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    Enrique Díez-Canedo: italian to spanish translator during the Silver Age. Historiographic contextualization

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    Enrique D√≠ez-Canedo fue una figura emblem√°tica del contexto cultural de la Edad de Plata. Si bien se qued√≥ siempre en segundo plano respecto a los grandes √©xitos de la √©poca, tuvo un papel clave en diferentes din√°micas que caracterizaron el panorama literario de las primeras d√©cadas del siglo XX a partir de las m√ļltiples profesiones que desempe√Ī√≥: poeta, cr√≠tico literario, traductor, docente. A lo largo de toda su vida ejerci√≥ una gran labor como traductor, que supera incluso la producci√≥n po√©tica por volumen, y hasta en √©poca reciente se siguieron publicando algunas de sus traducciones, cuyo valor y vigencia son indudables. Desde hace dos decenios, su faceta como traductor ha empezado a ser objeto de estudio y se ha investigado especialmente el rol de la lengua francesa e inglesa, y sus respectivas literaturas. El presente trabajo persigue arrojar luz sobre las traducciones del italiano realizadas por D√≠ez-Canedo dado que no existen estudios sistem√°ticos que aclaren el estrecho contacto del autor con este idioma. Se presentar√° un corpus constituido por cuarenta y cuatro poetas y sesenta y seis traducciones po√©ticas que abarcan ocho siglos de la literatura italiana. La investigaci√≥n se llev√≥ a cabo con el aporte indispensable de la prensa y las revistas digitalizadas de la Edad de Plata que ahora est√°n al alcance de todos gracias a algunas importantes hemerotecas digitales de Espa√Īa. El objetivo es brindar una descripci√≥n anal√≠tica del corpus que destacar√° el papel de D√≠ez-Canedo como difusor de la poes√≠a italiana en Espa√Īa, y una contextualizaci√≥n historiogr√°fica para explicar los criterios que le inspiraron en la selecci√≥n de autores y textos a lo largo de su actividad. En esta fase y antes de realizar un an√°lisis completo de esta porci√≥n tan importante de la obra del escritor, me limito a ofrecer, en la √ļltima parte del art√≠culo, unas observaciones sobre su manera de proceder en la traducci√≥n de tres breves textos que forman parte del corpus individualizado.Enrique D√≠ez-Canedo was an emblematic figure of the Silver Age cultural context in Spain. Although he remained obscured by the greatest successes of the age, he played a key role in different mechanisms which characterised the literary context in the first decades of the XX century by carrying out several professions: poet, literary critic, translator, professor. He dedicated himself to translation during his entire life realising a larger number of translations compared to his poems. Even in recent times some of his translations have been published because of the indubitable significance and validity. The studies of Enrique D√≠ez-Canedo as translator have started in the last two decades, especially research has been focused on the importance of French and English languages and literatures in his translation work. The present article is aimed at shedding light on D√≠ez-Canedo‚Äôs translations from Italian language since there are no systematic studies which clarify the connection between the author and the Italian language and literature. The object of study will be a corpus composed of forty-four Italian poets and sixty-six translations of poems covering eight centuries of Italian literature. The essay was carried out with the indispensable contribution of press and digitised journals of Silver Age that nowadays are accessible to all users thanks to important Spanish digital newspaper archives. The aim is to provide an analytic description of the corpus which highlights the important play of D√≠ez-Canedo in the circulation of Italian poetry in Spain, and a historiographic contextualisation in order to explain the criteria that inspired him in the selection of authors and texts throughout his activity. Pending a complete analysis of this important part of the writer‚Äôs oeuvre, I will limit myself to offering, in the last part of the article, a few observations on his way of proceeding in the translation of three short texts that form part of the corpus identified

    Effect of centre volume on pathological outcomes and postoperative complications after surgery for colorectal cancer: results of a multicentre national study

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    Background: The association between volume, complications and pathological outcomes is still under debate regarding colorectal cancer surgery. The aim of the study was to assess the association between centre volume and severe complications, mortality, less-than-radical oncologic surgery, and indications for neoadjuvant therapy.Methods: Retrospective analysis of 16,883 colorectal cancer cases from 80 centres (2018-2021). Outcomes: 30-day mortality; Clavien-Dindo grade >2 complications; removal of >= 12 lymph nodes; non-radical resection; neoadjuvant therapy. Quartiles of hospital volumes were classified as LOW, MEDIUM, HIGH, and VERY HIGH. Independent predictors, both overall and for rectal cancer, were evaluated using logistic regression including age, gender, AJCC stage and cancer site.Results: LOW-volume centres reported a higher rate of severe postoperative complications (OR 1.50, 95% c.i. 1.15-1.096, P = 0.003). The rate of >= 12 lymph nodes removed in LOW-volume (OR 0.68, 95% c.i. 0.56-0.85, P = 12 lymph nodes removed was lower in LOW-volume than in VERY HIGH-volume centres (OR 0.57, 95% c.i. 0.41-0.80, P = 0.001). A lower rate of neoadjuvant chemoradiation was associated with HIGH (OR 0.66, 95% c.i. 0.56-0.77, P < 0.001), MEDIUM (OR 0.75, 95% c.i. 0.60-0.92, P = 0.006), and LOW (OR 0.70, 95% c.i. 0.52-0.94, P = 0.019) volume centres (vs. VERY HIGH).Conclusion: Colorectal cancer surgery in low-volume centres is at higher risk of suboptimal management, poor postoperative outcomes, and less-than-adequate oncologic resections. Centralisation of rectal cancer cases should be taken into consideration to optimise the outcomes

    The Italian reception of Miguel de Unamuno, between criticism and translations

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    Este art√≠culo se propone considerar la continuidad de la presencia de la obra de Miguel de Unamuno en el panorama cultural italiano, desde la aparici√≥n de las primeras traducciones y rese√Īas sobre √©l hasta nuestros d√≠as, para investigar si se puede identificar una evoluci√≥n de las tendencias interpretativas alrededor de su obra. Debido al car√°cter heterog√©neo de los estudios italianos sobre el autor vasco, se ha adoptado un enfoque principalmente cronol√≥gico, para poder considerar, d√©cada tras d√©cada, qu√© sinton√≠as pueden haberse establecido o qu√© tipo de operaciones culturales pueden haberse llevado a cabo. Dividimos nuestra reconstrucci√≥n en tres etapas: (1) desde 1901 hasta la muerte de Unamuno, en 1936, per√≠odo en el que podemos apreciar una casi monol√≠tica apreciaci√≥n de su figura; (2) desde los a√Īos cuarenta hasta la d√©cada de los ochenta, fase caracterizada por un inicial reposo cr√≠tico y por la mayor posibilidad de contextualizaci√≥n hist√≥rico-literaria del conjunto de su obra, gracias tambi√©n a la institucionalizaci√≥n acad√©mica del hispanismo italiano; (3) desde los noventa hasta nuestros d√≠as, a√Īos en los que la recepci√≥n cr√≠tica de Unamuno ha sido marcada por una copiosa cantidad de estudios y traducciones que confirman la longue dur√©e de la presencia del autor vasco en las filas de los grandes escritores extranjeros.The aim of this article is to consider the continuity of the presence of the work of Miguel de Unamuno in the Italian cultural system, from the appearance of the first translations and articles on him until today, to investigate whether it is possible to reconstruct an evolution of the interpretive tendencies. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the Italian contributions on the Basque author, a mainly chronological approach has been adopted to consider, decade after decade, what convergences may have been established or what kind of cultural operations may have been carried out. We divide our reconstruction into three stages: (1) from 1901 until Unamuno‚Äôs death in 1936, a period in which we can appreciate an almost monolithic appreciation of his figure; (2) from the 1940s to the 1980s, a phase characterized by an initial critical rest and by the greater possibility of historical-literary contextualization of his work as a whole, thanks also to the academic institutionalization of Italian Hispanism; (3) from the 90s to the present day, years in which Unamuno‚Äôs critical reception has been marked by a copious amount of studies and translations that confirm the longue dur√©e of the author‚Äôs presence in the ranks of the great foreign writers

    Miguel Delibes and Italy: nearness and distance

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    Se analiza la relaci√≥n de Miguel Delibes (1920-2010) con Italia desde una perspectiva doble: en la primera parte se considera de qu√© forma y qu√© aspectos culturales y literarios del pa√≠s conoci√≥ y apreci√≥ el autor ‚Äďdurante viajes y estancias emprendidos desde 1956 hasta 1985 por motivos profesionales‚Äď, mientras que en la segunda se examina la recepci√≥n de la obra delibeana por parte de los intelectuales italianos (sobre todo, acad√©micos) a trav√©s de los ensayos y de las traducciones publicados desde finales de los cincuenta del siglo XX hasta hoy. Las huellas principales que el contacto con Italia dej√≥ en la producci√≥n delibeana consisten en las ocho estampas dedicadas a varias ciudades italianas, recogidas en el libro de viajes Europa, parada y fonda (1963); un interesante conjunto de rese√Īas (1948-1957), donde el vallisoletano expresa su pasi√≥n por el cine neorrealista; un breve y tard√≠o texto sobre Alberto Moravia (1990) y la cita de Cesare Pavese en un trabajo de 2004. El balance, bastante decepcionante, se debe al hecho de que el reflexivo e introvertido Delibes qued√≥ al margen de los ambientes de mayor intercambio art√≠stico entre Italia y Espa√Īa en su √©poca: las ferias de libros, las tertulias y los premios literarios. Probablemente fueron razones ideol√≥gicas ‚Äďvinculadas con la permanencia del escritor en Espa√Īa durante el franquismo, a pesar de su velada oposici√≥n al r√©gimen, que le proporcion√≥ muchos problemas con la censura‚Äď las que provocaron un desierto cr√≠tico en Italia con respecto a su narrativa hasta por lo menos los a√Īos sesenta. De hecho, los estudios italianos sobre Delibes y las versiones de algunos de sus cuentos y novelas, realizados en especial por docentes universitarios (empezando por Giuseppe Bellini), se han desarrollado en los √ļltimos cuarenta a√Īos: sobre ellos versan las p√°ginas finales, donde se abriga la esperanza de que un cl√°sico contempor√°neo como Delibes despierte m√°s atenci√≥n cr√≠tica en Italia en un futuro pr√≥ximo.The essay analyzes Miguel Delibes‚Äô (1920-2010) relationship with Italy on a double level: the first part considers how Delibes knew and appreciated the country and what cultural and literary aspects he liked most, during the trips and the stays which he carried out from 1956 to 1985 for professional reasons. The second part examines the reception of Delibes‚Äô work by Italian intellectuals (above all, scholars), by reviewing the essays and the translations published from the end of the 1950s to nowadays. The main traces that the contact with Italy left in Delibes‚Äô production are eight articles describing several Italian cities, collected in his travel book Europa, parada y fonda (1963); an interesting series of reviews (1948-1957) where the writer expresses his passion for neorealist cinema; a brief and late text on Alberto Moravia (1990) and the mention of Cesare Pavese in an article of 2004. The result, fairly disappointing, is due to the fact that a man like Delibes, so thoughtful and introverted, kept himself apart from the places where Italian and Spanish cultures came into contact in that period: i.e. book fairs, artists‚Äô circles and literary prizes. Delibes remained in Spain during Franco‚Äôs dictatorship, even though he had to face many problems with censorship because of his subtle opposition against the regime: therefore, maybe ideological reasons caused a critical desert towards his work in Italy, at least until the Sixties. In fact, the Italian studies about Delibes and the translations of some of his novels and tales have been conducted mainly by scholars (starting from Giuseppe Bellini), and have developed over the last forty years, as the final pages of this essay demonstrate, while hoping that a contemporary classic like Delibes will raise more critical attention in the next future

    ¬ęEl juego de hacer versos¬Ľ: coves in the dissemination of spanish poetry in Italy from the pages of the magazine Poesia

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    Partiendo de los evocadores versos de Gil de Biedma, en el presente art√≠culo se aborda el tema de la recepci√≥n de la poes√≠a hisp√°nica en Italia, analizando las din√°micas de su difusi√≥n en nuestro pa√≠s a partir de los a√Īos ochenta y hasta hoy, a trav√©s de las p√°ginas de la popular revista mensual Poesia (del editor Nicola Crocetti), publicaci√≥n peri√≥dica que desde 1988 sigue divulgando la escritura po√©tica y difundiendo las voces del panorama literario mundial entre los lectores italianos. El objetivo es ofrecer una primera catalogaci√≥n de los textos y las referencias a la poes√≠a de √°mbito hisp√°nico (sobre todo espa√Īol) incluidos en el conocido peri√≥dico italiano, a fin de esbozar una reflexi√≥n sobre la tipolog√≠a de autores y textos seleccionados y su recepci√≥n. En las p√°ginas de Poesia, el lector italiano puede leer traducciones y versiones originales de escritores espa√Īoles de diferentes √©pocas y estilos: as√≠, al lado de autores cl√°sicos como G√≥ngora (traducido por importantes poetas italianos contempor√°neos) o San Juan de la Cruz, encontramos a los m√°s relevantes escritores de las generaciones del 27 y del 50, as√≠ como textos po√©ticos de la literatura espa√Īola m√°s actual.Taking Gil de Biedma‚Äôs evocative verses as a starting point, we would like to tackle the subject of the reception of Hispanic poetry in Italy, analysing the dynamics of its dissemination in our country from the 1980s to the present day, through the pages of the popular monthly magazine Poesia (by the publisher Nicola Crocetti), which since 1988 has continued to disseminate poetic writing and to spread the voices of the world literary scene among Italian readers. The aim is to offer an initial cataloguing of the texts and references to poetry from the Spanish-speaking world (especially Spanish) included in the well-known Italian periodical, attempting to outline a reflection on the typology of the authors and texts selected and their reception. In the pages of Poesia, the Italian reader can read translations and original versions of Spanish writers from different periods and styles: thus, alongside classic authors such as G√≥ngora (translated by important contemporary Italian poets) or San Juan de la Cruz, we find the most relevant writers of the generations of ‚Äė27 and ‚Äė50, as well as poetic texts of the most current Spanish literature

    Perspectivas: a experimentação da flexibilidade na utilização dos gêneros documentais

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    This is the descriptive memorial of the experimental project ‚ÄúPerspectives: The experimentation of flexibility in the use of documentary genres‚ÄĚ, intending to detail the stages of production about the experimentation of the use of more than one format of the documentary genre in each episode belonging to a documentary miniseries. Moving from the studied work on documentary formats, the choice of theme, the definition of characters, script production, and subsequent processes to the final product. The experiment carried out for the completion of the Radio, TV, and Internet course at the Federal University of Juiz de Fora, explores the possibilities of using two documentary formats divided into three episodes, approaching stages of the same theme, following the definitions of authors within the documentary world. This choice occurred after descriptions about the use of characteristics of a format within another format, but that there is always a dominant genre. Thus, the pointed object explores the use of two formats as dominant, and the ways of approaching the chosen theme. With the work, the objective goes beyond the use of documentary formats, but also the approach to the theme of life and death and the existing stages between these two parallels connected by a thin line in each individual, and the taboos present and standardized in society regarding the subject.Este √© o memorial descritivo do projeto experimental ‚ÄúPerspectivas: A experimenta√ß√£o da flexibilidade na utiliza√ß√£o dos g√™neros documentais‚ÄĚ, com o objetivo de detalhar as etapas da produ√ß√£o em rela√ß√£o a experimenta√ß√£o do uso de mais de um formato do g√™nero document√°rio em cada epis√≥dio pertencente a uma miniss√©rie documental. Passando desde o trabalho estudado sobre os formatos documentais, a escolha do tema, a defini√ß√£o dos personagens, produ√ß√£o do roteiro e processos seguintes at√© o produto final. O experimento, feito para a conclus√£o do curso de R√°dio, TV e Internet da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, explora as possibilidades na utiliza√ß√£o de dois formatos de document√°rio dividido em tr√™s epis√≥dios, abordando etapas do mesmo tema, seguindo as defini√ß√Ķes de autores dentro do mundo documental. Essa escolha ocorreu ap√≥s descri√ß√Ķes sobre o uso de caracter√≠sticas de um formato dentro de outro formato, mas que sempre h√° um g√™nero dominante. Assim, o objeto apontado explora a utiliza√ß√£o de dois formatos como dominante, e as maneiras de abordar o tema escolhido. Com o trabalho, o objetivo vai al√©m do uso dos formatos documentais, mas tamb√©m a abordagem sobre o tema vida e morte e as etapas existentes entre esses dois paralelos ligados por uma linha t√™nue em cada indiv√≠duo, e os tabus presentes e padronizados na sociedade em rela√ß√£o ao assunto

    The Manuscript Dissemination of Descartes’s Traité de l’homme and its Newly Discovered Translation

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    In this article I provide a reconstruction of the dissemination of the handwritten copies of Ren√© Descartes‚Äôs TraiteŐĀ de l‚Äôhomme up to the appearance of its first printed editions in 1662 and 1664. By disclosing unexplored sources and figures, I discuss a number of manuscripts (all but one now lost), shedding light, in particular, on the role of Elisabeth of Bohemia, Henricus Regius, Johannes de Raey and Aernout Huyberts in the dissemination and use of the treatise, and on the inedited, handwritten translation of the treatise recently brought to the attention of scholars (ms. ATH 1444)
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