27,936 research outputs found

    Melhoria dos processos de montagem de componentes eletrónicos aplicando Lean Six Sigma e TRIZ numa empresa de componentes para a indústria automóvel

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    Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Engenharia e Gestão Industrialpresente dissertação, enquadrada no curso de Mestrado Integrado de Engenharia e Gestão Industrial da Universidade do Minho, teve como propósito melhorar os processos de montagem da foil, componente eletrónico, aplicando Lean Six Sigma e TRIZ, numa empresa de componentes para a indústria automóvel. O projeto surgiu da necessidade de reduzir os defeitos de produtos, devido à montagem do componente foil. A metodologia de investigação utilizada foi a Action-Research, cuja primeira etapa consiste no diagnóstico da situação atual. Para tal, recorreu-se a várias ferramentas, tais como, Project Charter, análise exploratória de dados, diagrama de Ishikawa, mapeamento de processo, Gage R&R, entre outras. Através das mesmas, foi possível caraterizar os tipos de defeitos associados às foils, e averiguar as causas raízes de cada uma delas. Foi, ainda, possível apurar que se tratava de um dos quinze problemas mais críticos da empresa, somando um prejuízo de 156 189UM em 2019. Foram apresentadas seis propostas de melhorias, sendo que quatro delas passariam pela redefinição do conceito/design da montagem de foils alicerçada na metodologia TRIZ: substituição de Flexible Flat Cables (FFC), uso do conector com dois pontos de contacto, inspeção com robot, e montagem automática. As duas restantes seriam o curso de montagem de foils e a padronização da coleta de dados. A padronização da coleta de dados veio permitir uma poupança na ordem dos 99,3% de tempo gasto a reunir dados, maior coerência e consistência de dados. O curso de montagem de foils permitiu que cerca de 40% dos formandos se tornasse apto para desempenhar o posto, contribuindo para uma redução de defeitos e, consequentemente, de custos. O conector com dois pontos de contacto provou reduzir cerca de 0,2% de Defeitos Por Milhão de Oportunidade (DPMO), que representou uma poupança de 49 029,80UM, no tempo de vida útil do produto. A substituição da foil FFC evidenciou uma redução de defeitos de cerca de 50%. A montagem automática eliminaria a margem de erro humano no processo, geraria poupanças de cerca de 64 702,1UM no tempo de vida de um produto e reduziria em cerca de 83% os defeitos por milhão de oportunidade. A avaliação de resultados foi feita através dos valores obtidos em cada uma das provas de conceito e tem continuidade no tempo, através da melhoria contínua.The current dissertation, part of the Integrated Master on Industrial Engineering and Management course at University of Minho, aimed to Improve an electronic component, foil, assembly, in an automotive industry background, supported by Lean Six Sigma and TRIZ methodologies. This project was raised due to the high rejection rate of products because of its foils connection. The investigation methodology used was the Action-Research, in which the first stage is the diagnoses of the current situation. To reach that, many tools were used, such as, Project Charter, exploratory data analysis, Ishikawa diagram, process mapping, Gage R&R, etc. With those, it was possible to distinguish the different type of defects related to foils, and to reach the root cause of each one of those. Furthermore, it was possible to ascertain that foils damaged was one of the top 15 Bosch critical defects, adding up a total of 156 189€ loss. Six improvements were elaborated. From those, four of them would establish a redefinition of foils assembly concept/design: replacement of Flexible Flat Cables, use of two point contact connector, robot inspection and automatic assembly. The other two would be the creation of a foils assembly course and the standardization of data collection. The standardization of data collection enabled a saving of 99,3% of the time invested on collecting data, and more consistency of data Reports. The foils course enabled about 40% of the trainees to perform foils assembly, reducing foils defects and its related costs. The two point contact connector showed a reduction of 0,2% os defects per million of opportunities (contamination defects). This percentage would represent a saving of 49 029,80€ in the product lifecycle time. The replacement of the FFC foil pointed out a reduction of 50%. The automatic assembly would eliminate the human margin of error, it would create a saving of 64 702,1€ in a product lifetime and it would reduce defects per million of opportunities by 83%. The evaluation of each one of the improvements were done based on the cost/benefit analysis results and will be continued along with time, through continual improvement

    Meso-scale FDM material layout design strategies under manufacturability constraints and fracture conditions

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    In the manufacturability-driven design (MDD) perspective, manufacturability of the product or system is the most important of the design requirements. In addition to being able to ensure that complex designs (e.g., topology optimization) are manufacturable with a given process or process family, MDD also helps mechanical designers to take advantage of unique process-material effects generated during manufacturing. One of the most recognizable examples of this comes from the scanning-type family of additive manufacturing (AM) processes; the most notable and familiar member of this family is the fused deposition modeling (FDM) or fused filament fabrication (FFF) process. This process works by selectively depositing uniform, approximately isotropic beads or elements of molten thermoplastic material (typically structural engineering plastics) in a series of pre-specified traces to build each layer of the part. There are many interesting 2-D and 3-D mechanical design problems that can be explored by designing the layout of these elements. The resulting structured, hierarchical material (which is both manufacturable and customized layer-by-layer within the limits of the process and material) can be defined as a manufacturing process-driven structured material (MPDSM). This dissertation explores several practical methods for designing these element layouts for 2-D and 3-D meso-scale mechanical problems, focusing ultimately on design-for-fracture. Three different fracture conditions are explored: (1) cases where a crack must be prevented or stopped, (2) cases where the crack must be encouraged or accelerated, and (3) cases where cracks must grow in a simple pre-determined pattern. Several new design tools, including a mapping method for the FDM manufacturability constraints, three major literature reviews, the collection, organization, and analysis of several large (qualitative and quantitative) multi-scale datasets on the fracture behavior of FDM-processed materials, some new experimental equipment, and the refinement of a fast and simple g-code generator based on commercially-available software, were developed and refined to support the design of MPDSMs under fracture conditions. The refined design method and rules were experimentally validated using a series of case studies (involving both design and physical testing of the designs) at the end of the dissertation. Finally, a simple design guide for practicing engineers who are not experts in advanced solid mechanics nor process-tailored materials was developed from the results of this project.U of I OnlyAuthor's request

    The Metaverse: Survey, Trends, Novel Pipeline Ecosystem & Future Directions

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    The Metaverse offers a second world beyond reality, where boundaries are non-existent, and possibilities are endless through engagement and immersive experiences using the virtual reality (VR) technology. Many disciplines can benefit from the advancement of the Metaverse when accurately developed, including the fields of technology, gaming, education, art, and culture. Nevertheless, developing the Metaverse environment to its full potential is an ambiguous task that needs proper guidance and directions. Existing surveys on the Metaverse focus only on a specific aspect and discipline of the Metaverse and lack a holistic view of the entire process. To this end, a more holistic, multi-disciplinary, in-depth, and academic and industry-oriented review is required to provide a thorough study of the Metaverse development pipeline. To address these issues, we present in this survey a novel multi-layered pipeline ecosystem composed of (1) the Metaverse computing, networking, communications and hardware infrastructure, (2) environment digitization, and (3) user interactions. For every layer, we discuss the components that detail the steps of its development. Also, for each of these components, we examine the impact of a set of enabling technologies and empowering domains (e.g., Artificial Intelligence, Security & Privacy, Blockchain, Business, Ethics, and Social) on its advancement. In addition, we explain the importance of these technologies to support decentralization, interoperability, user experiences, interactions, and monetization. Our presented study highlights the existing challenges for each component, followed by research directions and potential solutions. To the best of our knowledge, this survey is the most comprehensive and allows users, scholars, and entrepreneurs to get an in-depth understanding of the Metaverse ecosystem to find their opportunities and potentials for contribution

    Success factors in IT Outsourcing

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    Abstract. To survive and respond to the everchanging business world companies are seeking new ways to concentrate and improve core competencies, as well as improve their competitive status against the market. Companies are exploring how to exploit the core competencies of other companies. The goals of the partnership might differ depending on the scope of the partnership. The goal might be one or many of the following: cost reduction, access to higher quality service, access to technology and/or know-how. Even if the first IT outsourcing was done around 30 years ago by Eastman Kodak and General Dynamics and the area has been studied quite heavily, the topic seems to be still difficult for companies to grasp the wanted benefits. As the IT outsourcing is widely used option in the business world and the results are not firm, I feel the topic is still relevant to study. The research question for the study is: “What factors affect the success of IT outsourcing relationship?” The research question is answered through the literature review. From the literature review eleven high level success factors can be identified. In some cases, some factors are combined. The success factors are Cost and Quality, Trust, Alignment to business strategy, Culture, Communication, Contracts, Strategic Partnership, Governance, Management support, Infrastructure, and Know-how. How important each individual factors are in outsourcing engagement in question depends on the sort of the partnership. The theoretical implications are very limited, but the practical implications regarding communication, trust and governance should be considered when companies enter IT outsourcing partnerships. Putting an emphasis on setting up proper governance functions and people who are good at communicating with the other party will pay the efforts back in success of the relationship

    Developing a Foundation for Sole Classics' Sustainability Strategy

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    Course Code: AEDECON 4567Our team collaborated with the Columbus-based boutique, Sole Classics, to support the integration of sustainability into their business plan. We selected various Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) topics and collected primary data from both internal and external stakeholders through a survey. We received a total of 9 internal and 137 external responses providing an assessment of stakeholder views on the importance of each ESG topic and suggestions for sustainability initiatives for Sole Classics. We leveraged this data, along with case studies of existing sustainability initiatives, to gain a deeper understanding of the issues that impact SC and should be prioritized for future sustainability efforts. Our findings suggest that Sole Classics should prioritize community engagement through education, environmental justice, and local-level sustainability initiatives to build a meaningful sustainability story for the brand and align with stakeholder expectations.Miicah Coleman: Marketing Ambassador, Keyholder, and Associate at Sole ClassicsAcademic Major: ArtAcademic Major: Environment, Economy, Development, and Sustainabilit

    Corporate Social Responsibility: the institutionalization of ESG

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    Understanding the impact of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) on firm performance as it relates to industries reliant on technological innovation is a complex and perpetually evolving challenge. To thoroughly investigate this topic, this dissertation will adopt an economics-based structure to address three primary hypotheses. This structure allows for each hypothesis to essentially be a standalone empirical paper, unified by an overall analysis of the nature of impact that ESG has on firm performance. The first hypothesis explores the evolution of CSR to the modern quantified iteration of ESG has led to the institutionalization and standardization of the CSR concept. The second hypothesis fills gaps in existing literature testing the relationship between firm performance and ESG by finding that the relationship is significantly positive in long-term, strategic metrics (ROA and ROIC) and that there is no correlation in short-term metrics (ROE and ROS). Finally, the third hypothesis states that if a firm has a long-term strategic ESG plan, as proxied by the publication of CSR reports, then it is more resilience to damage from controversies. This is supported by the finding that pro-ESG firms consistently fared better than their counterparts in both financial and ESG performance, even in the event of a controversy. However, firms with consistent reporting are also held to a higher standard than their nonreporting peers, suggesting a higher risk and higher reward dynamic. These findings support the theory of good management, in that long-term strategic planning is both immediately economically beneficial and serves as a means of risk management and social impact mitigation. Overall, this contributes to the literature by fillings gaps in the nature of impact that ESG has on firm performance, particularly from a management perspective

    The enterovirus genome can be translated in an IRES-independent manner that requires the initiation factors eIF2A/eIF2D

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    RNA recombination in positive-strand RNA viruses is a molecular-genetic process, which permits the greatest evolution of the genome and may be essential to stabilizing the genome from the deleterious consequences of accumulated mutations. Enteroviruses represent a useful system to elucidate the details of this process. On the biochemical level, it is known that RNA recombination is catalyzed by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase using a template-switching mechanism. For this mechanism to function in cells, the recombining genomes must be located in the same subcellular compartment. How a viral genome is trafficked to the site of genome replication and recombination, which is membrane associated and isolated from the cytoplasm, is not known. We hypothesized that genome translation was essential for colocalization of genomes for recombination. We show that complete inactivation of internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated translation of a donor enteroviral genome enhanced recombination instead of impairing it. Recombination did not occur by a nonreplicative mechanism. Rather, sufficient translation of the nonstructural region of the genome occurred to support subsequent steps required for recombination. The noncanonical translation initiation factors, eIF2A and eIF2D, were required for IRES-independent translation. Our results support an eIF2A/eIF2D-dependent mechanism under conditions in which the eIF2-dependent mechanism is inactive. Detection of an IRES-independent mechanism for translation of the enterovirus genome provides an explanation for a variety of debated observations, including nonreplicative recombination and persistence of enteroviral RNA lacking an IRES. The existence of an eIF2A/eIF2D-dependent mechanism in enteroviruses predicts the existence of similar mechanisms in other viruses

    Towards a unified eco-evolutionary framework for fisheries management: Coupling advances in next-generation sequencing with species distribution modelling

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    The establishment of high-throughput sequencing technologies and subsequent large-scale genomic datasets has flourished across fields of fundamental biological sciences. The introduction of genomic resources in fisheries management has been proposed from multiple angles, ranging from an accurate re-definition of geographical limitations of stocks and connectivity, identification of fine-scale stock structure linked to locally adapted subpopulations, or even the integration with individual-based biophysical models to explore life history strategies. While those clearly enhance our perception of patterns at the light of a spatial scale, temporal depth and consequently forecasting ability might be compromised as an analytical trade-off. Here, we present a framework to reinforce our understanding of stock dynamics by adding also a temporal point of view. We propose to integrate genomic information on temporal projections of species distributions computed by Species Distribution Models (SDMs). SDMs have the potential to project the current and future distribution ranges of a given species from relevant environmental predictors. These projections serve as tools to inform about range expansions and contractions of fish stocks and suggest either suitable locations or local extirpations that may arise in the future. However, SDMs assume that the whole population respond homogenously to the range of environmental conditions. Here, we conceptualize a framework that leverages a conventional Bayesian joint-SDM approach with the incorporation of genomic data. We propose that introducing genomic information at the basis of a joint-SDM will explore the range of suitable habitats where stocks could thrive in the future as a function of their current evolutionary potential.Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnollogia - FCT; ARNETinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Pretrained Embeddings for E-commerce Machine Learning: When it Fails and Why?

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    The use of pretrained embeddings has become widespread in modern e-commerce machine learning (ML) systems. In practice, however, we have encountered several key issues when using pretrained embedding in a real-world production system, many of which cannot be fully explained by current knowledge. Unfortunately, we find that there is a lack of a thorough understanding of how pre-trained embeddings work, especially their intrinsic properties and interactions with downstream tasks. Consequently, it becomes challenging to make interactive and scalable decisions regarding the use of pre-trained embeddings in practice. Our investigation leads to two significant discoveries about using pretrained embeddings in e-commerce applications. Firstly, we find that the design of the pretraining and downstream models, particularly how they encode and decode information via embedding vectors, can have a profound impact. Secondly, we establish a principled perspective of pre-trained embeddings via the lens of kernel analysis, which can be used to evaluate their predictability, interactively and scalably. These findings help to address the practical challenges we faced and offer valuable guidance for successful adoption of pretrained embeddings in real-world production. Our conclusions are backed by solid theoretical reasoning, benchmark experiments, as well as online testings

    Impact of Food Safety and Standards Regulation on Food Business Operators

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    The main aim of the study is to understand food regulation and food safety in India context and global aspects. It also explains the major health problem and recent past reports of FSSAI. The primary data were collected from food business operators (mobile food vendors, many small scale hotels, and local restaurants). It also helps to ensure the knowledge and awareness level of the food business operators. This study is to understand the view of food-business operators in a B-grade city of India “Salem” in Tamil Nadu about the FSSAI regulations and the status of performance of the food safety department in maintaining safety and quality of food and also to know about the level of awareness among the usage of fortified foods among food-businesses. The Study concludes that the Food and Safety Officers should regularly visit for inspection and monitor the food business operators for the betterment of public health. There should be proper awareness about the ingredients are used in fortified food among food-businesses to eliminate malnutrition and avoid food adulteration. The future rules and regulations of FSSAI should be strictly implementing all over India and properly monitor their activities of food business operators to fulfil the FSSAI standards
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