16,531 research outputs found

    People make Places

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    For centuries Glasgow, as a bucolic fishing village and ecclesiastical centre on the banks of the River Clyde, held little of strategic significance. When success and later threats came to the city, it was as a consequence of explosive growth during the industrial era that left a significant civic presence accompanied by social and environmental challenges. Wartime damage to the fabric of the city and the subsequent implementation of modernist planning left Glasgow with a series of existential threats to the lives and the health of its people that have taken time to understand and come to terms with. In a few remarkable decades of late 20th century regeneration, Glasgow began to be put back together. The trauma of the second half of the 20th century is fading but not yet a distant memory. Existential threats from the climate emergency can provoke the reaction ‚Äúwhat, again?‚ÄĚ However, the resilience built over the last 50 years has instilled a belief that a constructive, pro-active and creative approach to face this challenge along with the recognition that such action can be transformational for safeguarding and improving people‚Äôs lives and the quality of their places. A process described as a just transition that has become central to Glasgow‚Äôs approach. Of Scotland‚Äôs four big cities, three are surrounded by landscape and sea only Glasgow is surrounded by itself. Even with a small territory, Glasgow is still the largest of Scotland‚Äôs big cities and by some margin. When the wider metropolitan area is considered, Glasgow is ‚Äď like Birmingham, Manchester and Liverpool ‚Äď no mean city. People make Places begins with a review of the concept and complexities of place, discusses why these matter and reviews the growing body of evidence that place quality can deliver economic, social and environmental value. The following chapters focus on the history and evolution of modern Glasgow in four eras of 19th and early 20th century industrialisation, de- industrialisation and modernism in mid 20th century, late 20th century regeneration and a 21st century recovery towards transition and renaissance, and document the process, synthesis and the results of a major engagement programme and to explore systematic approaches to place and consensus building around the principal issues. The second half of the work reflects on a stocktaking of place in contemporary Glasgow, looking at the city through the lenses of an international, metropolitan and everyday city, concluding with a review of the places of Glasgow and what may be learned from them revealing some valuable insights presented in a series of Place Stories included. The concluding chapter sets out the findings of the investigation and analysis reviewing place goals, challenges and opportunities for Glasgow over the decades to 2030 and 2040 and ends with some recommendations about what Glasgow might do better to combine place thinking and climate awareness and setting out practical steps to mobilise Glasgow‚Äôs ‚Äėplace ecosystem‚Äô

    Identifizierung prädiktiver und prognostischer Biomarker in unterschiedlichen Tumorkompartimenten des ösophagealen Adenokarzinoms

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    Das √∂sophageale Adenokarzinom zeigt eine global steigende Inzidenz und hat mit einer 5-Jahres-√úberlebensrate von weniger als 25% eine schlechte Prognose. Personalisierte Therapieans√§tze sind selten und prognostische/pr√§diktive Biomarker des Tumormikromilieus sind unzureichend charakterisiert. Die kumulative Promotion n√§hert sich dieser Problematik in drei unterschiedlichen Schwerpunkten. 1. Zur Identifizierung Kompartiment-spezifischer Biomarker wurde eine Methode entwickelt, welche als kosteng√ľnstige Alternative zum sc-Seq Expressionsprofile individueller Zelltypen generiert. Dabei erfolgt die Extraktion der RNA nicht aus Einzelzellen, sondern aus flowzytometrisch-getrennten Zellkompartimenten. Die Separation der Proben in Epithelzellen, Immunzellen und Fibroblasten wurde durch verschiedene Verfahren validiert und eine suffiziente Ausbeute an RNA auch f√ľr kleine Gewebemengen gezeigt. 2. Biomarker des Immunzellkompartiments als therapeutische Angriffspunkte wurden in einem Patientenkollektiv von bis zu 551 Patienten auf ihre Bedeutung beim EAC √ľberpr√ľft. Es zeigte sich eine Expression der Immuncheckpoints LAG3, VISTA und IDO auf TILs durch IHC und RNA-Sonden basierte Verfahren in einem relevanten Anteil (LAG3: 11,4%, VISTA: 29%, IDO: 52,6%). Es konnte eine prognostisch g√ľnstige Bedeutung der VISTA, LAG3 und IDO Expression gezeigt werden. Durch den Vergleich von Genexpressionsprofilen aus therapienaiven und vorbehandelten Tumoren konnte zudem ein immunsuppressiver Effekt von neoadjuvanten Therapiekonzepten auf das Tumormikromilieu des EACs gezeigt werden. Dabei kam es zur verminderten Expression von Checkpoints und Anzahl TILs nach (Radio-) Chemotherapie. 3. Im Tumorzellkompartiment wurde die Rolle von Amplifikationen in ErbB-Rezeptor abh√§ngigen Signalwegen durch FISH-Technik und Immunhistochemie evaluiert. Es fanden sich KRAS Amplifikationen in 17,1%, PIK3CA Amplifikationen in 5% sowie eine HER2/neu-√úberexpression in 14,9% der untersuchten Tumore

    Inova√ß√£o, empreendedorismo e desenvolvimento econ√≥mico em √Āfrica: Uma abordagem p√≥s-positivista e "topo da pir√Ęmide" para Mo√ßambique

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    Esta tese desenvolve uma investiga√ß√£o abrangente sobre o empreendedorismo africano, revisitando o seu quadro concetual tradicional e posicionando-o enquanto elemento fundamental das estrat√©gias de desenvolvimento para a √Āfrica Subsariana (ASS). Explorados os diferentes impactos do empreendedorismo de oportunidade e do empreendedorismo de necessidade na regi√£o, efetuou-se uma pesquisa sobre a situa√ß√£o dos v√°rios pa√≠ses da ASS que participaram no Global Entrepreneurship Monitor na √ļltima d√©cada, com vista a compor o status quo hipot√©tico do empreendedorismo regional, ao qual junt√°mos um estudo emp√≠rico original e com elementos metodol√≥gicos inovadores sobre a atividade empreendedora em Mo√ßambique. O alcance das estrat√©gias empreendedoras implementadas na ASS √© avaliado atrav√©s de um estudo dos polos africanos de inova√ß√£o tecnol√≥gica e do empreendedorismo digital que neles tem vindo recentemente a emergir, a que junt√°mos um levantamento original do tech hub de Maluana. Por fim, a partir destes casos e de uma leitura pol√≠tica das op√ß√Ķes econ√≥micas do estado mo√ßambicano com impacto sobre o ecossistema empreendedor, desenvolve-se uma proposta de teoria da mudan√ßa, numa l√≥gica p√≥s-positivista, para suportar medidas de pol√≠tica p√ļblica desej√°veis para a eclos√£o de um empreendedorismo de ‚Äútopo da pir√Ęmide‚ÄĚ em Mo√ßambique.This thesis develops a comprehensive investigation of African entrepreneurship, revisiting its traditional conceptual framework and positioning it as a fundamental element in development strategies for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Exploring the different impacts of opportunity entrepreneurship and necessity entrepreneurship in the region, an analysis was carried out on the situation of the various SSA countries that participated in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor in the last decade, with a view to composing the hypothetical status quo of the entrepreneurship in the region, to which we added an original empirical study with innovative methodological elements on entrepreneurial activity in Mozambique. The reach of entrepreneurial strategies implemented in the SSA is assessed through a study of the African tech hubs, or innovation hubs, and the digital entrepreneurship that has recently emerged there, to which we have added an original survey of the Maluana tech hub. Finally, based on these cases and on a political reading of the economic options of the Mozambican government with an impact on the entrepreneurial ecosystem, a proposal for a theory-of-change is developed, within a post-positivist approach, to support desired public policy measures for the emergence of a ‚Äútop of the pyramid‚ÄĚ entrepreneurship in Mozambique

    How the Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche can be succinctly encapsulated within his Apollonian-Dionysian dichotomy

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    This thesis aims to illustrate that the broad philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche can be subordinated to his conceptual dichotomy: the Apollonian-Dionysian dichotomy. Through an analysis of the Birth of Tragedy, Beyond Good and Evil, Twilight of the Idols, as well as a brief analysis of the Will to Power, I will make the case that the dichotomy is the umbrella under which all Nietzschean concepts are to be read and understood. The texts that were chosen represent key stages in Nietzsche‚Äôs intellectual development ‚Äď from the Birth of Tragedy, which marks the beginning of Nietzschean philosophy; to Twilight of the Idols, which represents the end. The constituent parts of the dichotomy are to be understood in two contexts: firstly, the terms (Apollonian/Dionysian) are used to denote the forces required for the creation of art; secondly, the terms come to signify the type of individual who makes use of those forces as it is the case that different types of art can be created by different types of men. Nietzschean philosophy is to be understood through art as it is explicitly stated that the essence of existence is one of a perpetual Becoming wherein there exists only that which is created by man, for man, in service of man‚Äôs own will to power. All attempts to discern a fixed Being in-itself existing outside of this will to power are false and are indicative of a weak and sickly disposition, the symptoms of which are found in the progenitors‚Äô art (be it a morality, table of categories, or a transcendent deity). Through the positing of the thing-in-itself as the will to power Nietzsche conceptualises the world of Becoming as a canvas onto which two different types of men imprint a Being which reveals, physiologically, their endowment as either Apollonian or Dionysian

    A Phenomenological Study of How Active Engagement in Black Greek Letter Sororities Influences Christian Members\u27 Spiritual Growth

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    This phenomenological study explored how being part of a Black Greek Letter. Organization (BGLO) sorority impacts the spiritual growth of its Christian members. One of the issues explored was the influence relationships within these sororities have on members striving to be like Christ. There is a dichotomy of perspectives regarding Black Greek Letter Organizations (BGLOs). They have a significant role in the Black community as organizations that foster leadership, philanthropy, and sisterhood and promote education. They are admired on and off college campuses and in the broader community in graduate chapters. The objective of phenomenology is to describe phenomena of spiritual growth among Christian sorority members from the life experiences of those who live them; that premise guided the interviews conducted for this study. The results found that active engagement in a BGLO sorority positively impacts its members\u27 spiritual growth. From the emotional stories of sisterhood, service, and devotion to prayer, their experiences evidenced strengthened walks of faith. This study contrasts the Anti-BGLO narrative as a testament to these organizations\u27 legacy and practices deeply grounded in the church

    Consent and the Construction of the Volunteer: Institutional Settings of Experimental Research on Human Beings in Britain during the Cold War

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    This study challenges the primacy of consent in the history of human experimentation and argues that privileging the cultural frameworks adds nuance to our understanding of the construction of the volunteer in the period 1945 to 1970. Historians and bio-ethicists have argued that medical ethics codes have marked out the parameters of using people as subjects in medical scientific research and that the consent of the subjects was fundamental to their status as volunteers. However, the temporality of the creation of medical ethics codes means that they need to be understood within their historical context. That medical ethics codes arose from a specific historical context rather than a concerted and conscious determination to safeguard the well-being of subjects needs to be acknowledged. The British context of human experimentation is under-researched and there has been even less focus on the cultural frameworks within which experiments took place. This study demonstrates, through a close analysis of the Medical Research Council's Common Cold Research Unit (CCRU) and the government's military research facility, the Chemical Defence Experimental Establishment, Porton Down (Porton), that the `volunteer' in human experiments was a subjective entity whose identity was specific to the institution which recruited and made use of the subject. By examining representations of volunteers in the British press, the rhetoric of the government's collectivist agenda becomes evident and this fed into the institutional construction of the volunteer at the CCRU. In contrast, discussions between Porton scientists, staff members, and government officials demonstrate that the use of military personnel in secret chemical warfare experiments was far more complex. Conflicting interests of the military, the government and the scientific imperative affected how the military volunteer was perceived

    Victims' Access to Justice in Trinidad and Tobago: An exploratory study of experiences and challenges of accessing criminal justice in a post-colonial society

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    This thesis investigates victims' access to justice in Trinidad and Tobago, using their own narratives. It seeks to capture how their experiences affected their identities as victims and citizens, alongside their perceptions of legitimacy regarding the criminal justice system. While there have been some reforms in the administration of criminal justice in Trinidad and Tobago, such reforms have not focused on victims' accessibility to the justice system. Using grounded theory methodology, qualitative data was collected through 31 in-depth interviews with victims and victim advocates. The analysis found that victims experienced interpersonal, structural, and systemic barriers at varying levels throughout the criminal justice system, which manifested as institutionalized secondary victimization, silencing and inequality. This thesis argues that such experiences not only served to appropriate conflict but demonstrates that access is often given in a very narrow sense. Furthermore, it shows a failure to encompass access to justice as appropriated conflicts are left to stagnate in the system as there is often very little resolution. Adopting a postcolonial lens to analyse victims' experiences, the analysis identified othering practices that served to institutionalize the vulnerability and powerlessness associated with victim identities. Here, it is argued that these othering practices also affected the rights consciousness of victims, delegitimating their identities as citizens. Moreover, as a result of their experiences, victims had mixed perceptions of the justice system. It is argued that while the system is a legitimate authority victims' endorsement of the system is questionable, therefore victims' experiences suggest that there is a reinforcement of the system's legal hegemony. The findings suggest that within the legal system of Trinidad and Tobago, legacies of colonialism shape the postcolonial present as the psychology and inequalities of the past are present in the interactions and processes of justice. These findings are relevant for policymakers in Trinidad and Tobago and other regions. From this study it is recognized that, to improve access to justice for victims, there needs to be a move towards victim empowerment that promotes resilience and enhances social capital. Going forward it is noted that there is a need for further research

    Partisan Gerrymandering and The Right to Privacy

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    This paper argues that partisan gerrymanderers violate citizens’ right to privacy by using data containing sensitive information on citizens without a compelling state interest. It first details how partisan gerrymandering claims have been argued in Court in the past. Next, it discusses theories of the right to privacy, mainly exploring the tensions between James Madison’s writings on privacy and Warren and Brandeis’ famed The Right to Privacy. Then, I present originalist arguments for upholding the original meaning and principles of the right to privacy and the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendments before walking through case law related to privacy and technological advances. In conclusion, this paper holds that state legislatures violate the original meaning of the right to privacy, protected by the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendments, when they use anonymized data sets to partisan gerrymander. Resultingly, these data sets should only be accessed when a compelling state interest is identified and partisan bias is curbed

    Lift EVERY Voice and Sing: An Intersectional Qualitative Study Examining the Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Queer Faculty and Administrators at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

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    While there is minimal literature that address the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and trans* identified students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), the experiences of Black, queer faculty and administrators at HBCUs has not been studied. This intersectional qualitative research study focused on the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer identified faculty and administrators who work at HBCUs. By investigating the intersections of religion, race, gender, and sexuality within a predominantly Black institution, this study aims to enhance diversity, equity, and inclusion efforts at HBCUs by sharing the experiences of the LGBQ faculty and administrators that previously or currently work at an HBCU as a full-time employee. The research questions that guided this study were 1) How have LGBQ faculty and staff negotiated/navigated their careers at HBCUs? and 2) How do LGBQ faculty and staff at HBCUs influence cultural (relating to LGBQ inclusion) change at the organizational level? The main theoretical framework used was intersectionality and it shaped the chosen methodology and methods. The Politics of Respectability was the second theoretical framework used to describe the intra-racial tensions within the Black/African American community. The study included 60-120 minute interviews with 12 participants. Using intersectionality as a guide, the data were coded and utilized for thematic analysis. Then, an ethnodramatic performance engages readers. The goals of this study were to encourage policy changes, promote inclusivity for LGBQ employees at HBCUs, and provide an expansion to the body of literature in the field pertaining to the experiences of LGBQ faculty and administrators in higher education
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