23,018 research outputs found

    Economic assessment of the political and technical management of large-scale public projects. The deployment schedule of France’s deep geological repository of radioactive waste

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    In France, the 2006 act on radioactive waste management stipulated the rapid deployment of a deep geological repository (DGR) for high-level waste (HLW) management. This paper analyzes the impact of different DGR deployment schedules on project costs in order to discern an optimal schedule for the disposal of radioactive waste. It appears more economically favorable to extend the duration of storage rather than to dispose of the waste immediately. However, the French parliament has decided to act quickly, accepting a 1.5% excess cost every year, to avoid leaving the burden to future generations and to continue nuclear development. Secondly, the analysis reveals the economic benefits of shortening the duration of the disposal process.JEL classification: Q01, Q58, Q48.En France, la loi 2006 de programme relative à la gestion durable des matières et déchets radioactifs a insisté sur la mise en service rapide d’un stockage profond des déchets radioactifs de haute activité et à vie longue. Cet article analyse les coûts des différents calendriers envisageables dans le but de rechercher s’il existe une date optimale pour la mise en stockage des déchets radioactifs. Il apparaît plus préférable de prolonger l’entreposage que de stocker immédiatement des déchets radioactifs. Pourtant, le Parlement a décidé à agir rapidement en acceptant 1.5% de surcoût chaque année, afin d’éviter les charges sur les générations futures et de maintenir l’option nucléaire. Deuxièmement, l’analyse relève également l’intérêt économique du raccourcissement de la durée d’opération du stockage profond.Classification JEL : Q01, Q58, Q48

    Database for validation of thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical behaviour in bentonites

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    This paper presents a database of thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical tests on bentonites, which has been named “Bento_DB4THCM”. After a comprehensive literature review, a set of experimental tests have been compiled. The experimental data are used to perform validation exercises for numerical codes to simulate the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical and geochemical behaviour of bentonites. The database contains the information required for the simulation of each experimental test solving a boundary value problem. The validation exercises cover a wide range of clays, including the best-known bentonites (MX-80, FEBEX, GMZ) as well as others. The results collected in this database are from free swelling, swelling under load, swelling pressure and squeezing tests. The database is attached as Supplementary material.En este artículo se presenta una base de datos de ensayos termo-hidro-quimio-mecánicos sobre bentonitas, a la que se ha denominado “Bento_DB4THCM”. Después de una revisión exhaustiva de la literatura, se ha compilado un conjunto de pruebas experimentales. Los datos experimentales se utilizan para realizar ejercicios de validación de códigos numéricos para simular el comportamiento termohidromecánico y geoquímico acoplado de las bentonitas. La base de datos contiene la información requerida para la simulación de cada prueba experimental que resuelve un problema de valor límite. Los ejercicios de validación cubren una amplia gama de arcillas, incluidas las bentonitas más conocidas (MX-80, FEBEX, GMZ) entre otras. Los resultados recopilados en esta base de datos provienen de pruebas de hinchamiento libre, hinchamiento bajo carga, presión de hinchamiento y compresión. La base de datos se adjunta como material complementario

    Grasping nothing: a study of minimal ontologies and the sense of music

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    If music were to have a proper sense – one in which it is truly given – one might reasonably place this in sound and aurality. I contend, however, that no such sense exists; rather, the sense of music takes place, and it does so with the impossible. To this end, this thesis – which is a work of philosophy and music – advances an ontology of the impossible (i.e., it thinks the being of what, properly speaking, can have no being) and considers its implications for music, articulating how ontological aporias – of the event, of thinking the absolute, and of sovereignty’s dismemberment – imply senses of music that are anterior to sound. John Cage’s Silent Prayer, a nonwork he never composed, compels a rerethinking of silence on the basis of its contradictory status of existence; Florian Hecker et al.’s Speculative Solution offers a basis for thinking absolute music anew to the precise extent that it is a discourse of meaninglessness; and Manfred Werder’s [yearn] pieces exhibit exemplarily that music’s sense depends on the possibility of its counterfeiting. Inso-much as these accounts produce musical senses that take the place of sound, they are also understood to be performances of these pieces. Here, then, thought is music’s organon and its instrument

    Analisis Model Perencanaan Jalan Usaha Tani Subak Latu Terhadap Perkembangan Infrastruktur Ekowisata: Studi Jalan Usaha Tani Subak Latu Desa Abiansemal Kabupaten Badung

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    This study aims to design a potential Subak Latu farm road design model for Abiansemal Village and analyze the perspective of acceptance and contribution of the Subak Latu farm road as an ecotourism support infrastructure to residents in the Subak Latu neighborhood in Abiansemal Village. This research uses the field development trust method in conducting potential model studies and quantitative surveys to examine the community's perspective from the perspective of benefits, risks, and community acceptance of agricultural roads. The results of this study indicate that the potential of the Jalan Usaha Tani Subak Latu model is a model with a road dimension of 2 m, equipped with supporting facilities for safety lights, guardrails, intersections, and conveniences such as seats, trash bins, and parking lots. . Furthermore, based on the results of the study, it showed that the majority of the community agreed with the construction of Jalan Usaha Tani in terms of the benefits, trust, and high public acceptance, and in terms of the low risk of Jalan Usaha Tani. This research provides a new perspective for stakeholders, related to the potential of the Jalan Usaha Tani model in collaboration with a socio-psychological approach.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk merancang model desain jalan usaha tani Subak Latu yang potensial untuk Desa Abiansemal dan menganalisis perspektif penerimaan dan kontribusi jalan usaha tani Subak Latu sebagai infrastruktur penunjang ekowisata terhadap warga di lingkungan Subak Latu di Desa Abiansemal. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode tinjauan lapangan dalam melakukan telaah model yang potensial serta metode kuantitatif kuesioner untuk menelaah perspektif masyarakat yang ditinjau dari perspektif kebermanfaatan, risiko, kepercayaan, dan penerimaan publik terhadap pembangunan jalan usaha tani. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa model potensial Jalan Usaha Tani Subak Latu adalah model dengan dimensi jalan 2 m, dilengkapi dengan fasilitas penunjang keamanan seperti lampu, pagar pembatas, tempat persimpangan serta penunjang kenyamanan seperti tempat duduk, tempat sampah, dan tempat parkir. Selanjutnya berdasarkan hasil kuesioner menunjukkan bahwa mayoritas masyarakat menetujui pembangunan Jalan Usaha Tani yang dilihat berdasarkan persepektif kebermanfaatan, kepercayaan, dan penerimaan publik yang tinggi, serta rendahnya perspektif risiko dari pembangunan Jalan Usaha Tani. Penelitian ini memberikan perspektif baru bagi para stakeholder, terkait dengan model potensial Jalan Usaha Tani yang di kolaborasikan dengan pendekatan socio phycological

    Metagenomic assessment of nitrate-contaminated mine wastewaters and optimization of complete denitrification by indigenous enriched bacteria

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    Nitrate contamination in water remains to be on the rise globally due to continuous anthropogenic activities, such as mining and farming, which utilize high amounts of ammonium nitrate explosives and chemical-NPK-fertilizers, respectively. This study presents insights into the development of a bioremediation strategy to remove nitrates (NO3−) using consortia enriched from wastewater collected from a diamond mine in Lesotho and a platinum mine in South Africa. A biogeochemical analysis was conducted on the water samples which aided in comparing and elucidating their unique physicochemical parameters. The chemical analysis uncovered that both wastewater samples contained over 120 mg/L of NO3− and over 250 mg/L of sulfates (SO42-), which were both beyond the acceptable limit of the environmental surface water standards of South Africa. The samples were atypical of mine wastewaters as they had low concentrations of dissolved heavy metals and a pH of over 5. A metagenomic analysis applied to study microbial diversities revealed that both samples were dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, which accounted for over 40% and 15%, respectively. Three consortia were enriched to target denitrifying bacteria using selective media and then subjected to complete denitrification experiments. Denitrification dynamics and denitrifying capacities of the consortia were determined by monitoring dissolved and gaseous nitrogen species over time. Denitrification optimization was carried out by changing environmental conditions, including supplementing the cultures with metal enzyme co-factors (iron and copper) that were observed to promote different stages of denitrification. Copper supplemented at 50 mg/L was observed to be promoting complete denitrification of over 500 mg/L of NO3−, evidenced by the emission of nitrogen gas (N2) that was more than nitrous oxide gas (N2O) emitted as the terminal by-product. Modification and manipulation of growth conditions based on the microbial diversity enriched proved that it is possible to optimize a bioremediation system that can reduce high concentrations of NO3−, while emitting an environmentally-friendly N2 instead of N2O, that is, a greenhouse gas. Data collected and discussed in this research study can be used to model an upscale NO3− bioremediation system aimed to remove nitrogenous and other contaminants without secondary contamination

    Awareness to Handle Research and Healthcare Waste (RHCW) in teaching and research institutes; a comprehensive review

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    Environmental pollution has become the major challenge not only for developing countries but also for developed ones Worldwide. The major goal of this comprehensive review is to compile the reference data regarding the different types of waste generated in teaching, research, and healthcare institutes and specific strategy to manage such wastes. In addition to the pharmaceutical, leather, chemicals, food, and paper industries, teaching, research, and healthcare institutions are also significant sources of different types of Non-hazardous as well as hazardous wastes. Therefore, a simple and implementable guideline for cleaning and waste disposal services in such institutions requires strict adherence to applicable policies and procedures. Research and healthcare waste (RHCW) management is a joint effort among Research Laboratory Personnel, Healthcare facilitators, Building Services Personnel, and Local Environmental Health and Safety Personnel. As Pakistan is among the developing countries situated in South Asia, most of the institutes, including teaching, research, and healthcare, try to follow the WHO guidance or manage hazardous and non-hazardous wastes with self-planned strategies. Although most of the local Governing bodies and Institutional bodies are trying to handle the wastes at their levels by following different protocols, introducing a protocol at the National level is the need of the current era to fight against environmental pollutants.

    Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) and Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) in Primary Healthcare Facilities in Jordan in the Context of COVID-19

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    Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) and Infection prevention and control (IPC) are essential for preventing and containing outbreaks of disease. Nowadays, infection prevention is getting more attention due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The assessment of WASH/IPC indicators in the health sector is a major step in the preparation and management of such a pandemic. A facility-wide WASH and IPC assessment is the cornerstone for designing, developing, and implementing specific WASH and IPC activities at healthcare facilities. This type of assessment helps to identify and prioritize surveillance and prevention activities at the facility and provide healthcare policy makers at all levels with the evidence to strengthen WASH services and infection control policies, practices, and resources in health facilities. Moreover, this helps to motivate facilities to intensify efforts where needed to prevent, respond to, and control the spread of COVID-19. An assessment was conducted in primary healthcare facilities in Jordan to identify the strengths and gaps in the WASH and IPC practices, activities, and resources and to identify areas for quality improvement. This report demonstrates the results of a nationwide assessment of 33 healthcare centres. The assessment included eight domains (areas) pertaining to WASH/IPC with more than 150 indicators. The assessment tools were developed and adapted from the Water and Sanitation for Health Facility Improvement Tool (WASH FIT), the Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) Assessment Framework (IPCAF), Guide to Infection Prevention for Outpatient Settings: Minimum Expectations for Safe Care, the Systems for Improved Access to Pharmaceuticals and Services (SIAPS) tool, and COVID-19 Technical Guidance by WHO. The assessment revealed some deficiencies in basic WASH/IPC indicators such as lack of clear guidelines that support the management of health centres in planning and leadership, shortfalls in the budget needed to strengthen the infrastructure of WASH/IPC, inconsistent or under-provisioned training and education programmes for the development of staff skills to lead, plan, manage, and improve WASH/IPC at their facilities. Moreover, the report identified the unmet WASH/IPC needs at centres that should be addressed by policy makers and stakeholders as soon as possible for further steps of consideration in policy development. The report ends with specific recommendations to improve WASH/IPC services and practices

    Hazardous Waste Granule Composting by Cycled Retort Using Microwave Radiated Asphalt/Asphaltite Coal Slime Mixing

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    The hazardous sludge metal content of Mazıdağı metal leaching and electrowinning plants causes a great threat to ecology. The high-level metal and salt contaminants occurred in the copper leaching waste tailing ponds. The seepage liquors leak through the permeable bottom of ponds, such as acidic seepages. While urbanization needs freshwater; freshwater demand in the region increases because of global warming and drought. The estimated contamination values are avoided designing the controlling contamination level systems and meeting the disposal compost demand. In this approach, the demand for land covering and compost disposal has been designed as pellet or granule units determined independently of the specific needs of fertilizer products, agricultural remediation, and human needs. The amounts of sludge and wet hazardous toxic waste sludge’s of Mazıdağı Phosphate Plants of Eti Bakır in Mardin change the ecosystem. The hazardous sludge of plant tailings is needed planned paste disposal or controlled regional dumping, pool effluents barrier on regarding seepage control demand of the freshwater lake of town region. The planned work is disposal tests for waste sludge composting as pasting. Additionally, this method protects ecology and improves waste sludge disposal by neutralizing it at a small scale. Even the toxicity will be easily monitored. Heavy metal contamination hazard maps will be prepared and an agricultural warning system will be established for agricultural irrigation

    On Maritime Digitalization in Emerging Environments

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    The purpose of this chapter is to propose a conceptual framework for implementation of advance info-communication technology and systems (ICT&S) across maritime cluster in emerging environments, with emphasis on some South-East European countries and South Africa. Smart implementation and adoption of the ICT&S in shipping and port management have been considered due to the Holtham’s & Courtney\u27s model (2010). Furthermore, particular attention is given to Blockchain-based Maritime Supply Chain System (BMSCS) conceptual model, which includes distributed relational database, smart contracts, and crypto-currency payment mechanism as main constructs. The document workflow management, financial processes, and device connectivity are considered as key scenarios in the blockchain model. The stakeholders, who play the role of traditional intermediaries in the goods and accompanied documents and data flows, including overall supervision of the processes between end nodes, that is, shippers and customers, are encompassed within the BMSCS scheme. Some strengthens and frailty of BMSCS are highlighted, along with the suggestions for further investigation in this field, with the aim of better understanding prospective benefits and challenges of blockchain more extensive deployment across maritime sector in the future, with emphasize on developing environments