tumor necrosis factor α [tnfa], lysozyme [ly] and interleukin-1-beta, [il1b]) in the head-kidney were studied. The results revealed that feeding carp fry with 200 ml kg-1 DPFE remarkably elevated the three skin mucus immune parameters tested (P 0.05) compared to control fish (fed control diet). Furthermore, growth performance parameters were significantly improved in fry fed DPFE (P < 0.05). More studies are needed to understand different aspects of DPFE administration in fry mucosal immunity. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

    Technological development in Therapeutic applications of alternating electric fields: Review

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    A number of bacteria, virus and other unhealthy cells need to be killed for getting rid of them. For more than a century antibiotics have been effectively used for killing bacterial pathogens and chemical drugs against the cancer cells. However, there are bacteria and cancer cells that are drug resistant. This may have to be overcome by other stronger drugs, higher dosage. These can have detrimental side effects. Other non drug methods to aid the effect of these drugs have always been in research. Electrochemotherapy, a method of using electric fields along with the drug to be used topically has been one of the successful approaches. One of the most recent methods of Tumor Treating Frequencies (TTF) for a brain cancer has been FDA approved. This article details the use of TTF. The article also details some other latest research where alternating fields are used as antibacterial agents

    Spartan Daily, October 1, 1942

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    Volume 31, Issue 2https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/spartandaily/3482/thumbnail.jp

    Discovery of a TNF-α Antagonist Using Chondroitin Sulfate Microarrays

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    We report the first example of synthetic chondroitin sulfate (CS) microarrays to rapidly identify glycosaminoglycan−protein interactions and probe the specificity of proteins for distinct sulfation sequences. Using the microarrays, we identify a novel interaction between CS and TNF-α, a proinflammatory cytokine involved in rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, and psoriasis. Moreover, we demonstrate that CS-E tetrasaccharides and polysaccharides enriched in the CS-E sulfation motif can inhibit the activity of this therapeutically important cytokine. We anticipate that carbohydrate microarrays will accelerate our understanding of glycosaminoglycan−protein interactions and the role of sulfation in modulating physiological and disease states

    Reproductive activities of female albino rats treated with quassin, a bioactive triterpenoid from stem bark extract of Quassia amara

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    To evaluate the effect of quassin on female reproductive functions, 42 albino rats (35 females and 7 males) were used. The female albino rats were divided into seven groups of five rats each. Group I served as the control group and received distilled water while Groups II, III and IV rats were treatedorally with 0.1mg/kg, 1.0 mg/kg and 2.0 mg/kg body weight of quassin for 60 days respectively. Groups V, VI and VII rats were also treated orally with 0.1 mg/kg, 1.0mg/kg and 2.0 mg/kg body weight of quassin for 60 days but were left untreated for another 30 days, to serve as the recovery groups. At the end of each experimental period, blood samples were collected from each rat. Fertility study was done by cohabiting one untreated male with the five female rats in each group for 10 days. Quassin did not adversely affect the weight of the kidney, heart, liver and the body of the rats. However there was a significant decrease(P &lt; 0.05) in the weight of the ovary and uterus in all the groups relative to the control. There was also a significant decrease (P &lt;0.05) in serum estrogen levels in quassin treated rats. The quassin treated rats had a significantly decreased (P &lt; 0.05) mean litter number and weight. Histological studies show a disorganization and degeneration in the ovary while the uterus showed signs of vacuolation and disorganization. However, these effects were ameliorated after quassin was withdrawn from the rats. The results suggest that quassin has female anti-fertility properties, possibly acting via inhibition of estrogen secretion.Keywords: Quassin, Female rat, Reproduction, EstrogenNig. J. Physiol. Sci. 25(December 2010) 95 – 10

    Identification and Characterization of AES-135, a Hydroxamic Acid-Based HDAC Inhibitor That Prolongs Survival in an Orthotopic Mouse Model of Pancreatic Cancer

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    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive, incurable cancer with a 20% 1 year survival rate. While standard-of-care therapy can prolong life in a small fraction of cases, PDAC is inherently resistant to current treatments, and novel therapies are urgently required. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are effective in killing pancreatic cancer cells in in vitro PDAC studies, and although there are a few clinical studies investigating combination therapy including HDAC inhibitors, no HDAC drug or combination therapy with an HDAC drug has been approved for the treatment of PDAC. We developed an inhibitor of HDACs, AES-135, that exhibits nanomolar inhibitory activity against HDAC3, HDAC6, and HDAC11 in biochemical assays. In a three-dimensional coculture model, AES-135 kills low-passage patient-derived tumor spheroids selectively over surrounding cancer-associated fibroblasts and has excellent pharmacokinetic properties in vivo. In an orthotopic murine model of pancreatic cancer, AES-135 prolongs survival significantly, therefore representing a candidate for further preclinical testing

    Soy genistein administered in soluble chitosan microcapsules maintains antioxidant activity and limits intestinal inflammation

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    We used water-soluble Chitosan obtained by Maillard reaction with glucosamine to microencapsulate soy genistein (Ge) and preserve its biological activity for oral administration. Release of Ge was pH dependent with a super Case II mechanism at pH 1.2 and an anomalous transport with non-Fickian kinetics at pH 6.8. Microencapsulated Ge retained its antioxidant properties in vitro and its daily administration to mice attenuated clinical signs of acute colitis, limited inflammatory reaction and reduced oxidative stress and tissue injury as well. Remarkably, after feeding microencapsulated Ge the production of IL-10 in colonic tissue was restored to levels of untreated controls. According to statistical multivariate analysis, this cytokine was the parameter with the highest influence on the inflammatory/oxidative status. Microencapsulation of Ge with derivatized Chitosan becomes an interesting alternative to develop therapeutic approaches for oxidative inflammatory diseases; our findings suggest that the soy isoflavone could be incorporated into any functional food for application in intestinal inflammation.Fil: Vanden Braber, Noelia Luciana. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Córdoba. Centro de Investigaciones y Transferencia de Villa María. Universidad Nacional de Villa María. Centro de Investigaciones y Transferencia de Villa María; ArgentinaFil: Novotny Núñez, Ivanna. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Córdoba. Centro de Investigaciones en Bioquímica Clínica e Inmunología; ArgentinaFil: Bohl, Luciana Paola. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Córdoba. Centro de Investigaciones y Transferencia de Villa María. Universidad Nacional de Villa María. Centro de Investigaciones y Transferencia de Villa María; ArgentinaFil: Porporatto, Carina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Córdoba. Centro de Investigaciones y Transferencia de Villa María. Universidad Nacional de Villa María. Centro de Investigaciones y Transferencia de Villa María; ArgentinaFil: Nazar, Franco Nicolas. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Córdoba. Centro de Investigaciones en Bioquímica Clínica e Inmunología; ArgentinaFil: Montenegro, Mariana Angélica. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Córdoba. Centro de Investigaciones y Transferencia de Villa María. Universidad Nacional de Villa María. Centro de Investigaciones y Transferencia de Villa María; ArgentinaFil: Correa, Silvia Graciela. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Córdoba. Centro de Investigaciones en Bioquímica Clínica e Inmunología; Argentin

    Modifying Ligand-Induced and Constitutive Signaling of the Human 5-HT4 Receptor

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    G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) signal through a limited number of G-protein pathways and play crucial roles in many biological processes. Studies of their in vivo functions have been hampered by the molecular and functional diversity of GPCRs and the paucity of ligands with specific signaling effects. To better compare the effects of activating different G-protein signaling pathways through ligand-induced or constitutive signaling, we developed a new series of RASSLs (receptors activated solely by synthetic ligands) that activate different G-protein signaling pathways. These RASSLs are based on the human 5-HT4b receptor, a GPCR with high constitutive Gs signaling and strong ligand-induced G-protein activation of the Gs and Gs/q pathways. The first receptor in this series, 5-HT4-D100A or Rs1 (RASSL serotonin 1), is not activated by its endogenous agonist, serotonin, but is selectively activated by the small synthetic molecules GR113808, GR125487, and RO110-0235. All agonists potently induced Gs signaling, but only a few (e.g., zacopride) also induced signaling via the Gq pathway. Zacopride-induced Gq signaling was enhanced by replacing the C-terminus of Rs1 with the C-terminus of the human 5-HT2C receptor. Additional point mutations (D66A and D66N) blocked constitutive Gs signaling and lowered ligand-induced Gq signaling. Replacing the third intracellular loop of Rs1 with that of human 5-HT1A conferred ligand-mediated Gi signaling. This Gi-coupled RASSL, Rs1.3, exhibited no measurable signaling to the Gs or Gq pathway. These findings show that the signaling repertoire of Rs1 can be expanded and controlled by receptor engineering and drug selection
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