99,665 research outputs found

    Italy Through the Stereoscope: Journeys in and About Italian Cities

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    Book is intended as a text to accompany 'one hundred stereoscopic photographs of Italy' and to be used in conjunction with five maps. Pictures are not present. Gives a history of Rome, followed by text to accompany each picture. Maps bound into booklet are of Italy, contemporary Rome, ancient Rome, St Peter's and the Vatican, the Roman Forum, Naples and its Environs, Pompeii, Genoa, Florence and Venice. Page number(s) as given: files ending 010_2-011_2 are p.16-1

    Horizontal accuracy assessment of very high resolution Google Earth images in the city of Rome, Italy

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    Google Earth (GE) has recently become the focus of increasing interest and popularity among available online virtual globes used in scientific research projects, due to the free and easily accessed satellite imagery provided with global coverage. Nevertheless, the uses of this service raises several research questions on the quality and uncertainty of spatial data (e.g. positional accuracy, precision, consistency), with implications for potential uses like data collection and validation. This paper aims to analyze the horizontal accuracy of very high resolution (VHR) GE images in the city of Rome (Italy) for the years 2007, 2011, and 2013. The evaluation was conducted by using both Global Positioning System ground truth data and cadastral photogrammetric vertex as independent check points. The validation process includes the comparison of histograms, graph plots, tests of normality, azimuthal direction errors, and the calculation of standard statistical parameters. The results show that GE VHR imageries of Rome have an overall positional accuracy close to 1 m, sufficient for deriving ground truth samples, measurements, and large-scale planimetric maps

    Development of a geological model useful for the study of the natural hazards in urban environments. An example from the eastern sector of Rome (Italy)

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    Detailed knowledge of the subsoil setting is an extremely important issue for a correct risk reduction policy, especially when dealing with urban areas hosting cultural heritage, which enhance risk conditions even at low geo-hazard levels, as in the case of Rome. In general, the reliability of risk assessments related to geo-hazards is strictly dependent on the resolution of the reference geological model. The study presented here exemplifies an integrated methodology aimed at refining the knowledge of the geological setting in unique urban environments, such as the city of Rome, where canonical approaches are limited by the scarcity of outcrops and ad-hoc geognostic surveys may be expensive and time-consuming. The methodology used in the study is based on a critical review of available geological, stratigraphic, archeological and historical-archival data. The integration of such data, properly stored, managed and analysed in a GIS environment, made it possible to: i) better frame the geological setting of a wide sector of the eastern part of Rome; and, in particular, ii) focus on buried natural morphologies (i.e. valleys) strongly modified by progressive urbanisation that determined their filling with huge thickness of backfills, which often represent a critical geotechnical issue. A detailed geological model was thus developed. The model shows slight but significant differences with respect to already available official maps, emphasising the need for carrying out in-depth analyses of already existing data from different sources, in order to collect thematic data to be used for effective land management policies

    Urban and rural green infrastructure.Two projects for the metropolitan city of Rome

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    Create synergies between green infrastructure, urban and rural areas

    Geomorphological classification of urban landscapes. The case study of Rome (Italy)

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    The results of a long-lasting geomorphological survey carried out in Rome are summarized. A method aimed at integrating survey data, historical maps, aerial photographs and archaeological and geomorphological literature produced a geomorphological map of the present-day historical centre. The geomorphology of Rome is related to the paleogeographical conditions prior to the founding of the City; they allow us to recognize the stages of landscape evolution of the ancient Caput Mundi (Capital of the World). The study area has been affected by continuous man-made changes to the drainage network and to the topographic surface over the last 3000 years. It has forced the authors to develop innovative solutions to undertake effective analysis of the urban environment and the legend of the geomorphological map in this peculiar context. The resulting map is useful for urban planning and archaeological research

    Contribution for an urban geomorphoheritage assessment method. Proposal from three geomorphosites in Rome (Italy)

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    Urban geomorphology has important implications in spatial planning of human activities, and it also has a geotouristic potential due to the relationship between cultural and geomorphological heritage. Despite the introduction of the term Anthropocene to describe the deep influence that human activities have had in recent times on Earth evolution, urban geomorphological heritage studies are relatively rare and limited and urban geotourism development is recent. The analysis of the complex urban landscape often need the integration of multidisciplinary data. This study aims to propose the first urban geomorphoheritage assessment method, which originates after long-lasting previous geomorphological and geotouristic studies on Rome city centre, it depict rare examples of the geomorphological mapping of a metropolis and, at the same time, of an inventory of urban geomorphosites. The proposal is applied to geomorphosites in the Esquilino neighbourhood of Rome, whose analysis confirm the need for an ad hoc method for assessing urban geomorphosites, as already highlighted in the most recent literature on the topic. The urban geomorphoheritage assessment method is based on: (i) the urban geomorphological analysis by means of multitemporal and multidisciplinary data; (ii) the geomorphosite inventory; and (iii) the geomorphoheritage assessment and enhancement. One challenge is to assess invisible geomorphosites that are widespread in urban context. To this aim, we reworked the attributes describing the Value of a site for Geotourism in order to build up a specific methodology for the analysis of the urban geomorphological heritage

    Irrigation in Africa, Europe and Latin America : update of the Digital Global Map of Irrigation Areas to version 4

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    The Land and Water Development Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, are cooperating in the development of a global irrigation-mapping facility. This report describes an update of the Digital Global Map of Irrigation Areas for the continents of Africa and Europe as well as for the countries Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay in Latin America. For this update, an new inventory of subnational irrigation statistics was compiled. The reference year for the statistics is 2000. Adding up the irrigated areas per country as documented in the report gives a total of 48.8 million ha while the total area equipped for irrigation at the global scale is 278.8 million ha. The total number of subnational units in the inventory used for this update is 16 822 while the number of subnational units in the global inventory increased to 26 909. In order to distribute the irrigation statistics per subnational unit, digital spatial data layers and printed maps were used. Irrigation maps were derived from project reports, irrigation subsector studies, and books related to irrigation and drainage. These maps were digitized and compared with satellite images of many regions. In areas without spatial information on irrigated areas, additional information was used to locate areas where irrigation is likely, such as land-cover and land-use maps that indicate agricultural areas or areas with crops that are usually grown under irrigation

    A study of resonance tongues near a Chenciner bifurcation using MatcontM

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    MatcontM is a matlab toolbox for numerical analysis of bifurcations of fixed points and periodic orbits of maps. It computes codim 1 bifurcation curves and supports the computation of normal coefficients including branch switching from codim 2 points to secondary curves. Recently, the initialization and computation of connecting orbits was improved. Moreover, a graphical user interface was added enabling interactive control of all these computations. To further support these computations it allows to compute orbits of the map and its iterates and to represent them in 2D, 3D and numeric windows. We demonstrate the use of the toolbox in a study of Arnol'd tongues near a degenerate Neimark-Sacker (Chenciner) bifurcation. Here we illustrate the recent theory of [Baesens&Mackay,2007] how resonance tongues interact with a quasi-periodic saddle-node bifurcation of invariant curves in maps. Using normal form coefficients we find evidence for one of their cases, but not the other. Actually, we find another unfolding, i.e. a third possibility. We also find a structure that resembles a quasi-periodic cusp bifurcation of invariant curves

    Google Maps as a Transformational Learning Tool in the Study Abroad Experience

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    This article examines the role that spatial orientation and location can play on a study abroad program. Jessica Stephenson and M. Todd Harper paired a Google Maps project with autoethnography in order to help students understand their own experience of space abroad as well as how they themselves shaped that space. Students were asked to create a personalized Google Map of the sites that they visited in Rome, Orvieto, Florence, and Montepulciano, Italy. Students then added facts about the sites as well as their own photos and personal experience. They were then asked to use their personalized Google Maps as a heuristic for longer autoethnographic papers relating to the themes of pilgrimage and journey. In so doing, students realized that space is alive, constantly changing and evolving

    Neurophysiological correlates of embodiment and motivational factors during the perception of virtual architectural environments

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    The recent efforts aimed at providing neuroscientific explanations of how people perceive and experience architectural environments have largely justified the initial belief in the value of neuroscience for architecture. However, a systematic development of a coherent theoretical and experimental framework is missing. To investigate the neurophysiological reactions related to the appreciation of ambiances, we recorded the electroencephalographic (EEG) signals in an immersive virtual reality during the appreciation of interior designs. Such data have been analyzed according to the working hypothesis that appreciated environments involve embodied simulation mechanisms and circuits mediating approaching stimuli. EEG recordings of 12 healthy subjects have been performed during the perception of three-dimensional interiors that have been simulated in a CAVE system and judged according to dimensions of familiarity, novelty, comfort, pleasantness, arousal and presence. A correlation analysis on personal judgments returned that scores of novelty, pleasantness and comfort are positively correlated, while familiarity and novelty are in negative way. Statistical spectral maps reveal that pleasant, novel and comfortable interiors produce a de-synchronization of the mu rhythm over left sensorimotor areas. Interiors judged more pleasant and less familiar generate an activation of left frontal areas (theta and alpha bands), along an involvement of areas devoted to spatial navigation. An increase in comfort returns an enhancement of the theta frontal midline activity. Cerebral activations underlying appreciation of architecture could involve different mechanisms regulating corporeal, emotional and cognitive reactions. Therefore, it might be suggested that people's experience of architectural environments is intrinsically structured by the possibilities for action
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