18,249 research outputs found

    Du Bois meets Darwin

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    While “race is a social construction” has become a mantra in the U.S., contemporary racial formation theory and critiques of biological race concepts (BRCs) have yet to demonstrate this truism. This deadlock is most confounding in research on racist health inequities and human genetics. Attempts to understand the relationships between race and differential health outcomes reproduce in lieu of disrupting racism and racialization. While some argue that race should be phased out of human genetics, others contend that the race variable is needed to highlight the effects of racism. With these issues in mind, I ask, “How do we study race without socially reproducing racism?” In this dissertation project, I argue that the root of the problem is the use of ahistorical definitions and theories that separate race from racism and Euro-colonialism. Without critical historiography, scholars use incorrect information to understand how external conditions shape and produce the environments that racialized peoples live in. This problem extends to how geneticists model and describe contemporary patterns of human genetic variation. Consequently, scientific critiques of BRCs abandon the historical information needed to demonstrate the social construction of race/ism and the evolutionary thinking required to interpret human genetics. Utilizing a Du Boisian historiography, I analyze dynamic events or sites of the social construction of race/ism to show how race is a product of racism, what I call race/ism. Race/ism is an issue of power, not phenotype. Created by and for Euro-imperialism, race/ism is a socio-political system that co-opts, marks, and groups people to regulate the reproduction and inheritance of “population-specific modes of colonial domination through time” (Wolfe 2016:10). Using these insights, I analyze genetic and sociodemographic data collected in the Midwest region of the U.S. to isolate distinct variables often used as “race proxies” in genetics research: self-identified race/ethnicity, internalized response to externalized racialization, and genetic ancestry. Each race proxy captures the dynamic interactions of racialization, or rather, the doing of race/ism, structured by effective human actions and social milieux. I use genotype, phenotype, and sociodemographic data to explore the relationships between race/ism, blood pressure, and candidate polymorphisms associated with hypertension. I’m interested in the presence of gene by environment interactions (GEI) because they both refute reductionism and demonstrate complex relationships between genetics, biology, and society. Through modeling race/ism as an ecological phenomenon that shapes the conditions in which people live and die, I present an evo-ecosocial theory of disease distribution for understanding the biological consequences of race/ism.LimitedAuthor requested closed access (OA after 2yrs) in Vireo ETD syste

    Multifunctional Homes: A Sustainable Answer to the Challenges of the Future

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    The reason for our research is to seek a valid solution, intended for urban development, among those already materialized or in the form of a concept, which corresponds to the pressing needs of the present and of a future dictated by the realities of such a present. We are aware of societal dictating forces as well as of the validity of certain solutions that, if applied on a large scale, could at least partially remedy the deficient functioning of a society adapting to the economic crisis, the crisis of natural resources, and the political and demographic crises, as it attempts to adjust. In the field of urban development, within such a context, as old as it is new, the solution was offered to us in the form of a concept aiming at restructuring and compartmentalizing interior space, with applicability in both the private and public sector. This concept, simple and predictable, has as its goal the reduction of interior space while significantly increasing its functionality through the mediation of mobile structures. It bases its success on reductionism, multifunctionality and versatility, giving up those constitutive parts with null usability or which, by activating the concept, become null, their function being fulfilled by substitution. A reduction applied to the built environment results in a chance given to urban green space, while by restricting the built environment we gain space for nature

    A Phenomenological Study of How Active Engagement in Black Greek Letter Sororities Influences Christian Members\u27 Spiritual Growth

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    This phenomenological study explored how being part of a Black Greek Letter. Organization (BGLO) sorority impacts the spiritual growth of its Christian members. One of the issues explored was the influence relationships within these sororities have on members striving to be like Christ. There is a dichotomy of perspectives regarding Black Greek Letter Organizations (BGLOs). They have a significant role in the Black community as organizations that foster leadership, philanthropy, and sisterhood and promote education. They are admired on and off college campuses and in the broader community in graduate chapters. The objective of phenomenology is to describe phenomena of spiritual growth among Christian sorority members from the life experiences of those who live them; that premise guided the interviews conducted for this study. The results found that active engagement in a BGLO sorority positively impacts its members\u27 spiritual growth. From the emotional stories of sisterhood, service, and devotion to prayer, their experiences evidenced strengthened walks of faith. This study contrasts the Anti-BGLO narrative as a testament to these organizations\u27 legacy and practices deeply grounded in the church

    Victims' Access to Justice in Trinidad and Tobago: An exploratory study of experiences and challenges of accessing criminal justice in a post-colonial society

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    This thesis investigates victims' access to justice in Trinidad and Tobago, using their own narratives. It seeks to capture how their experiences affected their identities as victims and citizens, alongside their perceptions of legitimacy regarding the criminal justice system. While there have been some reforms in the administration of criminal justice in Trinidad and Tobago, such reforms have not focused on victims' accessibility to the justice system. Using grounded theory methodology, qualitative data was collected through 31 in-depth interviews with victims and victim advocates. The analysis found that victims experienced interpersonal, structural, and systemic barriers at varying levels throughout the criminal justice system, which manifested as institutionalized secondary victimization, silencing and inequality. This thesis argues that such experiences not only served to appropriate conflict but demonstrates that access is often given in a very narrow sense. Furthermore, it shows a failure to encompass access to justice as appropriated conflicts are left to stagnate in the system as there is often very little resolution. Adopting a postcolonial lens to analyse victims' experiences, the analysis identified othering practices that served to institutionalize the vulnerability and powerlessness associated with victim identities. Here, it is argued that these othering practices also affected the rights consciousness of victims, delegitimating their identities as citizens. Moreover, as a result of their experiences, victims had mixed perceptions of the justice system. It is argued that while the system is a legitimate authority victims' endorsement of the system is questionable, therefore victims' experiences suggest that there is a reinforcement of the system's legal hegemony. The findings suggest that within the legal system of Trinidad and Tobago, legacies of colonialism shape the postcolonial present as the psychology and inequalities of the past are present in the interactions and processes of justice. These findings are relevant for policymakers in Trinidad and Tobago and other regions. From this study it is recognized that, to improve access to justice for victims, there needs to be a move towards victim empowerment that promotes resilience and enhances social capital. Going forward it is noted that there is a need for further research

    Categories and foundational ontology: A medieval tutorial

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    Foundational ontologies, central constructs in ontological investigations and engineering alike, are based on ontological categories. Firstly proposed by Aristotle as the very ur- elements from which the whole of reality can be derived, they are not easy to identify, let alone partition and/or hierarchize; in particular, the question of their number poses serious challenges. The late medieval philosopher Dietrich of Freiberg wrote around 1286 a tutorial that can help us today with this exceedingly difficult task. In this paper, I discuss ontological categories and their importance for foundational ontologies from both the contemporary perspective and the original Aristotelian viewpoint, I provide the translation from the Latin into English of Dietrich's De origine II with an introductory elaboration, and I extract a foundational ontology–that is in fact a single-category one–from this text rooted in Dietrich's specification of types of subjecthood and his conception of intentionality as causal operation

    Reasons, normativity, and value in aesthetics

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    Environmental-agreement design and political ideology in democracies

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    Does the political ideology of negotiating parties influence the design of international environmental agreements? This article distinguishes between leftist and rightist executives in democracies to develop a twofold argument. First, left-leaning democratic governments tend to be generally more environmental-friendly, which implies that they should favor designs that are more conducive to effective institutions. Second, leftist democratic executives are commonly less concerned about sovereignty costs. Both mechanisms suggest that environmental treaties likely comprise “legalized,” i.e., hard-law elements when left-wing democracies negotiate their design. The empirical implication of the theory is tested with quantitative data on international environmental agreements since 1975. The findings report an association between leftist ideology in democracies and agreement legalization, although this is driven by aspects of sovereignty delegation. This article contributes to the literatures on environmental institutions, international cooperation more generally, as well as party politics

    Shared Decision Making

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    This chapter is divided into three sections. The first section introduces the concept and models of shared decision-making as a framework of person- centered care. The second section focuses on multicriteria decision-making tech- niques in healthcare settings and literature review about multicriteria decision making analysis methods used in healthcare is presented. The third section introduces the ethical and practical considerations about shared decision-making in person-centered care. In this section, the patient narratives are included, as well as the barriers to implementation
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