642,962 research outputs found

    Respiratory analysis system and method

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    A system is described for monitoring the respiratory process in which the gas flow rate and the frequency of respiration and expiration cycles can be determined on a real time basis. A face mask is provided with one-way inlet and outlet valves where the gas flow is through independent flowmeters and through a mass spectrometer. The opening and closing of a valve operates an electrical switch, and the combination of the two switches produces a low frequency electrical signal of the respiratory inhalation and exhalation cycles. During the time a switch is operated, the corresponsing flowmeter produces electric pulses representative of the flow rate; the electrical pulses being at a higher frequency than that of the breathing cycle and combined with the low frequency signal. The high frequency pulses are supplied to conventional analyzer computer which also receives temperature and pressure inputs and computes mass flow rate and totalized mass flow of gas. From the mass spectrometer, components of the gas are separately computed as to flow rate. The electrical switches cause operation of up-down inputs of a reversible counter. The respective up and down cycles can be individually monitored and combined for various respiratory measurements

    On the potential of using fractional-order systems to model the respiratory impedance

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    This contribution provides an analysis of the human respiratory system in frequency domain by means of estimating the respiratory impedance. Further on, analysis of several models for human respiratory impedance is done, leading to the conclusion that a fractional model gives a better description of the impedance than the classical theory of integer-order systems. A mathematical analysis follows, starting from the conclusions obtained heuristically. Correlation to the physiological characteristics of the respiratory system is discussed

    Evaluation of exercise-respiratory system modifications and preliminary respiratory-circulatory system integration scheme

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    The respiratory control system, functioning as an independent system, is presented with modifications of the exercise subroutine. These modifications illustrate an improved control of ventilation rates and arterial and compartmental gas tensions. A very elementary approach to describing the interactions of the respiratory and circulatory system is presented

    Alternative NAD(P)H dehydrogenase and alternative oxidase: proposed physiological roles in animals

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    The electron transport systems in mitochondria of many organisms contain alternative respiratory enzymes distinct from those of the canonical respiratory system depicted in textbooks. Two of these enzymes, the alternative NADH dehydrogenase and the alternative oxidase, were of interest to a limited circle of researchers until they were envisioned as gene therapy tools for mitochondrial disease treatment. Recently, these enzymes were discovered in several animals. Here, we analyse the functioning of alternative NADH dehydrogenases and oxidases in different organisms. We propose that both enzymes ensure bioenergetic and metabolic flexibility during environmental transitions or other conditions which may compromise the operation of the canonical respiratory system. The electron transport systems in mitochondria of many organisms contain alternative respiratory enzymes distinct from those of the canonical respiratory system depicted in textbooks. Two of these enzymes, the alternative NADH dehydrogenase and the alternative oxidase, were of interest to a limited circle of researchers until they were envisioned as gene therapy tools for mitochondrial disease treatment. Recently, these enzymes were discovered in several animals. Here, we analyse the functioning of alternative NADH dehydrogenases and oxidases in different organisms. We propose that both enzymes ensure bioenergetic and metabolic flexibility during environmental transitions or other conditions which may compromise the operation of the canonical respiratory system

    Optimization techniques in respiratory control system models

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    One of the most complex physiological systems whose modeling is still an open study is the respiratory control system where different models have been proposed based on the criterion of minimizing the work of breathing (WOB). The aim of this study is twofold: to compare two known models of the respiratory control system which set the breathing pattern based on quantifying the respiratory work; and to assess the influence of using direct-search or evolutionary optimization algorithms on adjustment of model parameters. This study was carried out using experimental data from a group of healthy volunteers under CO2 incremental inhalation, which were used to adjust the model parameters and to evaluate how much the equations of WOB follow a real breathing pattern. This breathing pattern was characterized by the following variables: tidal volume, inspiratory and expiratory time duration and total minute ventilation. Different optimization algorithms were considered to determine the most appropriate model from physiological viewpoint. Algorithms were used for a double optimization: firstly, to minimize the WOB and secondly to adjust model parameters. The performance of optimization algorithms was also evaluated in terms of convergence rate, solution accuracy and precision. Results showed strong differences in the performance of optimization algorithms according to constraints and topological features of the function to be optimized. In breathing pattern optimization, the sequential quadratic programming technique (SQP) showed the best performance and convergence speed when respiratory work was low. In addition, SQP allowed to implement multiple non-linear constraints through mathematical expressions in the easiest way. Regarding parameter adjustment of the model to experimental data, the evolutionary strategy with covariance matrix and adaptation (CMA-ES) provided the best quality solutions with fast convergence and the best accuracy and precision in both models. CMAES reached the best adjustment because of its good performance on noise and multi-peaked fitness functions. Although one of the studied models has been much more commonly used to simulate respiratory response to CO2 inhalation, results showed that an alternative model has a more appropriate cost function to minimize WOB from a physiological viewpoint according to experimental data.Postprint (author's final draft

    Automatic electrical stimulation of abdominal wall muscles increases tidal volume and cough peak flow in tetraplegia

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    <p>Paralysis of the respiratory muscles in people with tetraplegia affects their ability to breathe and contributes to respiratory complications. Surface functional electrical stimulation (FES) of abdominal wall muscles can be used to increase tidal volume (V_{T}) and improve cough peak flow (CPF) in tetraplegic subjects who are able to breathe spontaneously.</p> <p>This study aims to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a novel abdominal FES system which generates stimulation automatically, synchronised with the subjects' voluntary breathing activity. Four subjects with complete tetraplegia (C4-C6), breathing spontaneously, were recruited.</p> <p>The automatic stimulation system ensured that consistent stimulation was achieved. We compared spirometry during unassisted and FES-assisted quiet breathing and coughing, and measured the effect of stimulation on end-tidal CO_2 (EtCO_2) during quiet breathing.</p> <p>The system dependably recognised spontaneous respiratory effort, stimulating appropriately, and was well tolerated by patients. Significant increases in V_T during quiet breathing (range 0.05–0.23 L) and in CPF (range 0.04–0.49 L/s) were observed. Respiratory rate during quiet breathing decreased in all subjects when stimulated, whereas minute ventilation increased by 1.05–2.07 L/min. The changes in EtCO_2 were inconclusive.</p> <p>The automatic stimulation system augmented spontaneous breathing and coughing in tetraplegic patients and may provide a potential means of respiratory support for tetraplegic patients with reduced respiratory capacity.</p&gt

    Age-related changes in the respiratory system

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    This article summarises the main structural and physiological changes which take place in the lung from young adulthood to senescence. An understanding of these changes helps the clinician to correctly interpret some results of radiology and pulmonary function frequently seen in clinical practice. An appreciation of the altered physiology and the consequent reduction in pulmonary reserve should alert the physician to the need for a more critical evaluation of the various respiratory parameters measured during illness in an older patient. Rhythmic breathing occurs virtually continuously over a lifetime and the alveolar gas-exchanging surface is brought into contact with more than 270 million litres of air, which may contain harmful particulate matter and noxious gas elements. Thus to separate changes in the respiratory system caused by ageing itself from those caused by environmental or work-related factors is extremely difficult and sometimes impossible. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is possibly the most important disease entity related to age and environment. Epidemiological studies show that the prevalence of COPD is increasing. In the 1990’s prognostic models of COPD were developed. These have shown that age, ventilatory function, gender and smoking were the major determinants for the development of COPD. Other important factors were outdoor air pollution and occupation.peer-reviewe

    Exercise-induced respiratory muscle fatigue: implications for performance

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    It is commonly held that the respiratory system has ample capacity relative to the demand for maximal O-2 and CO2 transport in healthy humans exercising near sea level. However, this situation may not apply during heavy-intensity, sustained exercise where exercise may encroach on the capacity of the respiratory system. Nerve stimulation techniques have provided objective evidence that the diaphragm and abdominal muscles are susceptible to fatigue with heavy, sustained exercise. The fatigue appears to be due to elevated levels of respiratory muscle work combined with an increased competition for blood flow with limb locomotor muscles. When respiratory muscles are prefatigued using voluntary respiratory maneuvers, time to exhaustion during subsequent exercise is decreased. Partially unloading the respiratory muscles during heavy exercise using low-density gas mixtures or mechanical ventilation can prevent exercise-induced diaphragm fatigue and increase exercise time to exhaustion. Collectively, these findings suggest that respiratory muscle fatigue may be involved in limiting exercise tolerance or that other factors, including alterations in the sensation of dyspnea or mechanical load, may be important. The major consequence of respiratory muscle fatigue is an increased sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow to working skeletal muscle through a respiratory muscle metaboreflex, thereby reducing limb blood flow and increasing the severity of exercise-induced locomotor muscle fatigue. An increase in limb locomotor muscle fatigue may play a pivotal role in determining exercise tolerance through a direct effect on muscle force output and a feedback effect on effort perception, causing reduced motor output to the working limb muscles

    Indicators of Respiratory System in Conditions of Chronic Action of Harmful Environmental Factors with Type of Body Constitution

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    The article presents the results of the study of the peculiarities of the respiratory system functioning in unfavorable environmental conditions in workers involved in industrial production and agrarian sector, taking into account the type of constitution of their bodies. Investigation of the influence of the complex of anthropogenic factors associated with production on the parameters of the respiratory system revealed a significant level of interconnection of the investigated parameters with anthropometric indicators.During the experiment, a significant decrease in the functional lung capacity in the studied subjects involved in industrial production was shown, compared with the control group and workers of argo-industrial production. Such a trend may be evidence of functional violations of tracheobronchial conduction, which is indirectly confirmed by the values of the Tifno index, which is the main method of an objective assessment of respiratory tract imperfections, and which is characterized by significantly lower values in the group of workers involved in industrial production compared with residents relative to environmentally friendly areas.The analysis of the pneumatachographic survey performed on the basis of the Pignier index revealed some differences in the functional parameters of the respiratory system in the groups of hyposthenics (capacity of the lungs) and hypersthenics (maximum volume velocity of 75 %). In the group of normosthenics, intergroup differences were found for the values of functional lung capacity in comparison with all groups, and for the Tifno index, the reliable difference between the indicators was noted only between the group of industrial workers and the control group
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