26,239 research outputs found

    Serving to secure "Global Korea": Gender, mobility, and flight attendant labor migrants

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    This dissertation is an ethnography of mobility and modernity in contemporary South Korea (the Republic of Korea) following neoliberal restructuring precipitated by the Asian Financial Crisis (1997). It focuses on how comparative “service,” “security,” and “safety” fashioned “Global Korea”: an ongoing state-sponsored project aimed at promoting the economic, political, and cultural maturation of South Korea from a once notoriously inhospitable, “backward” country (hujin’guk) to a now welcoming, “advanced country” (sŏnjin’guk). Through physical embodiments of the culturally-specific idiom of “superior” service (sŏbisŭ), I argue that aspiring, current, and former Korean flight attendants have driven the production and maintenance of this national project. More broadly, as a driver of this national project, this occupation has emerged out of the country’s own aspirational flights from an earlier history of authoritarian rule, labor violence, and xenophobia. Against the backdrop of the Korean state’s aggressive neoliberal restructuring, globalization efforts, and current “Hell Chosun” (Helchosŏn) economy, a group of largely academically and/or class disadvantaged young women have been able secure individualized modes of pleasure, self-fulfillment, and class advancement via what I deem “service mobilities.” Service mobilities refers to the participation of mostly women in a traditionally devalued but growing sector of the global labor market, the “pink collar” economy centered around “feminine” care labor. Korean female flight attendants share labor skills resembling those of other foreign labor migrants (chiefly from the “Global South”), who perform care work deemed less desirable. Yet, Korean female flight attendants elude the stigmatizing, classed, and racialized category of “labor migrant.” Moreover, within the context of South Korea’s unique history of rapid modernization, the flight attendant occupation also commands considerable social prestige. Based on ethnographic and archival research on aspiring, current, and former Korean flight attendants, this dissertation asks how these unique care laborers negotiate a metaphorical and literal series of sustained border crossings and inspections between Korean flight attendants’ contingent status as lowly care-laboring migrants, on the one hand, and ostensibly glamorous, globetrotting elites, on the other. This study contends the following: first, the flight attendant occupation in South Korea represents new politics of pleasure and pain in contemporary East Asia. Second, Korean female flight attendants’ enactments of soft, sanitized, and glamorous (hwaryŏhada) service help to purify South Korea’s less savory past. In so doing, Korean flight attendants reconstitute the historical role of female laborers as burden bearers and caretakers of the Korean state.U of I OnlyAuthor submitted a 2-year U of I restriction extension request

    Sustainable eSiC reinforced composite materials – synthetization and characterization

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    Sustainable and light weight composite materials have received extensive attention in the application of aerospace, automotive, agriculture and marine. Synthetic SiC is expensive and harmful to the human being. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop eSiC reinforced aluminium matrix sustainable composite material using waste rice husk with the process route of powder metallurgy. Simple and cost-effective pyrolysis process was used for the extraction of low�density eSiC from agricultural waste rice husk which contains a significant amount of silica. This silica was then converted in to environmentally friendly SiC (known as eSiC) material and used as a reinforcing agent to the lightweight composite development. From the results, these materials showed good metallurgical bonding with better mechanical properties. It is also observed that compared to metallic cast iron, this new composite material is better in terms of cost, material usage, eco-friendly (no harm to the environment and people), hence, sustainable. This concept demonstrates that this new sustainable and lightweight material can be used for aerospace, automotive and other structural applications, especially for disk brake, liner, and shaft. This eSiC can also be used as a coating material for composite coating development

    Hydrothermal treatment of waste plastics : an environmental impact study

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    This paper presents the attributional life cycle assessment results of a study of plastic recycling using hydrothermal treatment (HTT), a chemical recycling technology. HTT was investigated due to its potential to address current gaps in the plastic recycling system, largely due to several plastic packaging materials and formats that are currently not processed by traditional mechanical recycling technologies. As society transitions towards a net-zero-based circular economy, assessments should be conducted with a futuristic outlook, preventing costly mistakes by employing the right technologies in the right areas. The results using ReCiPe 2016 impact assessment methodology shows HTT with a GWP of 478 kg CO2 eq. per tonne can generate up to 80% reduction in climate change impacts when compared with comparable end-of-life treatment technologies whilst conserving material with the system. Additionally, the GWP could be reduced by up to 57% by changing how electricity is generated for on-site consumption. This represents a new understanding of the chemical recycling of polymers by establishing a prospective life cycle assessment study that looks to introduce a step-change in the recycling system and highlights the benefits of introducing this technology as opposed to the current model of disposal through incineration or landfill

    L’Asie du Sud-Est 2023 : bilan, enjeux et perspectives

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    Chaque année, l’Institut de recherche sur l’Asie du Sud-Est contemporaine (IRASEC), basé à Bangkok, mobilise une vingtaine de chercheurs et d’experts pour mieux comprendre l’actualité régionale de ce carrefour économique, culturel et religieux, au cœur de l’Indo-Pacifique. Cette collection permet de suivre au fil des ans l’évolution des grands enjeux contemporains de cette région continentale et archipélagique de plus de 680 millions d’habitants, et d’en comprendre les dynamiques d’intégration régionale et de connectivités avec le reste du monde. L’Asie du Sud-Est 2023 propose une analyse synthétique et détaillée des principaux événements politiques et diplomatiques, ainsi que des évolutions économiques, sociales et environnementales de l’année 2022 dans chacun des onze pays de la région. Ce décryptage est complété pour chaque pays par un focus sur deux personnalités de l’année et une actualité marquante en image. L’ouvrage propose également cinq dossiers thématiques qui abordent des sujets traités à l’échelle régionale sud-est asiatique : les ressorts institutionnels de l’approche de santé intégrée One Health, le vieillissement de la population et sa prise en compte par les politiques publiques, les câbles sous-marins au cœur de la connectivité sud-est asiatique, l’aménagement du bassin du Mékong et ses multiples acteurs, et les enjeux politiques et linguistiques des langues transnationales. Des outils pratiques sont également disponibles : une fiche et une chronologie par pays et un cahier des principaux indicateurs démographiques, sociaux, économiques et environnementaux

    A critical review of the production of hydroxyaromatic carboxylic acids as a sustainable method for chemical utilisation and fixation of CO2

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    Hydroxyaromatic carboxylic acids (HACAs) such as salicylic acids, hydroxynaphthoic acids and their halogenated derivatives are essential feedstocks for the pharmaceutical, dye, fragrance, cosmetic and food industries. Large-scale production of HACAs is currently based on the Kolbe–Schmitt reaction between CO2 and petroleum-based phenolic compounds. This batch reaction is carried out at ∼125 °C, ∼85 bar and reaction times of up to 18 hours to achieve high conversions (≈99%). The long reaction times and dependence on fossil-derived phenols have negative sustainability implications. However, as a CO2-based process, HACA production has the potential for large-volume anthropogenic CO2 sequestration and contributes to net zero. A big challenge is that the current global production capacity of HACAs uses only about 41 450 tonnes per year of CO2 which is just ≈0.00012% of the annual anthropogenic emissions. Therefore, significant efforts are needed to increase both the sustainable production and demand for such CO2-based products to enhance their economic and environmental sustainability. This review covers the basic kinetic and thermodynamic stability of CO2. Thereafter, a comprehensive coverage of early and current developments to improve the carboxylation of phenols to make HACAs is given, while discussing their industrial potential. Moreover, it covers new propositions to use biomass-derived phenolic compounds for sustainable production of HACAs. There is also a need to expand the uses and applications of HACAs and recent reports on the production of HACA-based recyclable vinyl polymers point in the right direction

    Deep learning health management diagnostics applied to the NIST smoke experiments

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    Fire is one of the most important hazards that must be considered in advanced nuclear power plant safety assessments. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed a large collection of experimental data and associated analyses related to the study of fire safety. In fact, computational fire models are based on quantitative comparisons to those experimental data. During the modeling process, it is important to develop diagnostic health management systems to check the equipment status in fire processes. For example, a fire sensor does not directly provide accurate and complex information that nuclear power plants (NPPs) require. With the assistance of the machine learning method, NPP operators can directly get information on local, ignition, fire material of an NPP fire, instead of temperature, smoke obscuration, gas concentration, and alarm signals. In order to improve the predictive capabilities, this work demonstrates how the deep learning classification method can be used as a diagnostic tool in a specific set of fire experiments. Through a single input from a sensor, the deep learning tool can predict the location and type of fire. This tool also has the capability to provide automatic signals to potential passive fire safety systems. In this work, test data are taken from a specific set of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) fire experiments in a residential home and analyzed by using the machine learning classification models. The networks chosen for comparison and evaluation are the dense neural networks, convolutional neural networks, long short-term memory networks, and decision trees. The dense neural network and long short-term memory network produce similar levels of accuracy, but the convolutional neural network produces the highest accuracy

    Key nuclear data for non-LWR reactivity analysis

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    An assessment of nuclear data performance for non-light-water reactor (non-LWR) reactivity calculations was performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that involved a thorough literature review to collect related observations made across different research institutions, an interrogation of the latest ENDF/B evaluated nuclear data libraries, and propagation of nuclear data uncertainties to key figures of merit associated with reactor safety for six non-LWR benchmarks. The outcome of this comprehensive study was published in a technical report issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This paper provides a summary of the study’s key observations and conclusions and demonstrates with two examples how the various methods available in the SCALE code system were used to identify key cross section uncertainties for non-LWR reactivity analyses

    Augmented classification for electrical coil winding defects

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    A green revolution has accelerated over the recent decades with a look to replace existing transportation power solutions through the adoption of greener electrical alternatives. In parallel the digitisation of manufacturing has enabled progress in the tracking and traceability of processes and improvements in fault detection and classification. This paper explores electrical machine manufacture and the challenges faced in identifying failures modes during this life cycle through the demonstration of state-of-the-art machine vision methods for the classification of electrical coil winding defects. We demonstrate how recent generative adversarial networks can be used to augment training of these models to further improve their accuracy for this challenging task. Our approach utilises pre-processing and dimensionality reduction to boost performance of the model from a standard convolutional neural network (CNN) leading to a significant increase in accuracy

    Hazardous Waste Granule Composting by Cycled Retort Using Microwave Radiated Asphalt/Asphaltite Coal Slime Mixing

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    The hazardous sludge metal content of Mazıdağı metal leaching and electrowinning plants causes a great threat to ecology. The high-level metal and salt contaminants occurred in the copper leaching waste tailing ponds. The seepage liquors leak through the permeable bottom of ponds, such as acidic seepages. While urbanization needs freshwater; freshwater demand in the region increases because of global warming and drought. The estimated contamination values are avoided designing the controlling contamination level systems and meeting the disposal compost demand. In this approach, the demand for land covering and compost disposal has been designed as pellet or granule units determined independently of the specific needs of fertilizer products, agricultural remediation, and human needs. The amounts of sludge and wet hazardous toxic waste sludge’s of Mazıdağı Phosphate Plants of Eti Bakır in Mardin change the ecosystem. The hazardous sludge of plant tailings is needed planned paste disposal or controlled regional dumping, pool effluents barrier on regarding seepage control demand of the freshwater lake of town region. The planned work is disposal tests for waste sludge composting as pasting. Additionally, this method protects ecology and improves waste sludge disposal by neutralizing it at a small scale. Even the toxicity will be easily monitored. Heavy metal contamination hazard maps will be prepared and an agricultural warning system will be established for agricultural irrigation

    Gasificação direta de biomassa para produção de gás combustível

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    The excessive consumption of fossil fuels to satisfy the world necessities of energy and commodities led to the emission of large amounts of greenhouse gases in the last decades, contributing significantly to the greatest environmental threat of the 21st century: Climate Change. The answer to this man-made disaster is not simple and can only be made if distinct stakeholders and governments are brought to cooperate and work together. This is mandatory if we want to change our economy to one more sustainable and based in renewable materials, and whose energy is provided by the eternal nature energies (e.g., wind, solar). In this regard, biomass can have a main role as an adjustable and renewable feedstock that allows the replacement of fossil fuels in various applications, and the conversion by gasification allows the necessary flexibility for that purpose. In fact, fossil fuels are just biomass that underwent extreme pressures and heat for millions of years. Furthermore, biomass is a resource that, if not used or managed, increases wildfire risks. Consequently, we also have the obligation of valorizing and using this resource. In this work, it was obtained new scientific knowledge to support the development of direct (air) gasification of biomass in bubbling fluidized bed reactors to obtain a fuel gas with suitable properties to replace natural gas in industrial gas burners. This is the first step for the integration and development of gasification-based biorefineries, which will produce a diverse number of value-added products from biomass and compete with current petrochemical refineries in the future. In this regard, solutions for the improvement of the raw producer gas quality and process efficiency parameters were defined and analyzed. First, addition of superheated steam as primary measure allowed the increase of H2 concentration and H2/CO molar ratio in the producer gas without compromising the stability of the process. However, the measure mainly showed potential for the direct (air) gasification of high-density biomass (e.g., pellets), due to the necessity of having char accumulation in the reactor bottom bed for char-steam reforming reactions. Secondly, addition of refused derived fuel to the biomass feedstock led to enhanced gasification products, revealing itself as a highly promising strategy in terms of economic viability and environmental benefits of future gasification-based biorefineries, due to the high availability and low costs of wastes. Nevertheless, integrated techno economic and life cycle analyses must be performed to fully characterize the process. Thirdly, application of low-cost catalyst as primary measure revealed potential by allowing the improvement of the producer gas quality (e.g., H2 and CO concentration, lower heating value) and process efficiency parameters with distinct solid materials; particularly, the application of concrete, synthetic fayalite and wood pellets chars, showed promising results. Finally, the economic viability of the integration of direct (air) biomass gasification processes in the pulp and paper industry was also shown, despite still lacking interest to potential investors. In this context, the role of government policies and appropriate economic instruments are of major relevance to increase the implementation of these projects.O consumo excessivo de combustíveis fósseis para garantir as necessidades e interesses da sociedade conduziu à emissão de elevadas quantidades de gases com efeito de estufa nas últimas décadas, contribuindo significativamente para a maior ameaça ambiental do século XXI: Alterações Climáticas. A solução para este desastre de origem humana é de caráter complexo e só pode ser atingida através da cooperação de todos os governos e partes interessadas. Para isto, é obrigatória a criação de uma bioeconomia como base de um futuro mais sustentável, cujas necessidades energéticas e materiais sejam garantidas pelas eternas energias da natureza (e.g., vento, sol). Neste sentido, a biomassa pode ter um papel principal como uma matéria prima ajustável e renovável que permite a substituição de combustíveis fósseis num variado número de aplicações, e a sua conversão através da gasificação pode ser a chave para este propósito. Afinal, na prática, os combustíveis fósseis são apenas biomassa sujeita a elevada temperatura e pressão durante milhões de anos. Além do mais, a gestão eficaz da biomassa é fundamental para a redução dos riscos de incêndio florestal e, como tal, temos o dever de utilizar e valorizar este recurso. Neste trabalho, foi obtido novo conhecimento científico para suporte do desenvolvimento das tecnologias de gasificação direta (ar) de biomassa em leitos fluidizados borbulhantes para produção de gás combustível, com o objetivo da substituição de gás natural em queimadores industriais. Este é o primeiro passo para o desenvolvimento de biorrefinarias de gasificação, uma potencial futura indústria que irá providenciar um variado número de produtos de valor acrescentado através da biomassa e competir com a atual indústria petroquímica. Neste sentido, foram analisadas várias medidas para a melhoria da qualidade do gás produto bruto e dos parâmetros de eficiência do processo. Em primeiro, a adição de vapor sobreaquecido como medida primária permitiu o aumento da concentração de H2 e da razão molar H2/CO no gás produto sem comprometer a estabilidade do processo. No entanto, esta medida somente revelou potencial para a gasificação direta (ar) de biomassa de alta densidade (e.g., pellets) devido à necessidade da acumulação de carbonizados no leito do reator para a ocorrência de reações de reforma com vapor. Em segundo, a mistura de combustíveis derivados de resíduos e biomassa residual florestal permitiu a melhoria dos produtos de gasificação, constituindo desta forma uma estratégia bastante promissora a nível económico e ambiental, devido à elevada abundância e baixo custo dos resíduos urbanos. Contudo, devem ser efetuadas análises técnico-económicas e de ciclo de vida para a completa caraterização do processo. Em terceiro, a aplicação de catalisadores de baixo custo como medida primária demonstrou elevado potencial para a melhoria do gás produto (e.g., concentração de H2 e CO, poder calorífico inferior) e para o incremento dos parâmetros de eficiência do processo; em particular, a aplicação de betão, faialite sintética e carbonizados de pellets de madeira, demonstrou resultados promissores. Finalmente, foi demonstrada a viabilidade económica da integração do processo de gasificação direta (ar) de biomassa na indústria da pasta e papel, apesar dos parâmetros determinados não serem atrativos para potenciais investidores. Neste contexto, a intervenção dos governos e o desenvolvimento de instrumentos de apoio económico é de grande relevância para a implementação destes projetos.Este trabalho foi financiado pela The Navigator Company e por Fundos Nacionais através da Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT).Programa Doutoral em Engenharia da Refinação, Petroquímica e Químic
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