44,781 research outputs found

    S-100 protein, but not calmodulin, binds to the glial fibrillary acidic protein and inhibits its polymerization in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner.

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    S-100 protein, a Ca(2+)-binding protein of the EF-hand type, interacts with the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. The binding of S-100 protein to GFAP was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy using acrylodan-S-100 protein and cross-linking experiments using the bifunctional cross-linker, disuccinimidyl suberate. The binding affinity was observed to be in the nanomolar range with a stoichiometry of 2 mol of GFAP/mol of S-100 protein (dimer). S-100 protein was found to inhibit the polymerization of GFAP in a dose- and Ca(2+)-dependent manner, with a half-maximal effect at an S-100 protein/GFAP molar ratio of 0.2 and maximal effect at a molar ratio of 0.5. Identical results were obtained irrespective of whether the unfractionated bovine brain S-100 protein mixture (S-100a plus S-100b), S-100ao, S-100a, or S-100b was used. S-100 protein was observed to be maximally effective as an inhibitor of GFAP polymerization at approximately 3 microM free Ca2+. Calmodulin neither bound to GFAP nor inhibited its polymerization. Altogether, the present results suggest that S-100 protein might be involved in the regulation of the state of assembly of glial filaments by binding to and sequestering unpolymerized GFAP

    Radiation-Hydrodynamic Simulations of Collapse and Fragmentation in Massive Protostellar Cores

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    We simulate the early stages of the evolution of turbulent, virialized, high-mass protostellar cores, with primary attention to how cores fragment, and whether they form a small or large number of protostars. Our simulations use the Orion adaptive mesh refinement code to follow the collapse from ~0.1 pc scales to ~10 AU scales, for durations that cover the main fragmentation phase, using three-dimensional gravito-radiation hydrodynamics. We find that for a wide range of initial conditions radiation feedback from accreting protostars inhibits the formation of fragments, so that the vast majority of the collapsed mass accretes onto one or a few objects. Most of the fragmentation that does occur takes place in massive, self-shielding disks. These are driven to gravitational instability by rapid accretion, producing rapid mass and angular momentum transport that allows most of the gas to accrete onto the central star rather than forming fragments. In contrast, a control run using the same initial conditions but an isothermal equation of state produces much more fragmentation, both in and out of the disk. We conclude that massive cores with observed properties are not likely to fragment into many stars, so that, at least at high masses, the core mass function probably determines the stellar initial mass function. Our results also demonstrate that simulations of massive star forming regions that do not include radiative transfer, and instead rely on a barotropic equation of state or optically thin heating and cooling curves, are likely to produce misleading results.Comment: 23 pages, 18 figures, emulateapj format. Accepted to ApJ. This version has minor typo fixes and small additions, no significant changes. Resolution of images severely degraded to fit within size limit. Download the full paper from http://www.astro.princeton.edu/~krumholz/recent.htm

    A multi-sensor based online tool condition monitoring system for milling process

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    Tool condition monitoring has been considered as one of the key enabling technologies for manufacturing optimization. Due to the high cost and limited system openness, the relevant developed systems have not been widely adopted by industries, especially Small and Medium-sized Enterprises. In this research, a cost-effective, wireless communication enabled, multi-sensor based tool condition monitoring system has been developed. Various sensor data, such as vibration, cutting force and power data, as well as actual machining parameters, have been collected to support efficient tool condition monitoring and life estimation. The effectiveness of the developed system has been validated via machining cases. The system can be extended to wide manufacturing applications

    Soil organic matter quality along rotations in acacia and eucalypt plantations in the Congolese coastal plains

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    Abstract Background Afforestation of savannas in the Congolese coastal plains with eucalypt has provided wood pulp for industry and fuel energy for the local population. Typically, following afforestation, Acacia mangium are introduced to improve soil fertility and sustain productivity. Through investigations of particulate organic matter (POM), potential soil organic matter (SOM) quality was assessed in acacia and eucalypt plantations along rotations. Methods Nutrients in POM (4000–50 μm) in the 0–5 cm soil layer were measured after five years into the second rotation (R2Y5) in relation to soil pH and P availability. Data were compared to those at the end of the first 7-year-rotation (R1Y7) and after two years into the second rotation (R2Y2) to evaluate overall SOM quality in the topsoil. Results At R2Y5, soil pH was higher in the pure eucalypt stands (100E) than in stands containing acacia, either in monoculture (100A) or evenly mixed with eucalypt (50A50E). Coarse POM (cPOM, 4000–250 μm) beneath 100A had the highest N concentration (1.71%), followed by those beneath 50A50E (1.42%) and 100E (1.30%). Higher N was always found in the stands containing acacia. Lower sulphur (S) concentrations and P availabilities were observed in cPOM (50A50E). The greatest amount of coarse (414.7 g) and fine (214.5 g) forest floor litter were found in 100A stands, whereas higher C concentrations were found in the 100E stands for coarse forest floor litter (36.5%) and in the 50A50E stands for fine forest floor litter (38.7%). The decrease in cPOM N and C concentrations were lower than 20% (R1Y7) and 26% (R2Y5) relative to the younger stage (R2Y2). This tendency was more pronounced in fine POM (250–50 μm) and organo-mineral fraction (< 50 μm). Conclusions The main changes occurred in cPOM beneath stands containing acacia while higher weight of forest floor litter was found in 100A. Soil pH decreased in stands containing acacia. Overall N and C dynamics was enhanced in older stands (R2Y5) than in the younger stands (R2Y2). This may reveal a creation of more labile SOM with lower N and C concentrations in POM fractions in the surface layer, i.e., an ecosystem with a lower potential to mitigate climate change along rotations

    Difficulties in probing density dependent symmetry potential with the HBT interferometry

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    Based on the updated UrQMD transport model, the effect of the symmetry potential energy on the two-nucleon HBT correlation is investigated with the help of the coalescence program for constructing clusters, and the CRAB analyzing program of the two-particle HBT correlation. An obvious non-linear dependence of the neutron-proton (or neutron-neutron) HBT correlation function (Cnp,nnC_{np,nn}) at small relative momenta on the stiffness factor γ\gamma of the symmetry potential energy is found: when γ0.8\gamma \lesssim 0.8, the Cnp,nnC_{np,nn} increases rapidly with increasing γ\gamma, while it starts to saturate if γ0.8\gamma \gtrsim 0.8. It is also found that both the symmetry potential energy at low densities and the conditions of constructing clusters at the late stage of the whole process influence the two-nucleon HBT correlation with the same power.Comment: 11 pages, 4 figure