118,439 research outputs found

    Contribution of solar applications towards achieving a renewable energy target for Malta

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    Based on applied research and demonstration activities carried out during the past decade at the Institute for Energy Technology, solar photovoltaic applications offer a good prospective towards achieving a significant percentage of Malta’s electricity needs. This paper summarises the most important conclusions reached, describes the current installed systems in Malta, sets the achievable targets and discusses the challenges that face the widespread applications of this technology. Moreover, consideration is given to the widespread applications of solar water heating systems and their contribution towards lowering electricity consumption.peer-reviewe

    Renewable Energies

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    Fossil fuels are being consumed at much faster rates than they are produced in the Earth's crust; hence, the world's supply of these fuels is being depleted. The depletion of these nonrenewable fuels is a major challenge facing humanity. There are alternative sources of energy that are renewable and not based on the burning of fossil fuels. Renewable energy resources are those from sources that are capable of being continually replenished after exploitation. They are not exhaustible within human timescales. They occur naturally and abundantly and provide relatively clean energy that does not produce greenhouse gases like fossil fuels do


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    One of the fields whose importance has been surging lately is the durable development, which is impossible to achieve unless humankind gives up gradually to the fossil energy sources and switches to the exploitation of the renewable energy sources. This shift is mainly due to the fact that the traditional energy sources are limited, pricier and pricier and have a negative and irreversible effect upon the environment.In the durable development area, particularly the renewable energies, there are informatics systems used in a wide range of activities, from investments management and energy sources to the operation itself of their exploitation systems. Such informatics systems may be integrated at a higher level, as the national weather forecast system or other specific systems.informatics system; renewable energies; durable development; use of the renewable energies

    Gender Equity and Renewable Energies : Thematic Background Paper

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    The aim of this paper is to review existing evidence on the role of renewable energies in bringing gender equity. The paper first explores the evolution of thinking on gender and energy, in particular that practitioners no longer specifically focus on women and stoves (often referred to as “household energy”). Next, the reasons why gender analysis can help those people trying to increase the dissemination of renewable energy technologies are presented. There is a brief description of the gender aspects of household energy, and how different renewable energy technologies can contribute to drudgery reduction and time saving, particularly for women. The role of women in renewable energy is analysed. The paper concludes with an analysis of lessons learnt and recommendations. However, the point has to be stressed that there is now only beginning to emerge information about gender and energy in the South, and there is very little information about the situation in the North. The data that are available are primarily in the form of case studies, mainly related to stoves programmes and rural electricity grid extension. The systematic collection of gender-disaggregated statistical data by energy ministries does not occur and it is very rare to find energy project evaluations that use gender analysis. This means that much of the analysis should be seen as only as indicative, although this does not invalidate the recommendations since many of these are linked to the general situation of women having fewer assets than men

    Investigation of domestic solar water heating installations in Malta

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    Malta enjoys favourable weather conditions that encourage the use of solar water heating systems, but their market penetration has so far remained low. In an effort to identify the reasons behind this lack of impetus, the Institute for Energy Technology has devised a number of study programmes. This paper deals with one of those studies, namely the technical aspects of installed domestic solar heating systems. Results showed that there are a number of issues that are contributing towards lower solar water heating systems performance. Most of these shortcomings can be easily overcome, but it is clear that there is a need for proper training programmes for installers as well as better diffusion of information on the proper utilisation of this technology.peer-reviewe

    Marine renewable energies

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    The ocean is a huge reservoir of renewable energy sources, such as wind, currents, tides, waves, marine biomass, thermal energy, osmotic power, and so on. Like other maritime nations in Europe, France enjoys significant potential to develop these energy sources, especially overseas. In March 2007, Ifremer's chairman launched a prospective foresight study on these energies for the time horizon of 2030. With support from the Futuribles consulting group, twenty French partners representing the main stakeholders in the sector carried out this work. Their objective was to identify the technologies, specify the socio-economic prerequisites for them to emerge and be competitive and assess their respective impacts on power sources and the environment. What was learned from this study can be applied well beyond France, at a time when a European maritime strategy is taking shape

    Economic Impacts from the Promotion of Renewable Energy Technologies - The German Experience

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    The allure of an environmentally benign, abundant, and cost-effective energy source has led an increasing number of industrialized countries to back public financing of renewable energies. Germany's experience with renewable energy promotion is often cited as a model to be replicated elsewhere, being based on a combination of far-reaching energy and environmental laws that stretch back nearly two decades. This paper critically reviews the current centerpiece of this effort, the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG), focusing on its costs and the associated implications for job creation and climate protection. We argue that German renewable energy policy, and in particular the adopted feed-in tariff scheme, has failed to harness the market incentives needed to ensure a viable and cost-effective introduction of renewable energies into the country's energy portfolio. To the contrary, the government's support mechanisms have in many respects subverted these incentives, resulting in massive expenditures that show little long-term promise for stimulating the economy, protecting the environment, or increasing energy security.Energy policy, energy security, climate, employment