2,030 research outputs found

    Breeding Melons for Resistance to Viral and Fungal Diseases. Exploiting the Multi-Resistant Accession TGR-1551

    Full text link
    [ES] Las cucurbitáceas son la segunda familia de hortícolas más importante a nivel mundial, solo por detrás de las solanáceas. Tradicionalmente su cultivo se ha llevado a cabo en las zonas templadas del planeta. Sin embargo, las condiciones de cambio climático, el comercio internacional y los modelos de agricultura intensiva favorecen la aparición de nuevas virosis y enfermedades fúngicas en zonas donde antes no estaban presentes. En este sentido, resulta esencial el monitoreo periódico de las principales zonas productoras, para así poder detectar los virus y hongos emergentes en cada territorio y adaptar los programas de mejora a los objetivos específicos de cada zona. En el caso concreto del melón (Cucumis melo) existe una gran variabilidad intraespecífica que puede servir como fuente de alelos de resistencia frente a estos patógenos. Sin embargo, las fuentes de resistencia suelen encontrarse dentro del germoplasma silvestre, normalmente originario de África o Asia, y en el que el nivel de domesticación es reducido. Para un mejor aprovechamiento de las accesiones resistentes, resulta necesario un estudio del control genético de los caracteres de interés, que permita localizar las regiones asociadas a la resistencia y diseñar marcadores moleculares asociadas a las mismas. Esto facilita los programas de mejora orientados a la introgresión de las resistencias manteniendo el fondo genético de las variedades de interés En la presente tesis doctoral, durante las campañas de verano de 2019 y 2020, se ha llevado a cabo un estudio de la incidencia y diversidad genética de 9 especies virales potencialmente limitantes para el cultivo de cucurbitáceas en el sur este español. Se ha podido observar que los virus transmitidos por pulgones son prevalentes frente a los transmitidos por mosca blanca. Dentro del primer grupo destacó la presencia de watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), cucurbits aphid borne yellows virus (CABYV) y cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), ya que fueron detectados en todas las zonas y cultivos estudiados, apareciendo frecuentemente en infecciones mixtas. Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (MWMV) y tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) también fueron detectados en algunas zonas, pero con porcentajes de infección más bajos y normalmente en infecciones mixtas con WMV. Los análisis filogenéticos de los distintos aislados encontrados ha permitido la identificación de 7 nuevos perfiles moleculares de WMV y de aislados recombinantes de CMV, lo que es consistente con los resultados obtenidos en otros países y pone de manifiesto la gran variabilidad de estos patógenos. Las accesiones silvestres de melón recogidas en distintos bancos de germoplasma son un valioso recurso para los programas de mejora genética frente a estreses bióticos. La accesión africana TGR-1551 ha sido descrita previamente como resistente a WMV, CYSDV (cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus), CABYV y el hongo Podosphaera xanthii (Px, razas 1, 2 y 5) agente causal del oídio en melón. Además, es tolerante a la mosca blanca (Bemisia tabaci) y portadora del gen Vat (virus aphid transmission), el cual limita la transmisión de virus por pulgón. Por lo tanto, esta accesión constituye una buena fuente de alelos de resistencia y, al poder utilizar un único parental donante, su uso acortaría los programas de mejora. En el marco de la presente tesis doctoral, mediante el desarrollo de poblaciones segregantes de mapeo y el aprovechamiento de las tecnologías de genotipado masivo se han podido cartografiar los QTLs asociados a la resistencia a CYSDV derivados de esta entrada. En el caso de la resistencia a CYSDV, se han detectado dos QTL en el cromosoma 5. El primero de ellos es de efecto mayor y herencia dominante, estando asociado al desarrollo de síntomas. El segundo QTL, de efecto menor y también de herencia dominante, no confiere resistencia por sí mismo y está asociado a la carga viral durante la infección. Siguiendo una estrategia similar se han podido cartografiar y estrecha[CA] Les cucurbitàcies són la segona família d'hortícoles més important a nivell mundial, només per darrere de les solanàcies. Tradicionalment el seu cultiu s'ha dut a terme a les zones temperades del planeta. No obstant això, les condicions de canvi climàtic, el comerç internacional i els models d'agricultura intensiva afavoreixen l'aparició de noves virosis i malalties fúngiques en zones on abans no estaven presents. En aquest sentit, resulta essencial el monitoratge periòdic de les principals zones productores, per a d'aquesta manera, poder detectar els virus i fongs emergents en cada territori i adaptar els programes de millora als objectius específics de cada zona. En el cas concret del meló (Cucumis melo) existeix una gran variabilitat intraespecífica que pot servir com a font d'al·lels de resistència enfront d'aquests patògens. No obstant això, les fonts de resistència solen trobar-se dins del germoplasma silvestre, normalment originari d'Àfrica o Àsia, i en el qual el nivell de domesticació és reduït. Per a un millor aprofitament de les accessions resistents, resulta necessari un estudi del control genètic dels caràcters d'interés, que permeta localitzar les regions associades a la resistència i dissenyar marcadors moleculars associats a aquestes. Això facilita els programes de millora orientats a la introgressió de les resistències mantenint el fons genètic de les varietats d'interés. En la present tesi doctoral, durant les campanyes d'estiu de 2019 i 2020, s'ha dut a terme un estudi de la incidència i diversitat genètica de nou espècies virals potencialment limitants per al cultiu de cucurbitàcies en el sud-est espanyol. S'ha pogut observar que els virus transmesos per pugons són prevalents enfront dels transmesos per mosca blanca. Dins del primer grup va destacar la presència de watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), cucurbits aphid born yellows virus (CABYV) i cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), ja que van ser detectats en totes les zones i cultius estudiats, apareixent sovint en infeccions mixtes. Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (MWMV) i tomatoleaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) també van ser detectats en algunes zones, però amb percentatges d'infecció més baixos i normalment en infeccions mixtes amb WMV. Les anàlisis filogenètiques dels diferents aïllats trobats ha permés la identificació de set nous perfils moleculars de WMV i d'aïllats recombinants de CMV, la qual cosa és consistent amb els resultats obtinguts en altres països i posa de manifest la gran variabilitat d'aquests patògens. Les accessions silvestres de meló recollides en diferents bancs de germoplasma són un valuós recurs per als programes de millora genètica enfront d'estressos biòtics. L'accessió africana *TGR-1551 ha sigut descrita prèviament com a resistent a WMV, CYSDV (cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus), CABYV i el fong Podosphaera xanthii (Px, races 1, 2 i 5) agent causal de l'oïdi en meló. A més, és tolerant a la mosca blanca (Bemisia tabaci) i portadora del gen Vat (virus aphid transmission), el qual limita la transmissió de virus per pugó. Per tant, aquesta accessió constitueix una bona font d'al·lels de resistència i, en poder utilitzar un únic parental donant, el seu ús acurtaria els programes de millora. En el marc de la present tesi doctoral, mitjançant el desenvolupament de poblacions segregants de mapatge i l'aprofitament de les tecnologies de genotipat massiu s'ha pogut cartografiar els QTLs associats a la resistència a CYSDV derivats d'aquesta entrada. En el cas de la resistència a CYSDV, s'han detectat dues QTL en el cromosoma cinc. El primer d'ells és d'efecte major i herència dominant, estant associat al desenvolupament de símptomes. El segon QTL, d'efecte menor i també d'herència dominant, no confereix resistència per si mateix i està associat a la càrrega viral durant la infecció. Seguint una estratègia similar s'han pogut cartografiar i estrényer els *QTLs de resistència enfront de Px. En aquest cas es tracta d'una epistàsia dominant-re[EN] Cucurbits represent the second most important horticultural family worldwide, second only the Solanaceae family. Traditionally, their cultivation has been concentrated in temperate regions across the globe. However, climate change conditions, international trade, and intensive agricultural practices are contributing to the emergence of new viral and fungal diseases in regions where they were previously absent. In this regard, it is crucial to regularly monitor major production areas to detect emerging viruses and fungi specific to each region. This monitoring allows for the adaptation of breeding programs to the unique goals of each area. In the case of melon (Cucumis melo), it exists significant intraspecific variability that can serve as a source of resistance alleles against these pathogens. However, sources of resistance are often found within wild germplasm, typically originating from Africa or Asia, and characterized by limited domestication. To better utilize these resistant accessions, a study of the genetic control of desirable traits is necessary. This study aims to locate regions associated with resistance and design molecular markers linked to these regions. Such an approach streamlines breeding programs focused on introgressing resistance traits while preserving the genetic background of the desired varieties. During the summer campaigns of 2019 and 2020, this doctoral thesis conducted a study on the incidence and genetic diversity of nine viral species potentially affecting cucurbit cultivation in southeastern Spain. It was observed that viruses transmitted by aphids were more prevalent than those transmitted by whiteflies. Within the first group, the presence of watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), cucurbits aphid borne yellows virus (CABYV), and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) stood out, as they were detected in all the studied areas and crops, often in mixed infections. Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (MWMV) and tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) were also detected in some areas but with lower infection percentages, typically in mixed infections with WMV. Phylogenetic analyses of the found isolates have identified seven new molecular profiles of WMV and recombinant CMV isolates, which is consistent with results from other countries, highlighting the extensive variability of these pathogens. Wild melon accessions preserved in various germplasm banks represent a valuable resource for breeding programs against biotic stresses. The African accession TGR-1551 has been previously described as resistant to WMV, CYSDV (cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus), CABYV, and the fungus Podosphaera xanthii (Px, races 1, 2, and 5), which causes powdery mildew in melons. Additionally, it is tolerant to whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) and carries the Vat gene (Virus Aphid Transmission), limiting virus transmission by aphids. Therefore, this accession constitutes as an excellent source of resistance alleles, and its use, as a single donor parent, can expedite breeding programs. Within the scope of this doctoral thesis, through the development of segregating mapping populations and the utilization of high-throughput genotyping technologies, the QTLs associated with CYSDV resistance from this accession have been mapped. In the case of CYSDV resistance, two QTLs have been detected on chromosome 5. The first of these, with major effects and dominant inheritance, is associated with symptom development. The second QTL, with minor effects and also dominant inheritance, does not confer resistance by itself and is linked to viral load during infection. A similar strategy was employed to map and narrow down the QTLs for resistance against Px. In this case, it involves a dominant-recessive epistasis, with the recessive gene located on chromosome 12 and the dominant gene on chromosome 5, specifically in the same region where the major CYSDV resistance QTL is located. Regarding resistance against WMV, previous studies conducted by the researchThis research was funded by the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (MCIN/AEI/10.13039/501100011033), grant number PID2020-116055RB (C21 and C22), and by the Conselleria d’Educació, Investigació, Cultura i Esports de la Generalitat Valenciana, grant number PROMETEO/2021/072 (to promote excellence groups, cofinanced with FEDER funds). M.L. is a recipient of a predoctoral fellowship (PRE2018-083466) of the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades co-financed with FSE funds.López Martín, M. (2023). Breeding Melons for Resistance to Viral and Fungal Diseases. Exploiting the Multi-Resistant Accession TGR-1551 [Tesis doctoral]. Universitat Politècnica de València. https://doi.org/10.4995/Thesis/10251/20206

    Analysis of SIGLEC12 expression, IMMUNOMODULATION and prognostic value in RENAL cancer using multiomic databases

    Get PDF
    © 2024 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY), https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/Siglecs belong to a family of immune regulatory receptors predominantly found on hematopoietic cells. They interact with Sia, resulting in the activation or inhibition of the immune response. Previous reports have suggested that the SIGLEC12 gene, which encodes the Siglec-XII protein, is expressed in the epithelial tissues and upregulated in carcinomas. However, studies deciphering the role of Siglec-XII in renal cancer (RC) are still unavailable, and here we provide insights on this question. We conducted expression analysis using the Human Protein Atlas and UALCAN databases. The impact of SIGLEC12 on RC prognosis was determined using the KM plotter, and an assessment of immune infiltration with SIGLEC12 was performed using the TIMER database. GSEA was conducted to identify the pathways affected by SIGLEC12. Finally, using GeneMania, we identified Siglec-XII interacting proteins. Our findings indicated that macrophages express SIGLEC12 in the kidney. Furthermore, we hypothesize that Siglec-XII expression might be involved in the increase of primary RC, but this effect may not be dependent on the age of the patient. In the tumour microenvironment, oncogenic pathways appeared to be upregulated by SIGLEC12. Similarly, our analysis suggested that SIGLEC12-related kidney renal papillary cell carcinomas may be more suitable for targeted immunotherapy, such as CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. These preliminary results suggested that high expression of SIGLEC12 is associated with poor prognosis for RC. Future studies to assess its clinical utility are necessitated.Peer reviewe

    Soybean AROGENATE DEHYDRATASES (GmADTs): involvement in the cytosolic isoflavonoid metabolon or trans-organelle continuity?

    Get PDF
    Soybean (Glycine max) produces a class of phenylalanine (Phe) derived specialized metabolites, isoflavonoids. Isoflavonoids are unique to legumes and are involved in defense responses in planta, and they are also necessary for nodule formation with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Since Phe is a precursor of isoflavonoids, it stands to reason that the synthesis of Phe is coordinated with isoflavonoid production. Two putative AROGENATE DEHYDRATASE (ADT) isoforms were previously co-purified with the soybean isoflavonoid metabolon anchor ISOFLAVONE SYNTHASE2 (GmIFS2), however the GmADT family had not been characterized. Here, we present the identification of the nine member GmADT family. We determined that the GmADTs share sequences required for enzymatic activity and allosteric regulation with other characterized plant ADTs. Furthermore, the GmADTs are differentially expressed, and multiple members have dual substrate specificity, also acting as PREPHENATE DEHYDRATASES. All GmADT isoforms were detected in the stromules of chloroplasts, and they all interact with GmIFS2 in the cytosol. In addition, GmADT12A interacts with multiple other isoflavonoid metabolon members. These data substantiate the involvement of GmADT isoforms in the isoflavonoid metabolon

    Table_2_A phylogenomic study of Iridaceae Juss. based on complete plastid genome sequences.xlsx

    No full text
    The plastid genome has proven to be an effective tool for examining deep correlations in plant phylogenetics, owing to its highly conserved structure, uniparental inheritance, and limited variation in evolutionary rates. Iridaceae, comprising more than 2,000 species, includes numerous economically significant taxa that are frequently utilized in food industries and medicines and for ornamental and horticulture purposes. Molecular studies on chloroplast DNA have confirmed the position of this family in the order Asparagales with non-asparagoids. The current subfamilial classification of Iridaceae recognizes seven subfamilies—Isophysioideae, Nivenioideae, Iridoideae, Crocoideae, Geosiridaceae, Aristeoideae, and Patersonioideae—which are supported by limited plastid DNA regions. To date, no comparative phylogenomic studies have been conducted on the family Iridaceae. We assembled and annotated (de novo) the plastid genomes of 24 taxa together with seven published species representing all the seven subfamilies of Iridaceae and performed comparative genomics using the Illumina MiSeq platform. The plastomes of the autotrophic Iridaceae represent 79 protein-coding, 30 tRNA, and four rRNA genes, with lengths ranging from 150,062 to 164,622 bp. The phylogenetic analysis of the plastome sequences based on maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference analyses suggested that Watsonia and Gladiolus were closely related, supported by strong support values, which differed considerably from recent phylogenetic studies. In addition, we identified genomic events, such as sequence inversions, deletions, mutations, and pseudogenization, in some species. Furthermore, the largest nucleotide variability was found in the seven plastome regions, which can be used in future phylogenetic studies. Notably, three subfamilies—Crocoideae, Nivenioideae, and Aristeoideae—shared a common ycf2 gene locus deletion. Our study is a preliminary report of a comparative study of the complete plastid genomes of 7/7 subfamilies and 9/10 tribes, elucidating the structural characteristics and shedding light on plastome evolution and phylogenetic relationships within Iridaceae. Additionally, further research is required to update the relative position of Watsonia within the tribal classification of the subfamily Crocoideae.</p

    Multiple origins, one evolutionary trajectory: gradual evolution characterizes distinct lineages of allotetraploid "Brachypodium"

    Get PDF
    The “genomic shock” hypothesis posits that unusual challenges to genome integrity such as whole genome duplication may induce chaotic genome restructuring. Decades of research on polyploid genomes have revealed that this is often, but not always the case. While some polyploids show major chromosomal rearrangements and derepression of transposable elements in the immediate aftermath of whole genome duplication, others do not. Nonetheless, all polyploids show gradual diploidization over evolutionary time. To evaluate these hypotheses, we produced a chromosome-scale reference genome for the natural allotetraploid grass Brachypodium hybridum, accession “Bhyb26.” We compared 2 independently derived accessions of B. hybridum and their deeply diverged diploid progenitor species Brachypodium stacei and Brachypodium distachyon. The 2 B. hybridum lineages provide a natural timecourse in genome evolution because one formed 1.4 million years ago, and the other formed 140 thousand years ago. The genome of the older lineage reveals signs of gradual post-whole genome duplication genome evolution including minor gene loss and genome rearrangement that are missing from the younger lineage. In neither B. hybridum lineage do we find signs of homeologous recombination or pronounced transposable element activation, though we find evidence supporting steady post-whole genome duplication transposable element activity in the older lineage. Gene loss in the older lineage was slightly biased toward 1 subgenome, but genome dominance was not observed at the transcriptomic level. We propose that relaxed selection, rather than an abrupt genomic shock, drives evolutionary novelty in B. hybridum, and that the progenitor species’ similarity in transposable element load may account for the subtlety of the observed genome dominance

    The swan genome and transcriptome, its not all black and white

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: The Australian black swan (Cygnus atratus) is an iconic species with contrasting plumage to that of the closely related northern hemisphere white swans. The relative geographic isolation of the black swan may have resulted in a limited immune repertoire and increased susceptibility to infectious diseases, notably infectious diseases from which Australia has been largely shielded. Unlike mallard ducks and the mute swan (Cygnus olor), the black swan is extremely sensitive to highly pathogenic avian influenza. Understanding this susceptibility has been impaired by the absence of any available swan genome and transcriptome information. RESULTS: Here, we generate the first chromosome-length black and mute swan genomes annotated with transcriptome data, all using long-read based pipelines generated for vertebrate species. We use these genomes and transcriptomes to show that unlike other wild waterfowl, black swans lack an expanded immune gene repertoire, lack a key viral pattern-recognition receptor in endothelial cells and mount a poorly controlled inflammatory response to highly pathogenic avian influenza. We also implicate genetic differences in SLC45A2 gene in the iconic plumage of the black swan. CONCLUSION: Together, these data suggest that the immune system of the black swan is such that should any avian viral infection become established in its native habitat, the black swan would be in a significant peril. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s13059-022-02838-0

    Table_3_Phylogenetic distribution of malonate semialdehyde decarboxylase (MSAD) genes among strains within the genus Mycobacterium: evidence of MSAD gene loss in the evolution of pathogenic mycobacteria.xlsx

    No full text
    Despite the great diversity of malonate semialdehyde decarboxylases (MSADs), one of five subgroups of the tautomerase superfamily (TSF) found throughout the biosphere, their distribution among strains within the genus Mycobacterium remains unknown. In this study, we sought to investigate the phylogenetic distribution of MSAD genes of mycobacterial species via genome analysis of 192 different reference Mycobacterium species or subspecies retrieved from NCBI databases. We found that in a total of 87 of 192 strains (45.3%), MSAD-1 and MSAD-2 were distributed in an exclusive manner among Mycobacterium species except for 12 strains, including Mycobacterium chelonae members, with both in their genome. Of note, Mycobacterium strains better adapted to the host and of high virulence potential, such as the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium ulcerans, and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, had no orthologs of MSAD in their genome, suggesting MSAD loss during species differentiation in pathogenic slow-growing Mycobacterium. To investigate the MSAD distribution among strains of M. avium subspecies, the genome sequences of a total of 255 reference strains from the four subspecies of M. avium (43 of subspecies avium, 162 of subspecies hominissuis, 49 of subspecies paratuberculosis, and 1 of subspecies silvaticum) were further analyzed. We found that only 121 of 255 strains (47.4%) had MSADs in their genome, with none of the 49 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains having MSAD genes. Even in 13 of 121 M. avium strains with the MSAD-1 gene in their genome, deletion mutations in the 98th codon causing premature termination of MSAD were found, further highlighting the occurrence of MSAD pseudogenization during species or subspecies differentiation of M. avium. In conclusion, our data indicated that there are two distinct types of MSADs, MSAD-1 and MSAD-2, among strains in the Mycobacterium genus, but more than half of the strains, including pathogenic mycobacteria, M. tuberculosis and M. leprae, have no orthologs in their genome, suggesting MSAD loss during host adaptation of pathogenic mycobacteria. In the future, the role of two distinct MSADs, MSAD-1 and MSAD-2, in mycobacterial pathogenesis or evolution should be investigated.</p
    • …
    corecore