71,054 research outputs found

    Nonlinear realisation approach to topologically massive supergravity

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    We develop a nonlinear realisation approach to topologically massive supergravity in three dimensions, with and without a cosmological term. It is a natural generalisation of a similar construction for N=1{\cal N}=1 supergravity in four dimensions, which was recently proposed by one of us. At the heart of both formulations is the nonlinear realisation approach to gravity which was given by Volkov and Soroka fifty years ago in the context of spontaneously broken local supersymmetry. In our setting, the action for cosmological topologically massive supergravity is invariant under two different local supersymmetries. One of them acts on the Goldstino, while the other supersymmetry leaves the Goldstino invariant. The former can be used to gauge away the Goldstino, and then the resulting action coincides with that given in the literature.Comment: 29 page

    The passage of time and top-down causation

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    It is often claimed that the fundamental laws of physics are deterministic and time-symmetric and that therefore our experience of the passage of time is an illusion. This paper will critically discuss these claims and show that they are based on the misconception that the laws of physics are an exact and complete description of nature. I will argue that all supposedly fundamental deterministic and time-symmetric laws have their limitations and are supplemented by stochastic and irreversible elements. In fact, a deterministic description of a system is valid only as long as interactions with the rest of the world can be ignored. The most famous example is the quantum measurement process that occurs when a quantum system interacts with a macroscopic environment such as a measurement apparatus. This environment determines in a top-down way the possible outcomes of the measurement and their probabilities. I will argue that more generally the possible events that can occur in a system and their probabilities are the result of top-down influences from the wider context. In this way the microscopic level of a system is causally open to influences from the macroscopic environment. In conclusion, indeterminism and irreversibility are the result of a system being embedded in a wider context.Comment: This paper is based on a talk given at the MG16 conference in July 2021, and it appeared this year in the proceedings of this conference (online, open access, and print

    Time dilation of quantum clocks in a Newtonian gravitational field

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    We consider two non-relativistic quantum clocks interacting with a Newtonian gravitational field produced by a spherical mass. In the framework of Page and Wootters approach, we derive a time dilation for the time states of the clocks. The delay is in agreement up to first order with the gravitational time dilation obtained from the Schwarzschild metric. This result can be extended by considering the relativistic gravitational potential: in this case we obtain the agreement with the exact Schwarzschild solution.Comment: 11 pages, 3 figure

    Quantum Mechanics Lecture Notes. Selected Chapters

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    These are extended lecture notes of the quantum mechanics course which I am teaching in the Weizmann Institute of Science graduate physics program. They cover the topics listed below. The first four chapter are posted here. Their content is detailed on the next page. The other chapters are planned to be added in the coming months. 1. Motion in External Electromagnetic Field. Gauge Fields in Quantum Mechanics. 2. Quantum Mechanics of Electromagnetic Field 3. Photon-Matter Interactions 4. Quantization of the Schr\"odinger Field (The Second Quantization) 5. Open Systems. Density Matrix 6. Adiabatic Theory. The Berry Phase. The Born-Oppenheimer Approximation 7. Mean Field Approaches for Many Body Systems -- Fermions and Boson

    Soliton Gas: Theory, Numerics and Experiments

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    The concept of soliton gas was introduced in 1971 by V. Zakharov as an infinite collection of weakly interacting solitons in the framework of Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. In this theoretical construction of a diluted soliton gas, solitons with random parameters are almost non-overlapping. More recently, the concept has been extended to dense gases in which solitons strongly and continuously interact. The notion of soliton gas is inherently associated with integrable wave systems described by nonlinear partial differential equations like the KdV equation or the one-dimensional nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation that can be solved using the inverse scattering transform. Over the last few years, the field of soliton gases has received a rapidly growing interest from both the theoretical and experimental points of view. In particular, it has been realized that the soliton gas dynamics underlies some fundamental nonlinear wave phenomena such as spontaneous modulation instability and the formation of rogue waves. The recently discovered deep connections of soliton gas theory with generalized hydrodynamics have broadened the field and opened new fundamental questions related to the soliton gas statistics and thermodynamics. We review the main recent theoretical and experimental results in the field of soliton gas. The key conceptual tools of the field, such as the inverse scattering transform, the thermodynamic limit of finite-gap potentials and the Generalized Gibbs Ensembles are introduced and various open questions and future challenges are discussed.Comment: 35 pages, 8 figure

    A decoherence-based approach to the classical limit in Bohm's theory

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    The paper explains why the de Broglie-Bohm theory reduces to Newtonian mechanics in the macroscopic classical limit. The quantum-to-classical transition is based on three steps: (i) interaction with the environment produces effectively factorized states, leading to the formation of effective wave functions and hence decoherence; (ii) the effective wave functions selected by the environment–the pointer states of decoherence theory–will be well-localized wave packets, typically Gaussian states; (iii) the quantum potential of a Gaussian state becomes negligible under standard classicality conditions; therefore, the effective wave function will move according to Newtonian mechanics in the correct classical limit. As a result, a Bohmian system in interaction with the environment will be described by an effective Gaussian state and–when the system is macroscopic–it will move according to Newtonian mechanics

    Noether's second theorem and covariant field theory of mechanical stresses in inhomogeneous ionic liquids

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    In this paper, we present a covariant approach that utilizes Noether's second theorem to derive a symmetric stress tensor from the grand thermodynamic potential functional. We focus on the practical case where the density of the grand thermodynamic potential is dependent on the first and second coordinate derivatives of the scalar order parameters. Our approach is applied to several models of inhomogeneous ionic liquids that consider electrostatic correlations of ions or short-range correlations related to packing effects. Specifically, we derive analytical expressions for the symmetric stress tensors of the Cahn-Hilliard-like model, Bazant-Storey-Kornyshev model, and Maggs-Podgornik-Blossey model. All of these expressions are found to be consistent with respective self-consistent field equations.Comment: Submitted to Journal of Chemical Physic

    Worldtube excision method for intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals: scalar-field model in 3+1 dimensions

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    Binary black hole simulations become increasingly more computationally expensive with smaller mass ratios, partly because of the longer evolution time, and partly because the lengthscale disparity dictates smaller time steps. The program initiated by Dhesi et al. (arXiv:2109.03531) explores a method for alleviating the scale disparity in simulations with mass ratios in the intermediate astrophysical range (104q10210^{-4} \lesssim q \lesssim 10^{-2}), where purely perturbative methods may not be adequate. A region ("worldtube") much larger than the small black hole is excised from the numerical domain, and replaced with an analytical model approximating a tidally deformed black hole. Here we apply this idea to a toy model of a scalar charge in a fixed circular geodesic orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole, solving for the massless Klein-Gordon field. This is a first implementation of the worldtube excision method in full 3+1 dimensions. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method, and discuss the steps towards applying it for evolving orbits and, ultimately, in the binary black-hole scenario. Our implementation is publicly accessible in the SpECTRE numerical relativity code.Comment: 19 pages, 10 figure

    On the fermionic couplings of axionic dark matter

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    In the non-relativistic limit, two types of dark matter axion interactions with fermions are thought to dominate: one is induced by the spatial gradient of the axion field and called the axion wind, and the other by the time-derivative of the axion field, generating axioelectric effects. By generalizing Schiff theorem, it is demonstrated that this latter operator is actually strongly screened. For a neutral fermion, it can be entirely rotated away and is unobservable. For charged fermions, the only effect that can peek through the screening is an axion-induced electric dipole moment (EDM). These EDMs are not related to the axion coupling to gluons, represent a prediction of the Dirac theory analogous to the g = 2 magnetic moments, are not further screened by the original Schiff theorem, and are ultimately responsible for inducing the usual axioelectric ionization. The two main phenomenological consequences are then that first the axion-induced neutron EDM could be several orders of magnitude larger than expected from the axion gluonic coupling, and second, that the electron EDM could also become available, and could actually be highly sensitive to relic axions.Comment: 30 pages, no figure. Status of the axioelectric effect clarified, and improved EDM numerical estimate

    Model-Independent Determination of H0H_0 and ΩK,0\Omega_{K,0} using Time-Delay Galaxy Lenses and Gamma-Ray Bursts

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    Combining the `time-delay distance' (DΔtD_{\Delta t}) measurements from galaxy lenses and other distance indicators provides model-independent determinations of the Hubble constant (H0H_0) and spatial curvature (ΩK,0\Omega_{K,0}), only based on the validity of the Friedmann-Lema\^itre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metric and geometrical optics. To take the full merit of combining DΔtD_{\Delta t} measurements in constraining H0H_0, we use gamma-ray burst (GRB) distances to extend the redshift coverage of lensing systems much higher than that of Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) and even higher than quasars, whilst the general cosmography with a curvature component is implemented for the GRB distance parametrizations. Combining Lensing+GRB yields H0=71.53.0+4.4H_0=71.5^{+4.4}_{-3.0}~km s1^{-1}Mpc1^{-1} and ΩK,0=0.070.06+0.13\Omega_{K,0} = -0.07^{+0.13}_{-0.06} (1σ\sigma). A flat-universe prior gives slightly an improved H0=70.92.9+4.2H_0 = 70.9^{+4.2}_{-2.9}~km s1^{-1}Mpc1^{-1}. When combining Lensing+GRB+SN Ia, the error bar ΔH0\Delta H_0 falls by 25\%, whereas ΩK,0\Omega_{K,0} is not improved due to the degeneracy between SN Ia absolute magnitude, MBM_B, and H0H_0 along with the mismatch between the SN Ia and GRB Hubble diagrams at z1.4z\gtrsim 1.4. Future increment of GRB observations can help to moderately eliminate the MBH0M_B-H_0 degeneracy in SN Ia distances and ameliorate the restrictions on cosmographic parameters along with ΩK,0\Omega_{K,0} when combining Lensing+SN Ia+GRB. We conclude that there is no evidence of significant deviation from a (an) flat (accelerating) universe and H0H_0 is currently determined at 3\% precision. The measurements show great potential to arbitrate the H0H_0 tension between the local distance ladder and cosmic microwave background measurements and provide a relevant consistency test of the FLRW metric.Comment: Accepted for publication in MNRA