7,553 research outputs found

    Effects of selenoprotein extracts from Cardamine hupingshanensis on growth, selenium metabolism, antioxidant capacity, immunity and intestinal health in largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides

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    This study aimed to assess the impact of dietary selenoprotein extracts from Cardamine hupingshanensis (SePCH) on the growth, hematological parameters, selenium metabolism, immune responses, antioxidant capacities, inflammatory reactions and intestinal barrier functions in juvenile largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). The base diet was supplemented with four different concentrations of SePCH: 0.00, 0.30, 0.60 and 1.20 g/Kg (actual selenium contents: 0.37, 0.59, 0.84 and 1.30 mg/kg). These concentrations were used to formulate four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets for juvenile largemouth bass during a 60-day culture period. Adequate dietary SePCH (0.60 and 1.20 g/Kg) significantly increased weight gain and daily growth rate compared to the control groups (0.00 g/Kg). Furthermore, 0.60 and 1.20 g/Kg SePCH significantly enhanced amounts of white blood cells, red blood cells, platelets, lymphocytes and monocytes, and levels of hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin in the hemocytes. In addition, 0.60 and 1.20 g/Kg SePCH increased the mRNA expression levels of selenocysteine lyase, selenophosphate synthase 1, 15 kDa selenoprotein, selenoprotein T2, selenoprotein H, selenoprotein P and selenoprotein K in the fish liver and intestine compared to the controls. Adequate SePCH not only significantly elevated the activities of antioxidant enzymes (Total superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase), the levels of total antioxidant capacity and glutathione, while increased mRNA transcription levels of NF-E2-related factor 2, Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase. However, adequate SePCH significantly decreased levels of malondialdehyde and H2O2 and the mRNA expression levels of kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1a and kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1b in the fish liver and intestine compared to the controls. Meanwhile, adequate SePCH markedly enhanced the levels of immune factors (alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, lysozyme, complement component 3, complement component 4 and immunoglobulin M) and innate immune-related genes (lysozyme, hepcidin, liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2, complement component 3 and complement component 4) in the fish liver and intestine compared to the controls. Adequate SePCH reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin 8, interleukin 1β and interferon γ), while increasing transforming growth factor β1 levels at both transcriptional and protein levels in the liver and intestine. The mRNA expression levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase 13 (MAPK 13), MAPK14 and nuclear factor kappa B p65 were significantly reduced in the liver and intestine of fish fed with 0.60 and 1.20 g/Kg SePCH compared to the controls. Histological sections also demonstrated that 0.60 and 1.20 g/Kg SePCH significantly increased intestinal villus height and villus width compared to the controls. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of tight junction proteins (zonula occludens-1, zonula occludens-3, Claudin-1, Claudin-3, Claudin-5, Claudin-11, Claudin-23 and Claudin-34) and Mucin-17 were significantly upregulated in the intestinal epithelial cells of 0.60 and 1.20 g/Kg SePCH groups compared to the controls. In conclusion, these results found that 0.60 and 1.20 g/Kg dietary SePCH can not only improve growth, hematological parameters, selenium metabolism, antioxidant capacities, enhance immune responses and intestinal functions, but also alleviate inflammatory responses. This information can serve as a useful reference for formulating feeds for largemouth bass

    Welfare of rainbow trout at slaughter: integrating behavioural, physiological, proteomic and quality indicators and testing a novel fast-chill stunning method

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    A critical point in the life of a captive fish is the final stages of production, not only in welfare terms but also due to effects on meat quality, carcass appearance and derived economic impacts. The most common method to slaughter fish is by asphyxia either in ice-water or in the open air. In humane slaughter procedures, however, a stunning method needs to be implemented to render the fish immediately unconscious (within one second) until death. The objective of this research was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness and welfare effects of four types of stunning methods in rainbow trout (O. mykiss): cold shock by fast-chilling as a novel method, where the fish were immersed in liquid water at −8 °C, asphyxia (as the currently used method), electrical stunning, and anaesthesia with MS-222. We used a total of 176 trout (mean weight 524 ± 138 g), combining behavioural (individual swimming activity, equilibrium, opercular movement and eye-roll), physiological (heart rate and electrocardiogram amplitude) and circulating (plasma cortisol and osmolality) indicators with brain proteomic signatures. We also analysed the effects on fillet shelf-life and quality in each method (rigor mortis, water content, fillet colour, pH and ATP degradation). Anaesthesia effectively induced unconsciousness, with regular and strong heartbeat and low cortisol. Quality indicators were the best among all the methods assessed. Electric shock was found to be an effective and irreversible method for inducing unconsciousness, with strong heartbeat and large variation in cortisol response and quality indicators similar to anaesthesia. On the contrary, asphyxia presented indicators of poor welfare (e.g., long-lasting consciousness throughout the slaughter process, high cortisol levels), with very low flesh quality parameters. Fast-chilling also resulted in extreme signs of stress (intense mucus release, haemorrhage and no loss of consciousness), low ATP content and the worst proteomic signatures, along with an early onset and resolution of rigor mortis (6 and 48 h, respectively). Our results reinforce the idea that electric stunning is a promising humane method to stun farmed trout. In contrast, the fast-chilling method showed very poor results both in welfare and in quality, indicating that it is not a viable humane alternative to asphyxia. Moreover, the proteome analysis provided valuable insights into the brain mechanisms of rainbow trout at slaughter, offering potential fine-scale biomarkers of welfare.Provincia Autonoma di Trento; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologiainfo:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersio

    Addressing the challenges of combined sewer overflows

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    Europe's ageing wastewater system often combines domestic sewage with surface runoff and industrial wastewaters. To reduce the associated risk of overloading wastewater treatment works during storms, and to prevent wastewater backing-up into properties, Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs) are designed into wastewater networks to release excess discharge into rivers or coastal waters without treatment. In view of growing regulatory scrutiny and increasing public concern about their excessive discharge frequencies and potential impacts on environments and people, there is a need to better understand these impacts to allow prioritisation of cost-effective solutions.We review: i) the chemical, physical and biological composition of CSOs discharges; ii) spatio-temporal variations in the quantity, quality and load of overflows spilling into receiving waters; iii) the potential impacts on people, ecosystems and economies. Despite investigations illustrating the discharge frequency of CSOs, data on spill composition and loading of pollutants are too few to reach representative conclusions, particularly for emerging contaminants. Studies appraising impacts are also scarce, especially in contexts where there are multiple stressors affecting receiving waters. Given the costs of addressing CSOs problems, but also the likely long-term gains (e.g. economic stimulation as well as improvements to biodiversity, ecosystem services, public health and wellbeing), we highlight here the need to bolster these evidence gaps. We also advocate no-regrets options to alleviate CSO problems taking into consideration economic costs, carbon neutrality, ecosystem benefit and community well-being. Besides pragmatic, risk-based investment by utilities and local authorities to modernise wastewater systems, these include i) more systemic thinking, linking policy makers, consumers, utilities and regulators, to shift from local CSO issues to integrated catchment solutions with the aim of reducing contributions to wastewater from surface drainage and water consumption; ii) broader societal responsibilities for CSOs, for example through improved regulation, behavioural changes in water consumption and disposal of waste into wastewater networks, and iii) greater cost-sharing of wastewater use

    Oral administration of melatonin counteracts several of the effects of chronic stress in rainbow trout

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    To assess a possible antistress role of melatonin in fish, we orally administered melatonin to rainbow trout for 10 d and then kept the fish under normal or high stocking density conditions during the last 4 d. Food intake; biochemical parameters in plasma (cortisol, glucose, and lactate concentrations); liver (glucose and glycogen concentrations, and glycogen synthase activity); enzyme activities of amylase, lipase, and protease in foregut and midgut; and content of the hypothalamic neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin, as well as their oxidized metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid, were evaluated under those conditions. High stocking density conditions alone induced changes indicative of stress conditions in plasma cortisol concentrations, liver glycogenolytic potential, the activities of some digestive enzymes, and the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid-to-dopamine and 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid-to-serotonin ratios in the hypothalamus. Melatonin treatment in nonstressed fish induced an increase in liver glycogenolytic potential, increased the activity of some digestive enzymes, and enhanced serotoninergic and dopaminergic metabolism in hypothalamus. The presence of melatonin in stressed fish resulted in a significant interaction with cortisol concentrations in plasma, glycogen content, and glycogen synthase activity in liver and dopaminergic and serotoninergic metabolism in the hypothalamus. In general, the presence of melatonin mitigated several of the effects induced by stress, supporting an antistress role for melatonin in rainbow trout.Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación | Ref. AGL2010-22247-C03-03Xunta de Galicia | Ref. CN2012/ 00

    Super food or Super toxic? : Turmeric and spirulina as culprits for the toxic effects of food dyes in Drosophila

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    Open Access via the Elsevier Agreement JM is funded by BBSRC grant (BB/V015249/1). RvH is funded through DEFRA project (ETPP-33/C10).Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Pathophysiological role and therapeutic potential of extracellular vesicles in cancer

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    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are nanosized lipid bilayer vesicles that are endogenously generated through various biogenesis pathways within most cellular entities. Subsequently, they are released into the extracellular milieu to facilitate intercellular communication. They are composed of diverse bioactive molecules with important roles in physiological and pathological states. Over the past few decades, the therapeutic potential of EVs has garnered significant interest in the drug delivery field. However, deepened understanding of EV biology and further technological advances are needed to bridge the gap between research and clinical translation. In this thesis, we address these challenges and investigate EVs as novel biomedical agents. EVs are crucial components of physiological processes and disease development. Sensitive visualisation techniques are needed to better understand their function as therapeutic agents. In paper I, a bioluminescent labelling system was developed to track EVs in vitro and in vivo. The system uses genetic modifications to enable the encapsulation of sensitive luciferase-variants in EVs. The system was used in vivo to enable highly sensitive detection of EV distribution pattern. Exogenously administered EVs were found to rapidly distribute within different organs, with a preference for the spleen, lung, and liver. In addition to endogenously engineered EVs for in vivo tracking, exogenously engineered EVs can be utilised as promising drug delivery platforms. However, cargo loading is often insufficient, requiring improved EV loading approaches. In paper II, we developed an optimised cargo loading method using electroporation. An optimised protocol was designed to load EVs with doxorubicin, which increased cargo loading, EV recovery, and drug potency by 190-fold over free doxorubicin. Owing to their potential to cross biological barriers, transport bioactive cargo, and targetability, EVs can be exploited as delivery vehicles for targeting of therapeutics. EVs were used as delivery vectors in paper III by coating their surfaces with an Fc domain-specific antibodybinding moiety. These Fc-EVs were then decorated with various IgG antibodies and targeted to cells of interest. In vitro and in vivo antibody targeting studies showed the broad potential of this technology for cancer therapy. The platform efficiently targeted EVs to cancer cells, including HER2 and PD-L1 positive cells. As proof of concept, Fc-EVs with PD-L1 antibody accumulate in tumour tissue and, when loaded with doxorubicin, reduce tumour burden, and increase survival in melanoma-bearing mice. Despite significant EV engineering advances, we have a limited understanding of the biology of tumour-derived extracellular vesicles (tEVs). In paper IV, we investigated the role of in vitrogenerated melanoma-derived EVs as indirect communicators in tumour-induced haematopoiesis dysregulation. The tEVs, which contain high levels of angiogenic factors like VEGF, osteopontin, and tissue factor, were found to cause splenomegaly, extramedullary haematopoiesis, expansion of splenic immature erythroid progenitors, reduced bone marrow cellularity, medullary expansion of granulocytic myeloid suppressor cells, and anaemia in syngeneic mice. These findings suggest that tEVs dysregulate haematopoiesis during the immune escape phase of cancer immunoediting, making them potential targets for overcoming immune evasion and restoring normal haematopoiesis. To summarise, the tools generated in this thesis, including the ability to detect EVs in vivo, effective cargo loading, display antibody binding moieties on EV surfaces for targeting, and understanding the pathophysiological role of tEVs, contribute to the advancement of EVs for biomedical purposes, and clinical translation down the line

    Essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum, Lippia grata and Lippia origanoides are effective in the control of the acanthocephalan Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae in Colossoma macropomum.

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    This study investigated the in vivo efficacy of the essential oils (EOs) of Lippia grata (EOLG), Lippia origanoides (EOLO) and Ocimum gratissimum (EOOG) in the control of the acanthocephalan Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae in Colossoma macropomum (tambaqui). In addition, the parasitic and growth indices, and hematological, biochemical, enzymatic and histopathological parameters were evaluated in the tambaqui. After 30 days of feeding with diets containing 1.52 g EOLO kg−1, the length, mean weight and mean weight gain decreased. There was 100% survival of fish fed with the EOs, and a decrease in the rates of parasitism in fish fed with diets containing 0.86 g EOLG kg−1, 0.76 g EOLO kg−1, 1.03 and 2.06 g EOOG kg−1. For these concentrations, the anthelmintic efficacy of the EOLG was 62.1%, EOLO was 61.8% and EOOG was 58.7% and 59.8%, respectively. An increase in plasma levels of total protein and alkaline phosphatase was found in the fish fed with diets containing highest concentrations of EOLG and EOLO. Maintenance levels of alanine aminotransferase in plasma and aspartate aminotransferase, together with the higher frequency of mild to moderate damages in liver tissue and presence of focal point necrosis, suggest the influence of a high abundance of parasites on the biochemical and enzymatic processes of the host fish. Histomorphological and physiological indicators and a decrease in the rates of parasites with diets containing 0.86 g EOLG kg−1, 0.76 g EOLO kg−1 and 1.03 and 2.06 g EOOG kg−1 indicate that this is a promising therapeutic alternative in the control of acanthocephalosis in tambaqui

    Anthocyanin-Loaded Polymers as Promising Nature-Based, Responsive, and Bioactive Materials

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    Anthocyanins are a specific group of molecules found in nature that have recently received increasing attention due to their interesting biological and colorimetric properties that have been successfully applied in several fields such as food preservation and biomedicine. Consequently, reviews devoted to a general overview of these flavonoids have proliferated in recent years. Meanwhile, the incorporation of anthocyanins into polymeric systems has become an interesting strategy to widen the applicability of these molecules and develop new smart and functional polymers in the above cited areas. However, anthocyanin-based polymers have been scarcely reviewed in the literature. Accordingly, this review aims to be a systematic summary of the most recent approaches for the incorporation of anthocyanins into macro-, micro-, or nanostructured polymers. Moreover, this work describes the fundamentals of the applicability of smart anthocyanin-based polymers and offers an updated review of their most interesting applications as sensors, biological regulators, and active materials.This research was funded by the Basque Government Grupos Consolidados (grant IT1756-22), The National Council of Sciences, Humanities and Technology (CONAHCYT) of the Mexican government (postdoctoral grant CVU 484866), and PROSNI program of the University of Guadalajara whose resources supported part of this work

    Metabolites in fish and humans as a response to different food ingredients : a metabolomics approach

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    The main objective of this thesis was to evaluate metabolomics changes in humans and fish as a response to food/feed consumption. To alleviate the environmental impact of animal production and maximize the use of resources, the valorization of meat by-products might be an attractive alternative. A meat product containing heart and aorta tissue from pork was designed and analyzed for fatty acid and metabolite composition. In comparison with a control of similar qualities, the designed meat product (or test product) showed higher monounsaturated fatty acid and tyramine levels and lower levels of sugars. The test meat product was used in a randomized controlled clinical trial to test for potential health effects in patients showing atherosclerosis symptoms. Patients receiving the test product showed a decrease in blood levels of low-density lipoproteins, total cholesterol, atherogenic index and triacylglycerols. To reduce the impact of animal production on ecosystems, the replacement of feed ingredients by a microbial alternative was realized. In this study, vegetable oils included in the feed of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) were replaced by biomass of the oleaginous yeast (Rhodotorula toruloides). The analysis of the yeast biomass showed safe levels of pollutants and heavy metals. Fish growth and muscle fatty acid profile were similar to the control. A higher liver weight and hepatosomatic index were observed in fish fed including the yeast biomass, albeit no significant difference in liver fat content or in hepatic enzyme activity was observed. Quantification of plasma metabolites revealed higher levels of metabolites involved in energy pathways such as one-carbon metabolism and gluconeogenesis.In conclusion, this thesis showed that metabolomics can be applied to evaluate effects of food/feed at the molecular level in complex systems. It adds knowledge on the effects of meat by-product consumption in the particular case of atherosclerosis symptoms. The fish feed trial showed the possibility of feed modification with a specific yeast

    Effects of major and trace elements from the El Kahfa ring complex on fish: Geological, physicochemical, and biological approaches

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    The alkaline rocks are known for enriching rare lithophilic elements, including lithium, uranium, and tin, which negatively impact aquatic life. This study offers an intensive investigation of the influence of alkaline rocks on Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The variation in blood profile, the induction of antioxidant enzymes, morphological erythrocyte, and histological structure have been conducted for the fish after 15 days of exposure to alkaline rocks powder with a dose of 100 μg/L. As a result, there was a pronounced decrease in blood profiles, such as platelets and white blood cell counts. There was a failure in the liver and kidney functions. Moreover, it shows an increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities as antioxidant biomarkers. Also, exposure to alkaline rocks induced DNA mutation and erythrocyte distortion. We concluded that the bulk alkaline rocks induced changes in the hemato-biochemical and antioxidant parameters of Nile tilapia. Additionally, exposure to bulk alkaline rock compounds also caused poikilocytosis and nuclear abnormalities of RBCs. This draws our attention to the seriousness of climatic changes, the erosion of rocks, and their access to water
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