2,827 research outputs found

    Translational and rotational motions of albumin sensed by a non-covalent associated porphyrin under physiological and acidic conditions: a fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and time resolved anisotropy study.

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    The interaction between a free-base, anionic water-soluble porphyrin, TSPP, and the drug carrier protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been studied by time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy (TRFA) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) at two different pH-values. Both rotational correlation times and translational diffusion times of the fluorescent species indicate that TSPP binding to albumin induces very little conformational changes in the protein under physiological conditions. By contrast, at low pH, a bi-exponential decay is obtained where a short rotational correlation time (¿ int¿=¿1.2 ns) is obtained, which is likely associated to wobbling movement of the porphyrin in the protein binding site. These physical changes are corroborated by circular dichroism (CD) data which show a 37% loss in the protein helicity upon acidification of the medium. In the presence of excess porphyrin formation of porphyrin J-aggregates is induced, which can be detected by time-resolved fluorescence with short characteristic times. This is also reflected in FCS data by an increase in molecular brightness together with a decrease in the number of fluorescent molecules passing through the detection volume of the sampl

    Activation and molecular recognition of the GPCR rhodopsin – Insights from time-resolved fluorescence depolarisation and single molecule experiments

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    The cytoplasmic surface of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) rhodopsin is a key element in membrane receptor activation, molecular recognition by signalling molecules, and receptor deactivation. Understanding of the coupling between conformational changes in the intramembrane domain and the membrane- exposed surface of the photoreceptor rhodopsin is crucial for the elucidation of the molecular mechanism in GPCR activation. As little is known about protein dynamics, particularly the conformational dynamics of the cytoplasmic surface elements on the nanoseconds timescale, we utilised time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy experiments and site-directed fluorescence labelling to provide information on both, conformational space and motion. We summarise our recent advances in understanding rhodopsin dynamics and function using time-resolved fluorescence depolarisation and single molecule fluorescence experiments, with particular focus on the amphipathic helix 8, lying parallel to the cytoplasmic membrane surface and connecting transmembrane helix 7 with the long C-terminal tail

    The Ras G Domain Lacks the Intrinsic Propensity to Form Dimers

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    Ras GTPase is a molecular switch controlling a number of cellular pathways including growth, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Recent reports indicated that Ras undergoes dimerization at the membrane surface through protein-protein interactions. If firmly established this property of Ras would require profound reassessment of a large amount of published data and modification of the Ras signaling paradigm. One proposed mechanism of dimerization involves formation of salt bridges between the two GTPase domains (G domains) leading to formation of a compact dimer as observed in Ras crystal structures. In this work, we interrogated the intrinsic ability of Ras to self-associate in solution by creating conditions of high local concentration through irreversibly tethering the two G domains together at their unstructured C-terminal tails. We evaluated possible self-association in this inverted tandem conjugate via analysis of the time-domain fluorescence anisotropy and NMR chemical shift perturbations. We did not observe the increased rotational correlation time expected for the G domain dimer. Variation of the ionic strength (to modulate stability of the salt bridges) did not affect the rotational correlation time in the tandem further supporting independent rotational diffusion of two G domains. In a parallel line of experiments to detect and map weak self-association of the G domains, we analyzed NMR chemical shifts perturbations at a number of sites near the crystallographic dimer interface. The nearly complete lack of chemical shift perturbations in the tandem construct supported a simple model with the independent G domains repelled from each other by their overall negative charge. These results lead us to the conclusion that self-association of the G domains cannot be responsible for homodimerization of Ras reported in the literature

    Triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion in polymeric systems and model membranes

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    Triplet-triplet annihilation upconversion (TTAUC) is gaining prominence in the field of optical spectroscopy and holds the potential to revolutionize various emerging technologies such as solar cells, bioimaging and light-activated drug release. This is attributed to its capability of converting long-wavelength photons to higher energy photons, even at low excitation power densities (~5 mW cm-2). The low excitation power density can activate the drug release without damaging the tissue by excitation radiation. The implementation of TTAUC in light-activated drug release necessitates the transfer of the upconversion system comprising sensitizer and annihilator, from solution to solid phase. However, TTAUC is most efficient in solutions and needs inert conditions. The challenge lies in the fact that diffusion plays a crucial role in molecular processes for triplet-triplet energy transfer (TTET) and triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA). In this work, liposomes with sensitizer, annihilator and drug molecules have been synthesized. Time-resolved studies of sensitizer and annihilator in lipid bilayer membranes reveal the triplet lifetime properties, the triplet lifetime of sensitizer and annihilator molecules play a vital role in determining the efficiency of energy transfer processes. The study reveals sensitizer and annihilator molecules localize within the lipid bilayer. Therefore, increasing the local concentration leads to the self-quenching of sensitizer triplets, but localization enhances the energy transfer rates. The observations made using time-resolved study of TTAUC in LUVs indicate despite the higher viscosity of the medium, energy transfer is faster in the lipid bilayer system. Long triplet lifetimes of the sensitizer and annihilators are advantageous in getting high upconversion yield, this study will be crucial in designing efficient light-activated drug delivery systems using liposomes

    Ras hyperactivation versus overexpression : Lessons from Ras dynamics in Candida albicans

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    We thank Prof. Neta Dean for the CIp10ADH1-Cherry plasmid and Prof. Aaron Mitchell for the BWP17 strain. We gratefully acknowledge Prof. Sudipta Maiti, TIFR, Mumbai, India for providing the data acquisition software. We also appreciate the feedback and discussions with Dr. Rohini Muthuswami, SLS, JNU as well as from the Protein Society group, New Delhi while this study was taking shape. We thank Prof. Alok Bhattacharya for Cytochalasin D. The GC-MS and fluorescence lifetime measurements were carried out at the Advanced Instrumentation Research Facility (AIRF), JNU. Confocal images were recorded either at the central instrumentation facility (CIF), SLS, JNU or at AIRF, JNU. This work was supported by project grants from Department of Biotechnology (DBT, Project grant no. BT/PR20410/BRB/10/1542/2016) and Department of Science and Technology (DST, Project grant no. SB/SO/BB-011/2014), India to S.S.K; and project grants from Department of Information Technology, (DIT, Project grant no. 12(4)/2007-PDD), India to S.S. for FCS setup. In addition, both S.S. and S.S.K. thank DBT-BUILDER for funding support (Project grant no. BT/PR5006/INF/153/2012). S.S.K. also acknowledges funding support from UGC Resource Networking grant to the School of Life Sciences. We thank DST-PURSE and JNU for assistance with funding for publication. G.S.V. and S.C.S. received a fellowship from UGC; V.A.P., B.Y., P.J., N.P., M.F.K. acknowledge CSIR for fellowships. S.L.S. received a fellowship from ICMR. D.T.H. and M.F.K. thank DBT-BUILDER for funding.Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Acyl-Chain Mismatch Driven Superlattice Arrangements in DPPC/DLPC/Cholesterol Bilayers

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    Fluorescence and infrared spectroscopy and cholesterol oxidase activity were employed to investigate the effect of phosphatidylcholine (PC) acyl chain length mismatch on the lateral organizations of lipids in liquid-ordered dipalmitoyl-PC/dilauroyl-PC/cholesterol (DPPC/DLPC/CHOL) bilayers. Plots of steady-state fluorescence emission anisotropy of diphenylhexatriene (DPH) labeled PC (DPH-PC) embedded in the DPPC/DLPC/CHOL bilayers revealed significant peaks at several DPPC mole fractions (YDPPC) when the cholesterol mole fraction (XCHOL) was fixed to particular values. Analogously, the DPH-PC anisotropy peaked at several critical XCHOL’s when YDPPC was fixed. Acyl chain C−H and C═O vibrational peak frequencies of native PC as well as the activity of cholesterol oxidase also revealed dips and peaks at similar YDPPC’s. Importantly, most of the observed peaks/dips coincide with the critical mole fractions predicted by the Superlattice (SL) model. A three-dimensional map of DPH-PC anisotropy versus composition in the range 0.32 ≤ XCHOL ≤ 0.50; 0.54 ≤ YDPPC ≤ 0.72 revealed a prominent peak at (XCHOL, YDPPC) ≈ (0.42, 0.64). This suggests a simultaneous presence of two different types of superlattices, one where cholesterol is the quest molecule in a PC host lattice and another where DPPC is the guest in the DLPC host lattice. Time-resolved measurements of DPH-PC fluorescence indicated the existence of an ordered, rotationally hindered environment of acyl chains at that “critical” composition consistent with the existence of SL arrangements. We propose that beside CHOL/PC superlattices, DPPC, and DLPC as well tend to adopt regular SL-like lateral distributions relative to each other, presumably because the less hydrophobic DLPC molecule is slightly displaced toward the aqueous phase, thus allowing more room and mobility for the head groups of both DPPC and DLPC as well as for the acyl chain tails of DPPC. The parallel presence of two kinds of superlattices, that is, CHOL/PC-SL and DPPC/DLPC-SL as demonstrated here, has intriguing implications regarding lipid homeostasis of eukaryote membranes

    Cholesterol Dynamics in Membranes

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    Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy of the sterol analogue, cholestatrienol, and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin lattice relaxation time (T1c) measurements of [13C4] labeled cholesterol were exploited to determine the correlation times characterizing the major modes of motion of cholesterol in unsonicated phospholipid multilamellar liposomes. Two modes of motion were found to be important: (a) rotational diffusion and (b) time dependence of the orientation of the director for axial diffusion, or wobble. From the time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy decays of cholestatrienol in egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayers, a value for tau perpendicular, the correlation time for wobble, of 0.9 x 10(-9) s and a value for S perpendicular, the order parameter characterizing the same motion, of 0.45 s were calculated. Both tau perpendicular and S perpendicular were relatively insensitive to temperature and cholesterol content of the membranes. The T1c measurements of [13C4] labeled cholesterol did not provide a quantitative determination of tau parallel, the correlation time for axial diffusion. T1c from the lipid hydrocarbon chains suggested a value for tau perpendicular similar to that for cholesterol. Steady-state anisotropy measurements and time-resolved anisotropy measurements of cholestatrienol were used to probe sterol behavior in a variety of pure and mixed lipid multilamellar liposomes. Both the lipid headgroups and the lipid hydrocarbons chains contributed to the determination of the sterol environment in the membrane, as revealed by these fluorescence measurements. In particular, effects of the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) headgroup and of multiple unsaturation in the lipid hydrocarbon chains were observed. However, while the steady-state anisotropy was sensitive to these factors, the time-resolved fluorescence analysis indicated that tau perpendicular was not strongly affected by the lipid composition of the membrane. S perpendicular may be increased by the presence of PE. Both steady-state anisotropy measurements and time-resolved anisotropy measurements of cholestatrienol were used to probe sterol behavior in three biological membranes: bovine rod outer segment (ROS) disk membranes, human erythrocyte plasma membranes, and light rabbit muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes. In the ROS disk membranes the value for S perpendicular was marginally higher than in the PC membranes, perhaps reflecting the influence of PE. The dramatic difference noted was in the value for tau perpendicular. In both the ROS disk membranes and the erythrocyte membranes, tau perpendicular was one-third to one-fifth of tau perpendicular in the phospholipid bilayers. This result may reveal an influence of membrane proteins on sterol behavior
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