157,343 research outputs found

    Reframing the Canadian Oil Sands

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    A photograph of four orientalists (Bombay, 1885): knowledge production, religious identities, and the negotiation of invisible conflicts

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    Abstract By analyzing the history of a photograph taken in a Bombay photo studio in 1885, this article explores notions of the production of knowledge on India and cultural dialogues, encounters, appropriations, and conflicts in colonial British India in the late nineteenth century. The photograph was taken after a Hindu religious ceremony in honour of the Italian Sanskritist Angelo de Gubernatis. Dressed as a Hindu Brahman, he is the only European photographed next to three Indian scholars, but what the image suggests of encounter and hybridity was challenged by the many written texts that reveal the conflicting dialogues that took place before and after the portrait was taken. Several factors were examined in order to decide who should and who should not be in the photograph: religion, cast, and even gender were successively discussed, before the category of “knowledge” became the bond that unified the four men who studied, taught, and wrote on India

    The spiral relationship between suffering and the production of fashionable clothes

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    In this article, I explore relationships between suffering and the production of fashionable clothes. In the commercial struggle for survival many fashionable styles are discarded while some remain durable due to their adaptability to new trends and creative ideas. The aim of the research was to investigate how suffering initiates these changes in the creative process of fashion design. This was examined through a number of methodologies, which included object-based research and ethnography. The research findings indicate that suffering within the fashion industry can be a positive attribute. It can influence the way clothes are produced and the skills necessary to produce them. A model depicting the connection between suffering and fashion is posited as a tentative theory suggesting there is a spiral relationship in that changes in fashion production and consumption resulting from suffering evolve into a spiral of further suffering impacting on the future of fashion design and manufacture

    In the Vernacular: Photography of the Everyday

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    This is the catalogue of the exhibition "In the Vernacular" at Boston University Art Gallery

    Persuasive functions of photo galleries on information websites

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    The article presents a rhetorical analysis of online galleries. The author argues that the selection of photographs presented in a gallery serves the purpose of fulfilling a persuasive goal. That is proved by, as indicated in the analysis, the verbal and visual markers of coherence, and the narrativeness visible at the level of individual photographs, groups of photographs, and the entire gallery

    How organic agriculture contributes to sustainable development

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    Organic agriculture can contribute to meaningful socio-economic and ecologically sustainable development, especially in poorer countries. This is due on the one hand to the application of organic principles, which means efficient management of local resources (e.g. local seed varieties, manure, etc.) and therefore costeffectiveness. On the other hand, the market for organic products – at local and international level – has tremendous growth prospects and offers creative producers and exporters in the South excellent opportunities to improve their income and living conditions. Establishing whether organic agriculture is a viable alternative for a particular holding needs to be carried out on a case-by-case basis. What potential does organic agriculture have for solving the problems of hunger and poverty? What can organic agriculture contribute to achieving socially and ecologically sustainable development in poor countries? Central to organic agriculture are promotion of soil fertility, biodiversity conservation (e.g. native flora and fauna), production methods adapted to the locality and avoidance of chemical inputs. These methods, together with cultivation of a diverse range of crops, stabilize the delicate ecosystems in the tropics and reduce drought sensitivity and pest infestation. Organic agriculture reduces the risk of yield failure, stabilizes returns and improves the quality of life of small farmers’ families. To date, no systematic attempt has been made to evaluate the benefits and effects of each system. In 2006, FiBL therefore launched a network of long-term system comparisons in the tropics that aims at examining the contribution of organic agriculture to food security, poverty alleviation and environmental conservation. The article presents this discussion based on experience gained in practice and encompasses the following hypotheses: 1. Organic agriculture is sustainable and diverse; 2. Organic farmers conserve resources; 3. Organic farmers produce more, better-quality products and achieve higher incomes; 4. Organic products provide market access and create added value; 5. Organic agriculture increases self-confidence and mobilizes new partnerships

    Speakers use their own discourse model to determine referents' accessibility during the production of referring expressions.

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    We report two experiments that investigated the widely-held assumption that speakers use the addressee's discourse model when choosing referring expressions, by manipulating whether the addressee could hear the immediately preceding linguistic context. Experiment 1 showed that speakers increased pronoun use (relative to definite NPs) when the referent was mentioned in the immediately preceding sentence compared to when it was not, but whether their addressee heard that the referent was mentioned had no effect, indicating that speakers use their own, privileged discourse model when choosing referring expressions. The same pattern of results was found in Experiment 2. Speakers produced fewer pronouns when the immediately preceding sentence mentioned a referential competitor than when it mentioned the referent, but this effect did not differ depending on whether the sentence was shared with their addressee. Thus, we conclude that choice of referring expression is determined by the referent's accessibility in the speaker’s own discourse model rather than the addressee's