13,474 research outputs found

    Alʔilbīrī’s Book of the rational conclusions. Introduction, Critical Edition of the Arabic Text and Materials for the History of the Ḫawāṣṣic Genre in Early Andalus

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    [eng] The Book of the rational conclusions, written perhaps somewhen in the 10th c. by a physician from Ilbīrah (Andalus), is a multi-section medical pandect. The author brings together, from a diversity of sources, materials dealing with matters related to drug-handling, natural philosophy, therapeutics, medical applications of the specific properties of things, a regimen, and a dispensatory. This dissertation includes three different parts. First the transmission of the text, its contents, and its possible context are discussed. Then a critical edition of the Arabic text is offered. Last, but certainly not least, the subject of the specific properties is approached from several points of view. The analysis of Section III of the original book leads to an exploration of the early Andalusī assimilation of this epistemic tradition and to the establishment of a well-defined textual family in which our text must be inscribed. On the other hand, the concept itself of ‘specific property’ is often misconstrued and it is usually made synonymous to magic and superstition. Upon closer inspection, however, the alleged irrationality of the knowledge of these properties appears to be largely the result of anachronistic interpretation. As a complement of this particular research and as an illustration of the genre, a sample from an ongoing integral commentary on this section of the book is presented.[cat] El Llibre de les conclusions racionals d’un desconegut metge d’Ilbīrah (l’Àndalus) va ser compilat probablement durant la segona meitat del s. X. Es tracta d’un rudimentari però notablement complet kunnaix (un gènere epistèmic que és definit sovint com a ‘enciclopèdia mèdica’) en què l’autor aplega materials manllevats (sovint de manera literal i no-explícita) de diversos gèneres. El llibre obre amb una secció sobre apoteconomia (una mena de manual d’apotecaris) però se centra després en les diferents branques de la medicina. A continuació d’uns prolegòmens filosòfics l’autor copia, amb mínima adaptació lingüística, un tractat sencer de terapèutica, després un altre sobre les aplicacions mèdiques de les propietats específiques de les coses, una sèrie de fragments relacionats amb la dietètica (un règim en termes tradicionals) i, finalment, una col·lecció de receptes mèdiques. Cadascuna d’aquestes seccions mostren evidents lligams d’intertextualitat que apunten cap a una intensa activitat sintetitzadora de diverses tradicions aliades a la medicina a l’Àndalus califal. El text és, de fet, un magnífic objecte sobre el qual aplicar la metodologia de la crítica textual i de fonts. L’edició crítica del text incorpora la dimensió cronològica dins l’aparat, que esdevé així un element contextualitzador. Quant l’estudi de les fonts, si tot al llarg de la primera part d’aquesta tesi és només secundari, aquesta disciplina pren un protagonisme gairebé absolut en la tercera part, especialment en el capítol dedicat a l’anàlisi individual de cada passatge recollit en la secció sobre les propietats específiques de les coses

    The Characterisation of Jesus the Davidic Shepherd in Mark’s Gospel: a narrative analysis through the lens of Metalepsis

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    While commentators widely acknowledge the importance of the role of the shepherd image in portraying the God of Israel, the earthly leadership and Jesus in the Hebrew Bible (HB) and the New Testament (NT), the two appearances of the images in Mark’s Gospel (6:34; 14:27) may appear to be of limited significance in portraying Jesus and his ministry, compared with the use of the Son of Man. While Mark’s use of the shepherd images has been the subject of scholarly debate, there is not yet a thorough analysis fully acknowledging the literary qualities of these images, which are intertextual references to the HB and figures of speech for narrative characterisation. Previous intertextual studies of the shepherd images selectively reduce the original literary backgrounds of the references to static themes without clarifying the selection process. Other examinations explore how the images portray Mark’s Jesus. However, those analyses inadequately consider the connections between the portrayal of Jesus as the Davidic shepherd and the other portraits of Jesus and the relevance between the two shepherd images along the plotline. By adopting a narrative-critical approach using Genette’s conception of narrative metalepsis, this thesis offers insights into the significance of Mark’s use of the shepherd images. It illuminates how the original literary background of the shepherd images functions to characterise Jesus and other characters along the plotline and create rhetorical impacts on Mark’s implied readers, persuading them to acknowledge the shepherding work of Jesus and the nature of being his disciples. Chapter 1 surveys the issues related to Mark’s shepherd image and reviews the secondary literature on the topic. Chapter 2 establishes a narrative-critical method for the thesis. By defining a specific implied reader, the methodology offers a theoretical framework for approaching the two shepherd images in Mark’s narrative as intertextual references and 2 figures of speech. Chapter 3 conducts an exegetical examination of the events surrounding the shepherd images in Ezekiel 34 and in Zech 13:7–9. This examination demonstrates how these events are relevant to the shepherd images and their significance in their original literary contexts. Chapter 4 studies the plot development of Mark 1:1–6:6 and explores how Mark’s narrator portrays Jesus and other characters, preparing the implied readers to receive the shepherd images. Before the concluding chapter summarises the present research, chapters 5 and 6 investigate the stories of Jesus feeding the five thousand (6:30–44) and Jesus’ prediction of Peter’s denial (14:26–31), which contain the two shepherd images in Mark’s narrative. Through the lens of narrative metalepsis, the analysis explains how the images characterise Jesus and other characters in the immediate context. These chapters also demonstrate how the portrayal of Jesus the Davidic shepherd connects to other portraits in the broader context of Mark’s narrative, creating rhetorical impacts on the implied readers. The metaleptic understanding of the shepherd images in Mark’s narrative highlights their profound significance in contrast to previous studies in several ways. First, Jesus is characterised as the Davidic shepherd appointed to fulfil God’s radical restoration with his death. The renewed community will enjoy the abundance of God and live a life of purity under Jesus’ shepherding ministry. Second, the Jewish religious leaders are portrayed as incorrigibly corrupted and deserving of God’s punishment. Lastly, the disciples appear to be both the insiders and outsiders in God’s kingdom. Their desertion of Jesus after he is arrested is to be understood as part of God’s refining and testing of them, demanding a response. Will they decide to follow Jesus the Davidic shepherd who will radically restore the covenantal relationship, or will they become outsiders in the kingdom of God

    Gabriel Harvey and the History of Reading: Essays by Lisa Jardine and others

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    Few articles in the humanities have had the impact of Lisa Jardine and Anthony Grafton’s seminal ‘Studied for Action’ (1990), a study of the reading practices of Elizabethan polymath and prolific annotator Gabriel Harvey. Their excavation of the setting, methods and ambitions of Harvey’s encounters with his books ignited the History of Reading, an interdisciplinary field which quickly became one of the most exciting corners of the scholarly cosmos. A generation inspired by the model of Harvey fanned out across the world’s libraries and archives, seeking to reveal the many creative, unexpected and curious ways that individuals throughout history responded to texts, and how these interpretations in turn illuminate past worlds. Three decades on, Harvey’s example and Jardine’s work remain central to cutting-edge scholarship in the History of Reading. By uniting ‘Studied for Action’ with published and unpublished studies on Harvey by Jardine, Grafton and the scholars they have influenced, this collection provides a unique lens on the place of marginalia in textual, intellectual and cultural history. The chapters capture subsequent work on Harvey and map the fields opened by Jardine and Grafton’s original article, collectively offering a posthumous tribute to Lisa Jardine and an authoritative overview of the History of Reading

    Upsetting an Upside-Down World: Bruno's Reassessment of Aristotelian Infinity

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    Between 1584 and 1585, during his stay in London, Bruno published six dialogues in Italian in which he expounded the bulk of his philosophy in a unitary way. Scholars unanimously agree that these six installments can be divided thematically into two distinct parts: the first three present the new cosmology and its ontological and theological principles, while the last three deal with the moral, political, and ethical consequences that follow from the former. Thus, the third dialogue, On the Infinite, is the bridge where the passage from the cosmological to the moral sphere takes place. The dialogue presents itself as an open refutation of the Aristotelian finite cosmos. In it, Bruno argues that Aristotle's main error lies in his rejection of the infinity of the universe. However, if we pay attention to the causes that Bruno deems to motivate such rejection, we will see that these ultimately coincide with the cognitive biases that lead to the assumption of moral universalism. This paper aims to prove that, contrary to the established belief, Bruno's critique of morality is not a consequence of his cosmological view but rather that the latter derives from the former. That will cast new light on Bruno's criticism of Aristotle's moralized infinity and provide us with a firm criterion for interpreting some of the more idiosyncratic aspects of his cosmology

    Milton's Hellenism

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    This thesis investigates the Hellenism of the English poet John Milton from his student writings at Cambridge through to Paradise Lost. It explores Milton’s engagement with classical, Hellenistic, Byzantine, and Early Modern Greek texts and it considers Milton’s reading of Greek scholarship and interactions with Greek scholars and Hellenic scholarship. Chapter 1, ‘Milton’s Cambridge Greek’, consists of two sections: ‘Protestant Hellenism at Milton’s Cambridge: A Case Study of James Duport’s Greek Paraphrase of the Book of Job, Threnothriambos (1637)’ and ‘Greek and the “Lady of Christ’s College”: Latin–Greek Code-Switching in Milton ‘Prolusion VI’’. Chapter 2, ‘Milton Among the Hellenists in England and Italy’ considers the role that Greek played in Milton’s correspondence and poetic exchanges with Charles Diodati and Lucas Holstenius; it also considers the nature of Milton’s own Hellenic research at libraries in Rome and Florence during his travels in Italy from 1638–39. Chapter 3 considers the political and polemical roles that Greek texts played for Milton from the mid-1640s to 1660 and consists of three sections: ‘Marshall’s Ignorant Hand: Milton’s Greek Epigram and the 1645 Poems Frontispiece and the First Edition of Langbaine’s Longinus (1636)’; ‘O Soul of Sir John Cheek: Milton and the Legacy of Sixteenth-Century Greek Humanism’; and ‘John Milton, Leonard Philaras, and Early Modern Advocacy for Greece’s Liberation from the Ottoman Empire’. The final, fourth chapter explores the influence of Greek texts—ranging from the Homeric epics and the fragmentary Epic Cycle through to Byzantine and Early Modern Greek texts—upon Milton’s design of Books 1 and 2 of Paradise Lost

    Displacement and the Humanities: Manifestos from the Ancient to the Present

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    This is the final version. Available on open access from MDPI via the DOI in this recordThis is a reprint of articles from the Special Issue published online in the open access journal Humanities (ISSN 2076-0787) (available at: https://www.mdpi.com/journal/humanities/special_issues/Manifestos Ancient Present)This volume brings together the work of practitioners, communities, artists and other researchers from multiple disciplines. Seeking to provoke a discourse around displacement within and beyond the field of Humanities, it positions historical cases and debates, some reaching into the ancient past, within diverse geo-chronological contexts and current world urgencies. In adopting an innovative dialogic structure, between practitioners on the ground - from architects and urban planners to artists - and academics working across subject areas, the volume is a proposition to: remap priorities for current research agendas; open up disciplines, critically analysing their approaches; address the socio-political responsibilities that we have as scholars and practitioners; and provide an alternative site of discourse for contemporary concerns about displacement. Ultimately, this volume aims to provoke future work and collaborations - hence, manifestos - not only in the historical and literary fields, but wider research concerned with human mobility and the challenges confronting people who are out of place of rights, protection and belonging


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    أواني الريتون ما بين الفارسي واليوناني من خلال مقبرة بيتوزيريس بتونا الجبل دراسة تحليلية مقارنة [AR] يعد إناء الريتون من الأواني الهامة التي اسُتخدمت في الاحتفالات والطقوس الدينية كأواني لشرب الماء أو الخمر. ويرجع ظهورها إلي الربع الأخير من القرن الرابع قبل الميلاد في بلاد اليونان حيث يذكر المؤرخ هيرودوت أن اليونانيين عثروا عقب الحروب الفارسية علي كثير من مقتنيات المعسكر الفارسي والتي كانت من بينها أواني الريتون. وتنقسم أواني الريتون من حيث الشكل إلي ثلاثة أنواع: يتمثل النوع الأول في إناء الريتون المنحني ويكون فيه الإناء ذو قاعدة تُمثل الجزء السفلي من الإناء يعلوها رأس الحيوان التي تُمثل الجزء الأكبر من حجم الإناء أما الجزء العلوي، فيُمثل فوهة الإناء، بينما النوع الثاني هو إناء الريتون ذو قرن الحيوان "البوق" حيث يتخذ الإناء الشكل المخروطي. ويتكون من جزئيين الجزء العلوي يتمثل في فوهة وبدن الإناء، والجزء السفلي يتمثل في قرني ورأس الحيوان، أما النوع الثالث فيتمثل في إناء الريتون بهيئة رأس حيوان. وفي هذا النوع يتمثل الإناء في شكل قطعة واحدة فقط تتمثل في رأس الحيوان. و تناولت الدراسة وصف وتحليل مناظر تصوير إناء الريتون بمقبرة بيتوزيريس بتونا الجبل، متبعًا المنهج الوصفي والمقارن والتحليلي. خاتمًا الدراسة بالنتائج التي تضمنتها والتي كانت من بينها أمر ترجيح تأريخ مقبرة بيتوزيريس بناءً علي تصوير هذه الأواني بها إلي الفترة ما بين (517-460 ق.م)، أي من نهاية العصر الصاوي وحتي بداية العصر الفارسي الأول (العصر الأخميني). [EN] The Rhyton vessel is a drinking vessel used for ceremonial purposes. The significant Rhyton vessel is depicted on Petosiris’ tomb at Tuna El Jebel. This type of vessel became popular in Greece since the last quarter of the fourth century BC, after the Persian wars. Most of it was made of pottery rather than metal. According to the historian Herodotus, the Greeks captured many of the Persian camp's possessions after their victories, including the Rhyton vessels, a pottery vessel that had not before been used in Greece. Therefore, Persia could be where it first appeared. The Rhyton vessel comes in three different shapes; The first form is the curved Rhyton: This form of Rhyton vessel has a base that represents the lower part of the pot, ends in the forepart by an animal’s head, which represents the largest part of the pot, and an upper part represents its top. The second form is the horned Rhyton; This form of Rhyton vessels takes a conical shape, consisting of two parts. The upper part represents the mouth and body of the pot, while the horns and head of the animal represent the lower part since it resembles the trumpet instrument used in the horn. It was sometimes referred to as the «trumpet» instead of just the animal's horn. The Third Form is the Rhyton which is in the form of an animal head. Moreover, the third form is the Rhyton in the form of an animal head. This Rhyton vessel only consists of one piece represented by the animal's head. It was primarily used as a vessel for funeral rites and began to be produced during the first quarter of the fourth century AD. This paper describes and analyzes its depictions in the tomb of Petosiris in Tuna El Jebel. In order to complete the study, descriptive, comparative and analytic research methodologies are use

    The Rise of the Egyptian Priestly Synods during the Ptolemaic Era

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    This article examines the issues on the emergence of the Egyptian priestly synods known through the trilingual decrees. They were an important innovation in the Ptolemaic era. Their origin is of particular interest. Here, the early history of the synods is analyzed. The following questions are answered: When were the synods established? Who started convening them? And why was this institution founded? Based on the results obtained, a number of conclusions are drawn. Firstly, the synods were introduced during the reign of Ptolemy III, and the earlier assemblies under Ptolemy II should be viewed as their prototypes. Secondly, the synods were arranged and controlled by the king, even if the decrees stated otherwise. Thirdly, the synods were needed to strengthen support for the priesthood in the early reign of Ptolemy III when there was a major uprising during the Third Syrian War. Thus, it was a major tool for boosting the king’s legitimacy and securing the loyalty of the Egyptian priesthood