6,334 research outputs found

    The Spanish slug (Arion vulgaris) and organic mulching in allotment gardens - an unsuitable combination?

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    Trädgårdsbranschen i Sverige har under Covid-19 -pandemin bokstavligen blomstrat då intresset för odling har ökat avsevärt bland befolkningen. Det ökade intresset för odling och inköp av växtmaterial har dock möjliggjort en större spridning av mördarsnigeln (Arion vulgaris). Mördarsnigeln har under de senaste decennierna spridit sig som en löpeld i Sverige och kan åsamka stor skada i trädgårdar och odlingar. Täckodling är en odlingsmetod som är vanligt förekommande i grönsaksodlingar i exempelvis koloniområden. Mördarsnigeln trivs i fuktiga miljöer och det har gjorts observationer att snigeln trivs i täckodling. Uppsatsens intention var i första hand att undersöka om det finns ett samband mellan hög andel täckodling och problem med mördarsniglar i koloniområden. I andra hand, var syftet att undersöka vilka åtgärder som koloniföreningar kan tillämpa för att minska spridningen av mördarsnigeln. Undersökningen har använt sig av tre metoder i form av litteraturstudie om täckodling, mördarsnigeln och hållbar utveckling, en enkät som riktat sig till Koloniträdgårdsförbundets 230 medlemsföreningar samt en semistrukturerad intervju som riktat sig till tre rådgivare i trädgårdsbranschen. Resultatet visade på att det inte finns några belägg för att mördarsnigeln skulle vara ett större problem i en odling med täckodling jämfört med en odling utan täckodling. Det som också framkom i undersökningen var att samarbete för att bekämpa mördarsnigeln behövs för att täcka ett stort område och att det är en efterfrågan från kolonister att samarbeta tillsammans mot mördarsnigeln i koloniföreningen. För att kolonisterna ska kunna samarbeta tillsammans i koloniföreningen är det viktigt att styrelsen är tydlig och öppen med varför den kräver att kolonisten ska bekämpa mördarsnigeln. På så sätt skapas en grund för förståelse och kunskapshöjning som dessutom kan bidra till en ökad samhörighet och delaktighet för kolonisten när den får vara med i processen. Dessa är grundförutsättningarna för att kunna skapa en ekonomisk, ekologisk och socialt hållbar utveckling inom koloniföreningen.The gardening industry in Sweden has literally flourished during the Covid-19 pandemic as the interest in cultivation has increased significantly among the population. However, the increased interest in cultivation and purchase of plant material has also enabled a greater spread of the Spanish slug (Arion vulgaris). In recent decades, the Spanish slug has spread rapidly in Sweden and can cause great damage in gardens and cultivations. Organic mulching is a cultivation method that is commonly used in vegetable growing, for example in allotment gardens. The Spanish slug thrives in moist environments and observations have been made that the slug thrives in organic mulching. The intention of the project was primarily to investigate whether there is a connection between a high percentage of organic mulching and problems with Spanish slugs in allotment gardens. Secondly, the aim was to investigate what measures allotment associations can apply to reduce the spread of the Spanish slug. The investigation has used three methods in the form of a literature study on organic mulching, the Spanish slug and sustainable development, a survey aimed at the Allotment gardening federation's 230 member associations and a semi-structured interview with three advisors in the gardening sector. The results showed that there is no evidence that the Spanish slug would be a bigger problem in cultivation with organic mulching than in a cultivation without organic mulching. What also emerged from the survey was that cooperation to fight the Spanish slug is most needed to cover a large area and that there is a demand from allotment gardeners to cooperate together against the slug in the allotment association. In order for the allotment gardeners to be able to cooperate together in the allotment association and for it to lead to an economically, ecologically and socially sustainable development, it is important that the board is clear and open about why they require the allotment gardeners to follow the new rule of thumb regarding the Spanish slug. In this way, a basis for understanding and increasing knowledge is created which can also contribute to an increased sense of belonging and participation for the allotment gardeners when they are allowed to be part of the process

    Freshwater pulmonate snails and their potential role as trematode intermediate host in a cercarial dermatitis outbreak in Southern Thailand

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    This study aimed to investigate the pulmonate snail species in the vicinity of the cercarial dermatitis outbreak area in southern Thailand. In 2020, an outbreak of cercarial dermatitis was reported in Chana district, Songkhla Province, caused by the ruminant schistosome Schistosoma indicum and its snail intermediate host Indoplanorbis exustus. In the present study, 1,175 pulmonate snails were collected between October 2021 and October 2022 from five provinces covering 34 locations in southern Thailand. Seven pulmonate snail species were identified based on shell morphology, including Amerianna carinata, Gyraulus bakeri, G. convexiusculus, G. hubendicki, Physella acuta, Indoplanorbis exustus, and Radix rubiginosa. Among these snails, eight species, and five types of cercariae were identified, viz. type (i) Echinostome cercariae consisted of Echinoparyphium recurvatum, Echinostoma spiniferum, and E. revolutum, type (ii) Brevifurcate-apharyngeate cercariae consisted of Schistosoma indicum and S. spindale, type (iii) Brevifurcate-pharyngeate-clinostomatoid-cercariae was represented by Clinostomum giganticum, type (iv) Longifurcate‚Äďpharyngeate cercariae (strigea cercaria) was Diplostomum baeri eucaliae, and type (v) Ophthalmoxiphidiocercaria. Among the seven pulmonated snail species, three were found to be infected, viz. G. convexiusculus, I. exustus, and R. rubiginosa, with infection rates of 1.14% (2/176), 0.25% (2/802), and 4.02% (7/174), respectively

    ÔĽŅFive times over: 42 new Angustopila species highlight Southeast Asia's rich biodiversity (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora, Hypselostomatidae).

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    The Southeast Asian genus Angustopila, currently comprising 13 nominal species, encompasses the world's tiniest land snails. This work shows that there are far more species than previously suspected, and that this genus is in fact, a very speciose group of tiny snails widely distributed in Southeast Asia. Angustopila is revised based on type material of known species as well as 211 samples newly collected in China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. Altogether, 53 species and one subspecies are recognised, of which 42 species and subspecies are new to science: A.akrodon P√°ll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. nov., A.apiaria P√°ll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. nov., A.apiostoma P√°ll-Gergely & Vermeulen, sp. nov., A.apokritodon P√°ll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. nov., A.antidomedon P√°ll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. nov., A.babel P√°ll-Gergely & Vermeulen, sp. nov., A.bathyodon P√°ll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. nov., A.bidentata P√°ll-Gergely & Jochum, sp. nov., A.cavicola P√°ll-Gergely & Dumrongrojwattana, sp. nov., A.cicatricosa P√°ll-Gergely & Vermeulen, sp. nov., A.coprologosuninodus P√°ll-Gergely & Grego, ssp. nov., A.erawanica P√°ll-Gergely & Dumrongrojwattana, sp. nov., A.fratermajor P√°ll-Gergely & Vermeulen, sp. nov., A.fraterminor P√°ll-Gergely & Vermeulen, sp. nov., A.gracilis P√°ll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. nov., A.halongensis P√°ll-Gergely & Vermeulen, sp. nov., A.hyron P√°ll-Gergely & Vermeulen, sp. nov., A.maasseni P√°ll-Gergely & Vermeulen, sp. nov., A.majuscula P√°ll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. nov., A.margaritarion P√°ll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. nov., A.megastoma P√°ll-Gergely & Vermeulen, sp. nov., A.occidentalis P√°ll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. nov., A.oostoma P√°ll-Gergely & Vermeulen, sp. nov., A.papaver P√°ll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. nov., A.parallela P√°ll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. nov., A.prolixa P√°ll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. nov., A.pusilla P√°ll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. nov., A.pustulata P√°ll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. nov., A.quadridens P√°ll-Gergely & Vermeulen, sp. nov., A.rara P√°ll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. nov., A.reticulata P√°ll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. nov., A.somsaki P√°ll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. nov., A.steffeki P√°ll-Gergely & Grego, sp. nov., A.tetradon P√°ll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. nov., A.thersites P√°ll-Gergely & Vermeulen, sp. nov., A.tonkinospiroides P√°ll-Gergely & Vermeulen, sp. nov., A.tridentata P√°ll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. nov., A.tweediei P√°ll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. nov., A.uvula P√°ll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. nov., A.vandevenderi P√°ll-Gergely & Jochum, sp. nov., A.vitrina P√°ll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. nov., A.vomer P√°ll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. nov., A.werneri P√°ll-Gergely & Hunyadi, sp. nov. Angustopilasubelevata P√°ll-Gergely & Hunyadi, 2015 is moved to the synonymy of Angustopilaelevata (F. G. Thompson & Upatham, 1997), and A.singuladentis Inkhavilay & Panha, 2016 is a junior synonym of A.fabella P√°ll-Gergely & Hunyadi, 2015. Three species, namely A.elevata, A.fabella and A.szekeresi, are widespread over several hundred kilometres while some other species (A.huoyani, A.parallelasp. nov., A.cavicolasp. nov.) are known from just two sites a few hundred kilometres apart. All others are small range or single-site endemics. The reproductive anatomy of A.erawanicasp. nov. is described

    Invasion of farmland hedgerows by non-native small mammals is associated with lower soil surface invertebrate diversity, abundance, body size and biomass

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    Small mammals in farmland hedgerows feed on soil surface invertebrates with non-native invasive species potentially affecting prey species and populations. We investigated terrestrial invertebrates using pitfall traps and leaf litter samples across four zones of invasion in Ireland: (1) native species only (wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus and pygmy shrew Sorex minutus), (2) natives plus the non-native bank vole (Myodes glareolus), (3) natives plus the non-native greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) and (4) natives plus both. After accounting for regional and local environmental variation, small mammal invasion was associated with lower invertebrate species richness (9‚Äď39% lower than uninvaded zones), reduced abundance (18‚Äď56% lower), shorter arthropod body length (24‚Äď52% shorter) and lower arthropod biomass (63‚Äď89% lower). Negative effects were observed on a wide range of disparate functional groups spanning phytophagous, detritivorus, zoophagous and omnivorous taxa including: the Staphylinidae, Carabidae and Coleoptera larvae, Isopoda, Diplopoda, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Pulmonata and Acari. The greater white-toothed shrew had greater negative effects than the bank vole with presence of both having greater effects than either alone though the majority of their combined effects were largely attributable to the former. The bank vole may mitigate some of the negative effects of the greater white-toothed shrew on invertebrate abundance perhaps indicating of some form of trophic interaction. Predation of detritivores and large invertebrate predators may impact farmland ecosystem service delivery i.e. nutrient cycling and pest biocontrol. Hedgerow biodiversity loss may induce indirect trophic cascades negatively impacting other taxa including farmland birds.<br/

    ÔĽŅComparative phylogeography of two codistributed species of the genus Herichthys (Actinopterygii: Cichliformes: Cichlidae) in northeastern Mexico

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    Phylogeographic patterns of freshwater fishes in coastal regions are highly susceptible to eustatic sea level changes associated with Pleistocene glaciations. In this context, the Plain Coastal Gulf in northeastern Mexico represents an ideal study area due to its low elevation. Herein, we compare the phylogeographic structures of two cichlid species of the genus Herichthys Baird et Girard, 1854 widely distributed in the P√°nuco‚ÄďTames√≠ system in northeastern Mexico using two mitochondrial markers. The species studied were: Herichthys carpintis (Jordan et Snyder, 1899) and Herichthys pantostictus (Taylor et Miller, 1983). We estimate their genetic diversity, gene flow, and demographic history and perform biogeographic reconstructions using a Bayesian computation approach and environmental niche modeling. The biogeographic reconstruction suggests a different history for each species. Environmental niche modeling indicates that both species experienced a demographic expansion during the Pleistocene but responded differently to Pleistocene climatic changes. In summary, their current sympatric distribution could be the outcome of contemporary and not historical processes reflecting a pseudo-incongruent pattern

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    Evolution of Cd2+ and Cu+ binding in <i>Helix pomatia</i> metallothioneins

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    Metallothioneins (MTs) are small proteins present in all kingdoms of life. Their high cysteine content enables them to bind metal ions, such as Zn2+, Cd2+, and Cu+, providing means for detoxification and metal homeostasis. Three MT isoforms with distinct metal binding preferences are present in the Roman Snail Helix pomatia. Here, we use nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to follow the evolution of Cd2+ and Cu+ binding from the reconstructed ancestral Stylommatophora MT to the three H. pomatia MT (HpMT) isoforms. Information obtained from [15N,1H]-HSQC spectra and T2 relaxation times are combined to describe the conformational stability of the MT-metal complexes. A well-behaved MT-metal complex adopts a unique structure and does not undergo additional conformational exchange. The ancestor to all three HpMTs forms conformationally stable Cd2+ complexes and closely resembles the Cd2+-specific HpCdMT isoform, suggesting a role in Cd2+ detoxification for the ancestral protein. All Cu+-MT complexes, including the Cu+-specific HpCuMT isoform, undergo a considerable amount of conformational exchange. The unspecific HpCd/CuMT and the Cu+-specific HpCuMT isoforms form Cu+ complexes with comparable characteristics. It is possible to follow how Cd2+ and Cu+ binding changed throughout evolution. Interestingly, Cu+ binding improved independently in the lineages leading to the unspecific and the Cu+-specific HpMT isoforms. C-terminal domains are generally less capable of coordinating the non-cognate metal ion than N-terminal domains, indicating a higher level of specialization of the C-domain. Our findings provide new insights into snail MT evolution, helping to understand the interplay between biological function and structural features toward a comprehensive understanding of metal preference

    Notas sobre el conocimiento limnológico de los gasterópodos paranenses y sus relaciones tróficas. II Planorbidae, con aspectos distribucionales y sanitarios

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    The present remarks on the family Planorbidae constitute a further work o f a series of contributions tending to fumish an integrated overview of the Paraná river’s malacologic fauna, the knowledge of which is most limited, particularly conceming thetaxonomic, biological and limnological aspects. To this effect, the aim of this work is, as well, to give an idea of its energy transfer to fishes and of its importance. This is best observed in the planorbids of the genus Biomphalaria, not particularly because of the importance of such energy contribution, but due to the preying capacity, consumption pressure, and consequent population control performed by certain fishes on these gastropods, some of which species are vectors of schistosomiasis. The fact becomes especially relevant when a sustained advance of this parasitosis towards Argentinianwaters is being noticed; for this reason, thorough investigations of this problem are suggested so as to prevent (or at least reduce) this serious threat which has to be realistically assumed..The present remarks on the family Planorbidae constitute a further work o f a series of contributions tending to fumish an integrated overview of the Paraná river’s malacologic fauna, the knowledge of which is most limited, particularly conceming thetaxonomic, biological and limnological aspects. To this effect, the aim of this work is, as well, to give an idea of its energy transfer to fishes and of its importance. This is best observed in the planorbids of the genus Biomphalaria, not particularly because of the importance of such energy contribution, but due to the preying capacity, consumption pressure, and consequent population control performed by certain fishes on these gastropods, some of which species are vectors of schistosomiasis. The fact becomes especially relevant when a sustained advance of this parasitosis towards Argentinianwaters is being noticed; for this reason, thorough investigations of this problem are suggested so as to prevent (or at least reduce) this serious threat which has to be realistically assumed

    Investigating tricky nodes in the Tree of Life

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    Biogeographic analysis of the composition of the mammalian fauna of Togo (West Africa)

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    The Dahomey Gap in West Africa is a human-derived savannah-like vegetation zone interspersed by patches of moist forest, with large rainforest blocks at both West (Upper Guinean Forest) and East (Lower Guinean Forest) of its limits. Togo is a tiny country situated in the middle of the Dahomey Gap. In this paper, a biogeographic analysis of the composition of the mammalian fauna of Togo is presented, by classifying each species on the basis of five distinct ecological distribution patterns. The greatest proportion of species were Pan-African (88.0%). Excluding the Pan-African species from the analysis, the mammalian fauna appeared to be affiliated similarly to both Upper Guinean and Lower Guinean Forest blocks. Only three endemic species were observed, all of them being rodents: Cryptomys zechi (Batyergidae), Funisciurus substriatus (Sciuridae), and Leimacomys buettneri (Muridae). Considering only the multispecies genera, the great majority did not show any barrier effect by the Dahomey Gap on their own species, as all of them did occur on both sides of Togo. A barrier effect by the Dahomey Gap was uncovered in 8 genera; overall, the Dahomey Gap apparently showed a barrier effect on 28.6% of the multispecies genera. It is emphasized that the full understanding of the role of the Dahomey Gap as a biogeographic barrier and of its island forests as centers of endemism is impeded by the lack of biogeographic reviews and meta-analyses on the composition of faunal and floral groups of the entire region
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