1,579 research outputs found

    Formal Reduction Potential of 3,5-Difluorotyrosine in a Structured Protein: Insight into Multistep Radical Transfer

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    The reversible Y–O•/Y–OH redox properties of the α[subscript 3]Y model protein allow access to the electrochemical and thermodynamic properties of 3,5-difluorotyrosine. The unnatural amino acid has been incorporated at position 32, the dedicated radical site in α[subscript 3]Y, by in vivo nonsense codon suppression. Incorporation of 3,5-difluorotyrosine gives rise to very minor structural changes in the protein scaffold at pH values below the apparent pK (8.0 ± 0.1) of the unnatural residue. Square-wave voltammetry on α[subscript 3](3,5)F[subscript 2]Y provides an E°′(Y–O•/Y–OH) of 1026 ± 4 mV versus the normal hydrogen electrode (pH 5.70 ± 0.02) and shows that the fluoro substitutions lower the E°′ by −30 ± 3 mV. These results illustrate the utility of combining the optimized α[subscript 3]Y tyrosine radical system with in vivo nonsense codon suppression to obtain the formal reduction potential of an unnatural aromatic residue residing within a well-structured protein. It is further observed that the protein E°′ values differ significantly from peak potentials derived from irreversible voltammograms of the corresponding aqueous species. This is notable because solution potentials have been the main thermodynamic data available for amino acid radicals. The findings in this paper are discussed relative to recent mechanistic studies of the multistep radical-transfer process in Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase site-specifically labeled with unnatural tyrosine residues.National Institutes of Health (U.S.) (Grant GM29595

    Spectroscopic and theoretical approaches for studying radical reactions in class I ribonucleotide reductase

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    Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) catalyze the production of deoxyribonucleotides, which are essential for DNA synthesis and repair in all organisms. The three currently known classes of RNRs are postulated to utilize a similar mechanism for ribonucleotide reduction via a transient thiyl radical, but they differ in the way this radical is generated. Class I RNR, found in all eukaryotic organisms and in some eubacteria and viruses, employs a diferric iron center and a stable tyrosyl radical in a second protein subunit, R2, to drive thiyl radical generation near the substrate binding site in subunit R1. From extensive experimental and theoretical research during the last decades, a general mechanistic model for class I RNR has emerged, showing three major mechanistic steps: generation of the tyrosyl radical by the diiron center in subunit R2, radical transfer to generate the proposed thiyl radical near the substrate bound in subunit R1, and finally catalytic reduction of the bound ribonucleotide. Amino acid- or substrate-derived radicals are involved in all three major reactions. This article summarizes the present mechanistic picture of class I RNR and highlights experimental and theoretical approaches that have contributed to our current understanding of this important class of radical enzymes

    Reversible, Long-Range Radical Transfer in E. coli Class Ia Ribonucleotide Reductase

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    Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) catalyze the conversion of nucleotides (NDPs or NTPs where N = C, U, G, or A) to 2′-deoxynucleotides (dNDPs or dNTPs)[superscript 1] and are responsible for controlling the relative ratios and absolute concentrations of cellular dNTP pools. For this reason, RNRs play a major role in ensuring the fidelity of DNA replication and repair. RNRs are found in all organisms and are classified based on the metallocofactor used to initiate catalysis,[superscript 1] with the class Ia RNRs requiring a diferric-tyrosyl radical (Y•) cofactor.National Institutes of Health (U.S.) (GM47274)National Institutes of Health (U.S.) (GM29595

    A Ferredoxin Disulfide Reductase Delivers Electrons to the to the Methanosarcina barkeri Class III Ribonucleotide Reductase

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    Two subtypes of class III anaerobic ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) studied so far couple the reduction of ribonucleotides to the oxidation of formate, or the oxidation of NADPH via thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase. Certain methanogenic archaea contain a phylogenetically distinct third subtype of class III RNR, with distinct active-site residues. Here we report the cloning and recombinant expression of the Methanosarcina barkeri class III RNR and show that the electrons required for ribonucleotide reduction can be delivered by a [4Fe-4S] protein ferredoxin disulfide reductase, and a conserved thioredoxin-like protein NrdH present in the RNR operon. The diversity of class III RNRs reflects the diversity of electron carriers used in anaerobic metabolism.Singapore. Agency for Science, Technology and ResearchNational Institutes of Health (U.S.) (Grant GM081393

    Proton-Coupled Electron Flow in Protein Redox Machines

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    Electron transfer (ET) reactions are fundamental steps in biological redox processes. Respiration is a case in point: at least 15 ET reactions are required to take reducing equivalents from NADH, deposit them in O_2, and generate the electrochemical proton gradient that drives ATP synthesis. Most of these reactions involve quantum tunneling between weakly coupled redox cofactors (ET distances > 10 Å) embedded in the interiors of folded proteins. Here we review experimental findings that have shed light on the factors controlling these distant ET events. We also review work on a sensitizer-modified copper protein photosystem in which multistep electron tunneling (hopping) through an intervening tryptophan is orders of magnitude faster than the corresponding single-step ET reaction.If proton transfers are coupled to ET events, we refer to the processes as proton coupled ET, or PCET, a term introduced by Huynh and Meyer in 1981. Here we focus on two protein redox machines, photosystem II and ribonucleotide reductase, where PCET processes involving tyrosines are believed to be critical for function. Relevant tyrosine model systems also will be discussed

    Structural and energy determinants in protein-RNA docking

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    Deciphering the structural and energetic determinants of protein-RNA interactions harbors the potential to understand key cell processes at molecular level, such as gene expression and regulation. With this purpose, computational methods like docking aim to complement current biophysical and structural biology efforts. However, the few reported docking algorithms for protein-RNA interactions show limited predictive success rates, mainly due to incomplete sampling of the conformational space of both the protein and the RNA molecules, as well as to the difficulties of the scoring function in identifying the correct docking models. Here, we have tested the predictive value of a variety of knowledge-based and energetic scoring functions on a recently published protein-RNA docking benchmark and developed a scoring function able to efficiently discriminate docking decoys. We first performed docking calculations with the bound conformation, which allowed us to analyze the problem in optimal conditions. We found that geometry-based terms and electrostatics were the most important scoring terms, while binding propensities and desolvation were much less relevant for the scoring of protein-RNA models. This is in contrast with what we observed for protein-protein docking. The results also showed an interesting dependence of the predictive rates on the flexibility of the protein molecule, which arises from the observed higher positive charge of flexible interfaces and provides hints for future development of more efficient protein-RNA docking methods.This work is supported by grant BIO2013-48213-R from Plan Nacional I+D+i (Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness). LP-C was recipient of an FPU fellowship from the Spanish Ministry of Science.Peer ReviewedPostprint (author's final draft

    Hydrogen Bonds and Electrostatic Environment of Radical Intermediates in Ribonucleotide Reductase Ia

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    Electron hopping through proteins

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    Biological redox machines require efficient transfer of electrons and holes for function. Reactions involving multiple tunneling steps, termed “hopping,” often promote charge separation within and between proteins that is essential for energy storage and conversion. Here we show how semiclassical electron transfer theory can be extended to include hopping reactions: graphical representations (called hopping maps) of the dependence of calculated two-step reaction rate constants on driving force are employed to account for flow in a rhenium-labeled azurin mutant as well as in two structurally characterized redox enzymes, DNA photolyase and MauG. Analysis of the 35 Å radical propagation in ribonucleotide reductases using hopping maps shows that all tyrosines and tryptophans on the radical pathway likely are involved in function. We suggest that hopping maps can facilitate the design and construction of artificial photosynthetic systems for the production of fuels and other chemicals

    19F Electron-nuclear double resonance reveals interaction between redox-active tyrosines across the α/β interface of E. coli ribonucleotide reductase

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    Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) catalyze the reduction of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides, thereby playing a key role in DNA replication and repair. Escherichia coli class Ia RNR is an α2β2 enzyme complex that uses a reversible multistep radical transfer (RT) over 32 Å across its two subunits, α and β, to initiate, using its metallo-cofactor in β2, nucleotide reduction in α2. Each step is proposed to involve a distinct proton-coupled electron-transfer (PCET) process. An unresolved step is the RT involving Y356(β) and Y731(α) across the α/β interface. Using 2,3,5-F3Y122-β2 with 3,5-F2Y731-α2, GDP (substrate) and TTP (allosteric effector), a Y356• intermediate was trapped and its identity was verified by 263 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and 34 GHz pulse electron–electron double resonance spectroscopies. 94 GHz 19F electron-nuclear double resonance spectroscopy allowed measuring the interspin distances between Y356• and the 19F nuclei of 3,5-F2Y731 in this RNR mutant. Similar experiments with the double mutant E52Q/F3Y122-β2 were carried out for comparison to the recently published cryo-EM structure of a holo RNR complex. For both mutant combinations, the distance measurements reveal two conformations of 3,5-F2Y731. Remarkably, one conformation is consistent with 3,5-F2Y731 within the H-bond distance to Y356•, whereas the second one is consistent with the conformation observed in the cryo-EM structure. The observations unexpectedly suggest the possibility of a colinear PCET, in which electron and proton are transferred from the same donor to the same acceptor between Y356 and Y731. The results highlight the important role of state-of-the-art EPR spectroscopy to decipher this mechanism
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