26,955 research outputs found
Purpose: The aim of this article is to study focused through the sample that was selected for the Arab financial markets (Iraq, Kuwait, Dubai) on testing the behavior of the returns of the stock indices for the sample to verify whether they follow the random walk or not. Theoretical framework: The concept of financial market indices and market efficiency was considered as a complex multi-tiered system. theory of capital markets functioning were employed in the study. Design/methodology/approach: At the weak level, the research dealt with the returns of the daily market indices during the period from January 5/2021 to December 1, 2021. Findings: through the use of three tests, which are to test the normal distribution of the studied observations using the test (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test), and the time-series stability test (Stationary), which is known as the unit root test through the use of the modified Dickey-Fuller Test, and the serial self-correlation test (Q-Stat) as part of the financial markets efficiency test.which means that the conscious investor can benefit from achieving extraordinary returns in those markets. Research, Practical & Social implications: We suggest a future research agenda and highlight the contributions made to executive and financial market. Originality/value: The research concluded that the random movement hypothesis was accepted, and that the stock indices reflect all the historical information in the researched markets, and then the efficiency of the studied markets at the weak level.
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Urban supply networks are facing increasing demands and challenges and thus constitute a relevant field for research and practical development. Supply chain management holds enormous potential and relevance for society and everyday life as the flow of goods and information are important economic functions. Being a heterogeneous field, the literature base of supply chain management research is difficult to manage and navigate. Disruptive digital technologies and the implementation of cross-network information analysis and sharing drive the need for new organisational and technological approaches. Practical issues are manifold and include mega trends such as digital transformation, urbanisation, and environmental awareness. A promising approach to solving these problems is the realisation of smart and collaborative supply networks. The growth of artificial intelligence applications in recent years has led to a wide range of applications in a variety of domains. However, the potential of artificial intelligence utilisation in supply chain management has not yet been fully exploited. Similarly, value creation increasingly takes place in networked value creation cycles that have become continuously more collaborative, complex, and dynamic as interactions in business processes involving information technologies have become more intense. Following a design science research approach this cumulative thesis comprises the development and discussion of four artefacts for the analysis and advancement of smart and collaborative urban supply networks. This thesis aims to highlight the potential of artificial intelligence-based supply networks, to advance data-driven inter-organisational collaboration, and to improve last mile supply network sustainability. Based on thorough machine learning and systematic literature reviews, reference and system dynamics modelling, simulation, and qualitative empirical research, the artefacts provide a valuable contribution to research and practice
Understanding the impact of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) on firm performance as it relates to industries reliant on technological innovation is a complex and perpetually evolving challenge. To thoroughly investigate this topic, this dissertation will adopt an economics-based structure to address three primary hypotheses. This structure allows for each hypothesis to essentially be a standalone empirical paper, unified by an overall analysis of the nature of impact that ESG has on firm performance. The first hypothesis explores the evolution of CSR to the modern quantified iteration of ESG has led to the institutionalization and standardization of the CSR concept. The second hypothesis fills gaps in existing literature testing the relationship between firm performance and ESG by finding that the relationship is significantly positive in long-term, strategic metrics (ROA and ROIC) and that there is no correlation in short-term metrics (ROE and ROS). Finally, the third hypothesis states that if a firm has a long-term strategic ESG plan, as proxied by the publication of CSR reports, then it is more resilience to damage from controversies. This is supported by the finding that pro-ESG firms consistently fared better than their counterparts in both financial and ESG performance, even in the event of a controversy. However, firms with consistent reporting are also held to a higher standard than their nonreporting peers, suggesting a higher risk and higher reward dynamic. These findings support the theory of good management, in that long-term strategic planning is both immediately economically beneficial and serves as a means of risk management and social impact mitigation. Overall, this contributes to the literature by fillings gaps in the nature of impact that ESG has on firm performance, particularly from a management perspective
In this research and development, we present the design and manufacture of a radon chamber (PUCP radon chamber), a necessary tool for the calibration of passive detectors, verification of the operation of active radon monitors as well as diffusion chamber calibration used in radon measurements in air, and soils. The first chapter is an introduction to describe radon gas and national levels of radon concentration given by many organizations. Parameters that influence the calibration factor of the LR 115 type 2 film detector are studied, such as the energy window, critical angle, and effective volumes. Those are strongly related to the etching processes and counting of tracks all seen from a semi-empirical approach studied in the second chapter. The third chapter presents a review of some radon chambers that have been reported in the literature, based on their size and mode of operation as well as the radon source they use. The design and construction of the radon chamber are presented, use of uranium ore (autunite) as a chamber source is also discussed. In chapter fourth, radon chamber characterization is presented through leakage lambda, homogeneity of radon concentration, regimes-operation modes, and the saturation concentrations that can be reached. Procedures and methodology used in this work are contained in the fifth chapter and also some uses and applications of the PUCP radon chamber are presented; the calibration of cylindrical metallic diffusion chamber based on CR-39 chips detectors taking into account overlapping effect; transmission factors of gaps and pinhole for the same diffusion chambers are determined; permeability of glass fiber filter for 222Rn is obtained after reach equilibrium through Ramachandran model and taking into account a partition function as the rate of track density. The results of this research have been published in indexed journals. Finally, the conclusion and recommendations that reflect the fulfillment aims of this thesis are presented
Background: Offloading devices improve healing of diabetes-related foot ulcers (DFUs) but they can limit mobilisation. Rehabilitation during or after removal of these devices may promote physical activity in a population at risk of poor health outcomes for which inactivity is a reversible risk factor. Methods: This systematic review examined the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions to promote physical activity during and/or after wearing an offloading device to treat diabetes-related foot ulcers. Searches using MESH terms and free-text combinations: ‘foot ulcer’, ‘diabetic foot’, ‘casts, surgical’, ‘orthotic devices’ were applied to MEDLINE, Embase, The Cochrane Library and clinical trial registers for randomised and observational studies published to September 2022. Methodological quality assessment of included studies was undertaken using the Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB 2.0) and Risk of Bias In Non-randomised studies of Interventions (ROBINS-I) tools. Results: Of 3332 records identified, eight studies (441 participants), four clinical trials and four cohort studies, were included. None delivered or tested a structured rehabilitation programme, but all reported physical activity outcomes during or after device use. People wearing non-removable total contact casts were less active than those wearing devices (SMD -0.45; 95% CI − 0.87 to − 0.04; p = 0.03; I2 56%; 4 trials). Diabetes-related foot ulcers in people wearing total contact casts were more likely to heal compared to removable devices at 12 weeks (OR 2.69; 95% CI 0.97 to 7.45; p = 0.06; I2 = 64%; 4 trials) and 20 weeks (OR 2.35; 95% CI 0.95 to 5.82; p = 0.07; I2 = 65%; 4 trials). Conclusions: Despite physical activity being low throughout off-loading treatment, no studies have specifically tested rehabilitation. There is a need to investigate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of rehabilitation programmes in this population. High quality trials are needed to provide robust evidence to support to rehabilitation after DFU treatment