2,244 research outputs found

    A pliocene cliff-line around the Giza Pyramids Plateau, Egypt

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    Aigner, T., 1983. A Pliocene cliff-line around the Giza Pyramids Plateau, Egypt. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol., 4 2 : 313—322. Escarpments bordering the Giza Pyramids Plateau represent the cliff-line of a Pliocene transgression up the pre-Nile ("Eonile") Valley. Geomorphologically, a limestone cliff can be distinguished from a slip-block shore associated with a distinct fining-up sequence. Differences in bedrock lithology and in structure (Joint pattern, faults) are morphogenetic Controls. The pre-Pliocene morphology with escarpments that allowed the development of later cliff-lines is related to deep incision of the Eonile drainage system caused by the desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea during the Messinian

    Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure Pyramids and the Sun

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    In this paper we discuss the orientation of the Egyptian pyramids at Giza with respect to sunrises and sunsets, using SunCalc.net software. We can see that Khufu and Khafre pyramids had been positioned in a manner that, from each pyramid, it was always possible to observe the points of the horizon where the sun was rising and setting on each day of the year. A discussion for the Menkaure pyramid is also proposed.Comment: Solar Orientation, Archaeoastronomy, Solstices, Architectural Planning, Satellite Images, Google Earth, SunCalc.ne

    The use of high resolution digital surface models for change detection and viewshed analysis in the area around the pyramids of Giza, Egypt

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    One of the biggest threats to cultural heritage is related to their rapidly changing and developing surroundings. The Giza pyramid plateau is a prime example of this phenomenon, as it is threatened by the enormous urban expansion of Cairo over the last decades. Documenting, monitoring and modelling such a pressure requires accurate and detailed geographic data, which can be derived from recent up-to-date, high resolution satellite images. Remote sensing techniques have proven to be very useful to visualize and analyze urban sprawl and land use changes in two dimensions. The impact assessment of urban sprawl near specific heritage sites, however; needs to be complemented with accurate 2.5D-information. In an attempt to do so, digital surface models (DSMs) from Ikonos-2 (2005) and GeoEye-1 stereoscopic images (2009 and 2011) have been computed in order to analyze recent urban changes. Change detection methods are mainly developed for large scale high resolution aerial images; however this paper focuses on the one hand DSM creation and its challenges resulting in an improvement of 2.5D change detection method for small scale satellite imagery in mainly informal areas. On the other hand a view shed evolution is presented. The combination of the enhanced digital terrain extraction (eATE) module of Erdas Imagine® and ground control points collected in the field provides accurate and high resolution DSMs. The impact of shadow and different urban morphologies however influence the pixel-wise comparison of the two DSMs, which results in different approaches for different city districts. The resulting 2.5D change model clarifies not only the urban sprawl, but also the increase in building levels, directly related to pressure on the famous pyramids. This pressure is furthermore analyzed by creating different view sheds through time from the plateau towards the city and vice versa. An integration of population statistics complements the model, hence allowing it to become a useful policy instrument
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