192,371 research outputs found

    Unnecessary repeated total cholesterol tests in biochemistry laboratory

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    Introduction: We aimed to determine the number of repeated cholesterol (RC) tests and the ratio of unnecessary-repeated cholesterol (URC) tests among patients admitted to Pamukkale University Hospital (Denizli, Turkey) and provide solutions to avoid URC testing. Materials and methods: Total cholesterol (T-cholesterol) tests (N = 86,817) between June 2014 and May 2015 were evaluated. The tests performed more than once per patient were determined as RC test (N = 28,811). RC test with an interval shorter than 4 weeks were determined as URC test (N = 3968) according to the shortest retest interval stated in ACC/AHA blood cholesterol guideline. RC testing included internal medicine, surgery and paediatric outpatients and inpatients. Reference change value (RCV) of total cholesterol was calculated. Results: The 33.1% of the T-cholesterol tests were RC tests (N = 28,811), 13.7% of them were URC tests (N = 3968). Our RCV value was 25%. The percentage change between consecutive tests was less than RCV in 86.1% (N = 3418) of URC tests. URC tests were performed more frequently in patients with desirable total cholesterol value (P < 0.001). Conclusion: There is a significant part of repeated T-cholesterol tests requested in our hospital. URC test requests can be evaluated by laboratories and the obtained data should be shared with clinicians. Laboratories can calculate RCV for the tests they performed and report this value with the test result. To prevent from URC tests, a warning plug-in can be added to hospital information software in accordance with guidelines to prevent from URC test requests

    Development of a new scale to measure ambiguity tolerance in veterinary students

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    The ability to cope with ambiguity and feelings of uncertainty is an essential element of professional practice. Research with physicians has identified that intolerance of ambiguity or uncertainty is linked to stress and some authors have hypothesised that there could be an association between intolerance of ambiguity and burnout (e.g. Cooke et al 2013). We describe the adaptation of the TAMSAD (Tolerance of Ambiguity in Medical Students and Doctors) scale for use with veterinary students. Exploratory factor analysis supports a unidimensional structure for the Ambiguity tolerance construct. Although internal reliability of the 29 item TAMSAD scale is reasonable (α = 0.50), an alternative 27 item scale (drawn from the original 41 items used to develop TAMSAD) shows higher internal reliability for veterinary students (α = 0.67). We conclude that there is good evidence to support the validity of this latter TAVS (Tolerance of Ambiguity in Veterinary students) scale to study ambiguity tolerance in veterinary students

    SLAP lesion in overhead athletes

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    Static loads on the lower back for two modalities of the isometric smith squat

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    Introduction: The squat is one of the most effective exercises in athletic training. However, there is a scarcity of research that reports the muscular and joint loads in the lumbar region incurred when performing the high bar and the low bar isometric squat modalities in a Smith machine. Therefore, this study aims to determine the muscle force of the lower back extensors, and the compressive (Rc) and shear (Rs) forces at the lumbosacral joint for the one repetition maximum (1RM) high bar and low bar isometric parallel-depth Smith squats. Methods: Eight healthy male well-trained 400-m sprinters participated in the study. The athletes performed the two modalities of the isometric squat on a 7° backward-inclined Smith machine using a mean ± SD 1RM external resistance of 100.3 ± 7.2 kg. During the squat, the participants paused for 2-3 s at the bottom of the squat, corresponding to a position in which the thighs are parallel to the ground. This was, therefore, considered a static position for the calculation of isometric muscle forces and joint loads using static mechanical analysis. Moment arms, and joint and segmental angles were calculated from video images of the squatting performance. Internal forces were computed using a geometrical model of the trunk and lower limb. Results: Spinal extensor muscular forces and lumbo-sacral joint forces were higher when using the low bar technique; with the exception of Rs which was approximately equal. The mean Rc were 10.2 body weights (BW) or 8,014 N (high bar) and 11.1 BW or 8,729 N (low bar). Discussion: The low bar technique yields higher Rc and may therefore be avoided in the rehabilitation of spinal injuries. Increased bone mineral density and well-developed trunk musculature due to long term squat training can provide protection against passive spinal tissue failure. Therefore, the Rc found for the 1RM isometric parallel-depth Smith squat do not appear excessive for healthy well-trained athletes. The presence of Rs at the lumbo-sacral joint in both squat modalities suggests potential for damage to the intervertebral disc. The findings provide an in-depth understanding of the two squat modalities in isometric conditions for the prevention of lower back injury and the design of rehabilitation programs

    Elevated circulating amyloid concentrations in obesity and diabetes promote vascular dysfunction

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    Diabetes, obesity and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are associated with vascular complications and impaired nitric oxide (NO) production. Furthermore, increased β-site amyloid precursor protein (APP)-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), APP and β-amyloid (Aβ) are linked with vascular disease development and raised BACE1 and Aβ accompany hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. However, the causal relationship between obesity and diabetes, raised Aβ and vascular dysfunction is unclear. We report that diet-induced obesity (DIO) in mice raised plasma and vascular Aβ42 that correlated with decreased NO bioavailability, endothelial dysfunction and raised blood pressure. Genetic or pharmacological reduction of BACE1 activity and Aβ42 prevented and reversed, respectively, these outcomes. In contrast, expression of human mutant APP in mice or Aβ42 infusion into control diet-fed mice to mimic obese levels impaired NO production, vascular relaxation and raised blood pressure. In humans, raised plasma Aβ42 correlated with diabetes and endothelial dysfunction. Mechanistically, higher Aβ42 reduced endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), cyclic GMP and protein kinase G (PKG) activity independently of diet whereas endothelin-1 was increased by diet and Aβ42. Lowering Aβ42 reversed the DIO deficit in the eNOS-cGMP-PKG pathway and decreased endothelin-1. Our findings suggest that BACE1 inhibitors may have therapeutic value in the treatment of vascular disease associated with diabetes

    Bayesian correction for covariate measurement error: a frequentist evaluation and comparison with regression calibration

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    Bayesian approaches for handling covariate measurement error are well established, and yet arguably are still relatively little used by researchers. For some this is likely due to unfamiliarity or disagreement with the Bayesian inferential paradigm. For others a contributory factor is the inability of standard statistical packages to perform such Bayesian analyses. In this paper we first give an overview of the Bayesian approach to handling covariate measurement error, and contrast it with regression calibration (RC), arguably the most commonly adopted approach. We then argue why the Bayesian approach has a number of statistical advantages compared to RC, and demonstrate that implementing the Bayesian approach is usually quite feasible for the analyst. Next we describe the closely related maximum likelihood and multiple imputation approaches, and explain why we believe the Bayesian approach to generally be preferable. We then empirically compare the frequentist properties of RC and the Bayesian approach through simulation studies. The flexibility of the Bayesian approach to handle both measurement error and missing data is then illustrated through an analysis of data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Assessment of Kinematics and Electromyography Following Arthroscopic Single-Tendon Rotator Cuff Repair

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    Background The increasing demand for rotator cuff (RC) repair patients to return to work as soon as they are physically able has led to exploration of when this is feasible. Current guidelines from our orthopedic surgery clinic recommend a return to work at 9 weeks postoperation. To more fully define capacity to return to work, the current study was conducted using a unique series of quantitative tools. To date, no study has combined 3-dimensional (3D) motion analysis with electromyography (EMG) assessment during activities of daily living (ADLs), including desk tasks, and commonly prescribed rehabilitation exercise. Objective To apply a quantitative, validated upper extremity model to assess the kinematics and muscle activity of the shoulder following repair of the supraspinatus RC tendon compared to that in healthy shoulders. Design A prospective, cross-sectional comparison study. Setting All participants were evaluated during a single session at the Medical College of Wisconsin Department of Orthopaedic Surgery\u27s Motion Analysis Laboratory. Participants Ten participants who were 9-12 weeks post–operative repair of a supraspinatus RC tendon tear and 10 participants with healthy shoulders (HS) were evaluated. Methods All participants were evaluated with 3D motion analysis using a validated upper extremity model and synchronized EMG. Data from the 2 groups were compared using multivariate Hotelling T2 tests with post hoc analyses based on Welch t-tests. Main Outcome Measurements Participants\u27 thoracic and thoracohumeral joint kinematics, temporal-spatial parameters, and RC muscle activity were measured by applying a quantitative upper extremity model during 10 activities of daily living and 3 rehabilitation exercises. These included tasks of hair combing, drinking, writing, computer mouse use, typing, calling, reaching to back pocket, pushing a door open, pulling a door closed, external rotation, internal rotation, and rowing. Results There were significant differences of the thoracohumeral joint motion in only a few of the tested tasks: comb maximal flexion angle (P = .004), pull door internal/external rotation range of motion (P = .020), reach abduction/adduction range of motion (P = .001), reach flexion/extension range of motion (P = .001), reach extension minimal angle (P = .025), active external rotation maximal angle (P = .012), and active external rotation minimal angle (P = .004). The thorax showed significantly different kinematics of maximal flexion angle during the call (P = .011), mouse (P = .007), and drink tasks (P = .005) between the 2 groups. The EMG data analysis showed significantly increased subscapularis activity in the RC repair group during active external rotation. Conclusions Although limited abduction was expected due to repair of the supraspinatus tendon, only a single ADL (reaching to back pocket) had a significantly reduced abduction range of motion. Thoracic motion was shown to be used as a compensatory strategy during seated ADLs. Less flexion of the thorax may create passive shoulder flexion at the thoracohumeral joint in efforts to avoid active flexion. The RC repair group participants were able to accomplish the ADLs within the same time frame and through thoracohumeral joint kinematics similar to those in the healthy shoulder group participants. In summary, this study presents a quantification of the effects of RC repair and rehabilitation on the ability to perform ADLs. It may also point to a need for increased rehabilitation focus on either regaining external rotation strength or range of motion following RC repair to enhance recovery and return to the workforce

    The relationship between entrapment and suicidal behavior through the lens of the integrated motivational-volitional model of suicidal behavior

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    Suicide and suicidal behavior are major public health concerns. As a result, a number of psychological models have been developed to better understand the emergence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. One such model is the integrated motivational–volitional model, a tri-partite model of suicidal behavior, which posits that entrapment is central to the final common pathway to suicide. In this review, we summarize the extant research evidence for the relationship between entrapment and suicidal ideation and behavior. Although there is robust evidence for the relationship between entrapment and suicidal ideation and behavior, there are gaps in our knowledge. We discuss the clinical implications and suggest key directions for future research

    Absorbed dose evaluation of Auger electron-emitting radionuclides: impact of input decay spectra on dose point kernels and S-values

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    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of decay data provided by the newly developed stochastic atomic relaxation model BrIccEmis on dose point kernels (DPKs - radial dose distribution around a unit point source) and S-values (absorbed dose per unit cumulated activity) of 14 Auger electron (AE) emitting radionuclides, namely 67Ga, 80mBr, 89Zr, 90Nb, 99mTc, 111In, 117mSn, 119Sb, 123I, 124I, 125I, 135La, 195mPt and 201Tl. Radiation spectra were based on the nuclear decay data from the medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) RADTABS program and the BrIccEmis code, assuming both an isolated-atom and condensed-phase approach. DPKs were simulated with the PENELOPE Monte Carlo (MC) code using event-by-event electron and photon transport. S-values for concentric spherical cells of various sizes were derived from these DPKS using appropriate geometric reduction factors. The number of Auger and Coster-Kronig (CK) electrons and x-ray photons released per nuclear decay (yield) from MIRD-RADTABS were consistently higher than those calculated using BrIccEmis. DPKs for the electron spectra from BrIccEmis were considerably different from MIRD-RADTABS in the first few hundred nanometres from a point source where most of the Auger electrons are stopped. S-values were, however, not significantly impacted as the differences in DPKS in the sub-micrometre dimension were quickly diminished in larger dimensions. Overestimation in the total AE energy output by MIRD-RADTABS leads to higher predicted energy deposition by AE emitting radionuclides, especially in the immediate vicinity of the decaying radionuclides. This should be taken into account when MIRD-RADTABS data are used to simulate biological damage at nanoscale dimensions.Comment: 27 pages, 4 figures, 3 table