2,968,090 research outputs found

    The Three R\u27s of Delayed Hypersensitivity

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    Delayed hypersensitivity is one of several immune responses initiated by thymus-derived (T) lymphocytes. The mononuclear infiltrate of delayed hypersensitivity is a collaborative phenomenon between T lymphocytes and monocytes. This collaboration can be separated into components which I have chosen to call the three R\u27s of delayed hypersensitivity. In this discussion I will define these three R\u27s and examine the usefulness of this concept in clinical medicine

    Troponin T3 regulates nuclear localization of the calcium channel Cavβ1a subunit in skeletal muscle

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    The voltage-gated calcium channel (Cav) β1a subunit (Cavβ1a) plays an important role in excitation-contraction coupling (ECC), a process in the myoplasm that leads to muscle-force generation. Recently, we discovered that the Cavβ1a subunit travels to the nucleus of skeletal muscle cells where it helps to regulate gene transcription. To determine how it travels to the nucleus, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screening of the mouse fast skeletal muscle cDNA library and identified an interaction with troponin T3 (TnT3), which we subsequently confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization assays in mouse skeletal muscle in vivo and in cultured C2C12 muscle cells. Interacting domains were mapped to the leucine zipper domain in TnT3 COOH-terminus (160-244 aa) and Cavβ1a NH2-terminus (1-99 aa), respectively. The double fluorescence assay in C2C12 cells co-expressing TnT3/DsRed and Cavβ1a/YFP shows that TnT3 facilitates Cavβ1a nuclear recruitment, suggesting that the two proteins play a heretofore unknown role during early muscle differentiation in addition to their classical role in ECC regulation.Fil: Zhang, Tan. Wake Forest School of Medicine; Estados UnidosFil: Taylor, Jackson. Wake Forest School of Medicine; Estados UnidosFil: Jiang, Yang. Wake Forest School of Medicine; Estados UnidosFil: Pereyra, Andrea Soledad. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - La Plata. Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquímicas de La Plata "Prof. Dr. Rodolfo R. Brenner". Universidad Nacional de la Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Médicas. Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquímicas de La Plata ; ArgentinaFil: Messi, Maria Laura. Wake Forest School of Medicine; Estados UnidosFil: Wang, Zhong Min. Wake Forest School of Medicine; Estados UnidosFil: Hereñú, Claudia Beatriz. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - La Plata. Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquímicas de La Plata "Prof. Dr. Rodolfo R. Brenner". Universidad Nacional de la Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Médicas. Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquímicas de La Plata ; ArgentinaFil: Delbono, Osvaldo. Wake Forest School of Medicine; Estados Unido

    Catalytic performance of carbonaceous materials in the esterification of succinic acid

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    Mesoporous carbonaceous materials have outstanding potential in many different applications such as adsorption, medicine and catalysis. We have recently reported the synthesis of a new form of mesoporous carbon, named Starbon((R)), obtained after low temperature carbonization of expanded starch. Such starch-derived mesoporous materials have several tunable properties including surface energies (ranging from hydrophilic to hydrophobic surfaces), which can be easily controlled by the degree of carbonization (from 200 to 700 degrees C). Due to the diversity of surface functional groups, Starbons((R)) can be easily chemically modified. Treatment of Starbon((R)) materials with sulfuric acid gave a solid acid that has promising properties as heterogeneous catalyst. Comparative catalytic studies with some other similar commercial carbonaceous materials such as DARCO((R)) and NORIT (R), as well as phosphorous-containing microporous carbons, are reported. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

    Cancer patients' attitudes towards Chinese medicine: a Hong Kong survey

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>This article reports a survey conducted in Hong Kong on the cancer patients' attitudes towards Chinese medicine treatment.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Cancer patients from three Chinese medicine clinics and one oncology clinic were interviewed with a structured questionnaire.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Of a total of 786 participants included in the study, 42.9% used Western medicine only; 57.1% used at least one form of Chinese medicine; 5 participants used Chinese medicine only; and 56.5% used Chinese medicine before/during/after Western medicine treatment. Commonly used Western medicine and Chinese medicine treatments included chemotherapy (63.7%), radiotherapy (62.0%), surgery (57.6%), Chinese herbal medicine (53.9%) and Chinese dietary therapy (9.5%). Participants receiving chemotherapy used Chinese medicine (63.3%) more than those receiving any other Western medicine treatments. Spearman correlation coefficients showed that the selection of Chinese medicine was associated with the cancer type (r<sub>s </sub>= -1.36; <it>P </it>< 0.001), stage (r<sub>s </sub>= 0.178; <it>P </it>< 0.001), duration (r<sub>s </sub>= -0.074; <it>P </it>= 0.037), whether receiving chemotherapy (r<sub>s </sub>= 0.165; <it>P </it>< 0.001) and palliative therapy (r<sub>s </sub>= 0.087; <it>P </it>= 0.015). Nearly two-thirds of the participants (N = 274) did not tell their physicians about using Chinese medicine. Over two-thirds of all participants (68.2%) believed that integrated Chinese and Western medicine was effective.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Chinese medicine is commonly used among Hong Kong cancer patients. The interviewed cancer patients in Hong Kong considered integrative Chinese and Western medicine is an effective cancer treatment.</p

    No alternative to proliferation

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    We reflect on the nature, role and limits of non-empirical theory assessment in fundamental physics, focusing in particular on quantum gravity. We argue for the usefulness and, to some extent, necessity of non-empirical theory assessment, but also examine critically its dangers. We conclude that the principle of proliferation of theories is not only at the very root of theory assessment but all the more necessary when experimental tests are scarce, and also that, in the same situation, it represents the only medicine against the degeneration of scientific research programmes.Comment: 15 pages; contribution to the volume "Why trust a theory?", edited by: R. Dardashti, R. Dawid, K. Thebault, to be published by Cambridge University Pres

    Immune-mediated loss of transgene expression from virally transduced brain cells is irreversible, mediated by IFNγ, perforin, and TNFα, and due to the elimination of transduced cells

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    The adaptive immune response to viral vectors reduces vector-mediated transgene expression from the brain. It is unknown, however, whether this loss is caused by functional downregulation of transgene expression or death of transduced cells. Herein, we demonstrate that during the elimination of transgene expression, the brain becomes infiltrated with CD4 and CD8 T cells and that these T cells are necessary for transgene elimination. Further, the loss of transgene-expressing brain cells fails to occur in the absence of IFNγ, perforin, and TNFα receptor. Two methods to induce severe immune suppression in immunized animals also fail to restitute transgene expression, demonstrating the irreversibility of this process. The need for cytotoxic molecules and the irreversibility of the reduction in transgene expression suggested to us that elimination of transduced cells is responsible for the loss of transgene expression. A new experimental paradigm that discriminates between downregulation of transgene expression and the elimination of transduced cells demonstrates that transduced cells are lost from the brain upon the induction of a specific antiviral immune response. We conclude that the anti-adenoviral immune response reduces transgene expression in the brain through loss of transduced cellsFil: Zirger, Jeffrey M.. Cedars Sinai Medical Center; Estados Unidos. University of California at Los Angeles. School of Medicine; Estados UnidosFil: Puntel, Mariana. University of California at Los Angeles. School of Medicine; Estados Unidos. Cedars Sinai Medical Center; Estados Unidos. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; ArgentinaFil: Bergeron, Josee. Cedars Sinai Medical Center; Estados Unidos. University of California at Los Angeles. School of Medicine; Estados UnidosFil: Wibowo, Mia. University of California at Los Angeles. School of Medicine; Estados Unidos. Cedars Sinai Medical Center; Estados UnidosFil: Moridzadeh, Rameen. University of California at Los Angeles. School of Medicine; Estados Unidos. Cedars Sinai Medical Center; Estados UnidosFil: Bondale, Niyati. Cedars Sinai Medical Center; Estados Unidos. University of California at Los Angeles. School of Medicine; Estados UnidosFil: Barcia, Carlos. Cedars Sinai Medical Center; Estados Unidos. University of California at Los Angeles. School of Medicine; Estados UnidosFil: Kroeger, Kurt M.. University of California at Los Angeles. School of Medicine; Estados Unidos. Cedars Sinai Medical Center; Estados UnidosFil: Liu, Chunyan. University of California at Los Angeles. School of Medicine; Estados Unidos. Cedars Sinai Medical Center; Estados UnidosFil: Castro, Maria Graciela. University of California at Los Angeles. School of Medicine; Estados Unidos. Cedars Sinai Medical Center; Estados Unidos. University of Michigan; Estados UnidosFil: Lowenstein, Pedro R.. Cedars Sinai Medical Center; Estados Unidos. University of California at Los Angeles. School of Medicine; Estados Unidos. University of Michigan; Estados Unido

    Glial βii spectrin contributes to paranode formation and maintenance

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    Action potential conduction along myelinated axons depends on high densities of voltage-gated Na channels at the nodes of Ranvier. Flanking each node, paranodal junctions (paranodes) are formed between axons and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) or oligodendrocytes intheCNS. Paranodal junctions contribute to both no deassembly and maintenance. Despitetheir importance, the molecular mechanisms responsible for paranode assembly and maintenance remain poorly understood. βII spectrin is expressed in diverse cells and is an essential part of the submembranous cytoskeleton. Here, we show that Schwann cell βII spectrin is highly enriched at paranodes. To elucidate the roles of glial βII spectrin, we generated mutant mice lacking βII spectrin in myelinating glial cells by crossing mice with a floxed allele of Sptbn1 with Cnp-Cre mice, and analyzed both male and female mice. Juvenile (4 weeks) and middle-aged (60 weeks) mutant mice showed reduced grip strength and sciatic nerve conduction slowing, whereas no phenotype was observed between 8 and 24 weeks of age. Consistent with these findings, immunofluorescence microscopy revealed disorganized paranodes in the PNS and CNS of both postnatal day 13 and middle-aged mutant mice, but not in young adult mutant mice. Electron microscopy confirmed partial loss of transverse bands at the paranodal axoglial junction in the middle-aged mutant mice in both the PNS and CNS. These findings demonstrate that a spectrin-based cytoskeleton in myelinating glia contributes to formation and maintenance of paranodal junctions.Fil: Susuki, Keiichiro. Baylor College of Medicine; Estados UnidosFil: Zollinger, Daniel R.. Baylor College of Medicine; Estados UnidosFil: Chang, Kae Jiun. Baylor College of Medicine; Estados UnidosFil: Zhang, Chuansheng. Baylor College of Medicine; Estados UnidosFil: Huang, Claire Yu Mei. Baylor College of Medicine; Estados UnidosFil: Tsai, Chang Ru. Baylor College of Medicine; Estados UnidosFil: Galiano, Mauricio Raul. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Córdoba. Centro de Investigaciones en Química Biológica de Córdoba. Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. Facultad de Ciencias Químicas. Centro de Investigaciones en Química Biológica de Córdoba; Argentina. Baylor College of Medicine; Estados UnidosFil: Liu, Yanhong. Baylor College of Medicine; Estados UnidosFil: Benusa, Savannah D.. Virginia Commonwealth University; Estados UnidosFil: Yermakov, Leonid M.. Wright State University; Estados UnidosFil: Griggs, Ryan B.. Wright State University; Estados UnidosFil: Dupree, Jeffrey L.. Virginia Commonwealth University; Estados UnidosFil: Rasband, Matthew N.. Baylor College of Medicine; Estados Unido

    R/evolution: Social medicine in ink.

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    R/Evolution: Social Medicine in Ink, positions composition of written words in print vis-a-vis dominance of wider social communications via multi-sensory communications media. Given no mass medium is more of an antibiotic perceptually for this contemporaneous incubation than specialized visual fragmentation of the Latin alphabet typographically set on pages, marginalized ABCs machines press in ink provide modified relevance in supplying new circuit breaker demands for an electronic jungle we swamp ourselves with. Writers who disembody their expressions by descendants of Gutenberg\u27s technology thusly fully capitalize by writing in the mask of the artist-critic, to service to all atypically fit for facing an implosion underway of readers and of reading since channeling this fusion ecology is done eclectically, poetry with prose, fiction with non-fiction, as well as drama. This thesis models these efforts on revision of the trivium, lower division of the seven liberal arts of the Middle Ages, in attempting pattern recognition enchancement an anti-environment should foster, an information compass to users who become explorers of the globe online. Ergo to provide control and comprehension is to refashion Archimedes\u27 lever in the image of this new literacy: ability to adjust to perpetually shifting reality awash in the symbology of virtual dataspheres. The hypothesis in question is if there is beneficial generalization cognitively as much as physically an unspecialized hand enabled our ancestors on our revolutionary evolutionary path to adapt to and through tools that extend an increasingly obsolescent body that nature once predominantly nurtured--minds as hands, as antennae tuned for coded fields of feeds, evagination of tentacle of consciousness handling digital depths through grasping.Dept. of English Language, Literature, and Creative Writing. Paper copy at Leddy Library: Theses & Major Papers - Basement, West Bldg. / Call Number: Thesis2005 .M67. Source: Masters Abstracts International, Volume: 44-03, page: 1152. Thesis (M.A.)--University of Windsor (Canada), 2005

    Active-Learning Quality Improvement Training Curriculum for Faculty in Hospital Medicine

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    Background: There is a growing emphasis on teaching Quality Improvement (QI) to resident physicians and medical students. However, faculty with QI skills and knowledge is lacking at many academic medical centers.Active learning programs to improve faculty capacity for QI have shown positive outcomes. We sought to develop a QI curriculum for faculty within the Division of Hospital Medicine. Description of project/program/innovation: We conducted a needs assessment focus group for Hospital Medicine faculty at our academic medical center. Six faculty members participated and identified priorities and potential challenges. Based on the focus group feedback, we designed a 12-session curriculum that uses an active-learning approach to teach core concepts in QI and includes sessions on effectively mentoring and publishing QI (Table 1). Junior and senior faculty collaborated on curricular design and delivery, with the goal of developing junior faculty into effective QI teachers. Pre-assessment of QI knowledge, skills, and attitudes was conducted using a survey instrument and the revised Quality Improvement Knowledge Application Tool (QIKAT-R). Results: Eighteen faculty completed the pre-assessments (82% completion). At baseline, self-reported comfort was highest for “setting aims for a QI project” and lowest for “presenting results of a QI project”. The mean QIKAT-R score was 16.8 out of 27 (SD 4.5), with the lowest performance in the “setting aims” domain. To date, six sessions have been completed. The selected project focuses on improving hospitalized patients’ experiences around daily bedside rounding. Discussion: We have created a QI curriculum that seeks to address the gap in QI skills among hospitalists. Pre-assessments revealed poor correlation between self-reported comfort level and QIKAT-R scores within each domain, further highlighting educational opportunities. We plan to use feedback from this pilot to refine the curriculum and offer it to faculty in other specialties
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